Federal University of Pará
  • Belém, Pará, Brazil
Recent publications
The use of precision livestock has increased due to the need to improve the efficiency and productivity required by the high food demand. Monitoring cattle behavior is a fundamental requirement for sustainable development and quality control of the inputs required by the industry. In this regard, there are several proposed solutions to improve precision in decision-making. In this work, we present a survey on monitoring and classifying cattle behavior. After selection, we analyzed 17 papers to extract and synthesize information related to the devices, sensors, behaviors, pre-processing techniques, feature extraction, and classifiers used. The behaviors of grazing, ruminating, walking, and resting were the most present in the articles. The collar with embedded accelerometer sensors was the most commonly used device among the papers. Based on the results, we discussed the challenges in this field and identified practices for building a cattle behavior classification system.
While there is little doubt that the species is the lowest independent evolutionary unit, understanding the many different species concepts is a difficult task, even for university students. In the present study, we propose a didactic sequence that involves fieldwork, laboratory analyses, experimental cultures, and computational work in an integrated strategy for the comprehension of the phenetic, ecological, biological, and phylogenetic species concepts. This activity is based on the observation of the morphological, ecological, biological, and phylogenetic characteristics of samples of two copepod crustaceans, Acartia tonsa Dana, 1849 and Acartia lilljeborgi Giesbrecht, 1889 (Copepoda, Calanoida). These species were the focus of a simple practical that contributes to the effective comprehension of the four species concepts mentioned above, using straightforward methods that can be standardized easily in the laboratory and classroom. The practical activities developed for the didactic sequence presented here not only made the classes more interesting and motivational, but also contributed to the more effective assimilation of the content, as well as the more effective consolidation of the knowledge presented in the class. It is important to note that these activities can be developed at different educational levels (i.e., undergraduate and graduate students), and can be applied to other types of organism (e.g., amphibians, insects or other copepods), as long as their characteristics are adequate for the systematic exploration of the four species concepts included here.
Intelligent Personal Assistants (IPAs), such as Amazon's Alexa, are now widely used for an ample variety of tasks, ranging from personal management to education. These tools have shown considerable promise for student-educator interactions, especially at a distance, a potential that has come to the forefront during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Even so, this potential is still underexploited, even in the current scenario. Alexa's apps are known as skills, which include all the different commands that Alexa is capable of executing. It is important to note, however, that the use of such technology is work-intensive and can be relatively complex. Given this, to facilitate the development of new skills in Alexa, we have developed an online tool that permits the creation of questions and answers, as well as honing the interaction between Alexa and the user. We have named this tool ForAlexa, which has two types of forms, Question-And-Answer (Q&A) and Random-Quote. Both these forms allow the user to build intents (an activity that is invoked by a spoken request from the user), but with slightly different functions. The Q&A form is used to compile answers that Alexa will offer in response to an utterance (question), while the Random-Quote extends the interaction between Alexa and the user, based on the questions asked in the first form. ForAlexa also has a help assistant, as well as a manual, which explains all the steps necessary for the design of an intent. This tool allows educators to develop apps quickly and easily for their classes and this type of app could be an alternative to be used for students with special needs, such as the visually-impaired. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12052-022-00169-z.
Hip fracture incidence rates in three representative geographic areas in Brazil over a period of 2 years (2010-2012) were assessed for the first time. Estimated incidence rates varied regionally, and markedly differed from those previously reported. Thus, national guidelines as well as FRAX Brazil should be revised in light of this new data. Purpose: To determine the annual incidence of hip fractures in individuals aged 50 years and over, living in 3 cities located in different regions of the country. To investigate the age, gender, and regional differences in fracture rates. Based on the obtained data, to estimate the national incidence of hip fractures resulting from osteoporosis, in order to improve prevention strategies. Methods: Retrospective, observational study including all patients aged ≥ 50 years admitted in hospitals because of a hip fracture in three cities (Belem, Joinville, and Vitoria) from representative geographic areas in Brazil from 2010 to 2012. Data were obtained from medical records in those cities. We analyzed incidence rates (crude and age- and gender-standardized rates) for hip fractures. Results: There were 1025 (310 in men and 715 in women) hip fractures in the over 50-year-old merged population from the three cities. The crude incidence rate for hip fracture was 103.3/100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI = 97.0; 109.7), in men 77.4/100,000 (95% CI = 68.8; 86.0), and in women 125.2/100,000 (95% CI = 116.0; 134.4). Incidence standardized for age and gender was 105.9 cases per 100,000 persons per year (95% CI = 99.4; 112.4); 78.5 cases per 100,000 (95% CI = 69.8; 87.3) in men and 130.6 cases 100,000 in women (95% CI = 121.0, 140.2) per year. Belem, located in the equatorial region (latitude 1° 27' S), had significantly lower crude and age-adjusted incidence than Joinville (latitude 26° 18' S) and Vitoria (latitude 20° 19' S), which were no different from each other. The incidence of fractures increased exponentially with age, and women had about twice the risk of fractures than men. Conclusions: Hip fracture mainly affects elderly women and presents great variability in incidence between the different regions in Brazil. The incidence of hip fractures in Brazil differed markedly from that reported previously, so that national guidelines and the FRAX model for Brazil should be revised.
Plant oils are sources of metabolites that have enormous potential for industrial applications. Herein, the chemical profile and in vitro antimicrobial activity of the essential oil (EO) from the leaves of Guatteria citriodora Ducke (Annonaceae) have been investigated for the first time. The composition of the hydrodistilled EO was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which permitted the identification of oxygenated monoterpenes as the most highly representative class, and included citronellal (40.99%) and citronellol (14.6%) as the main compounds. The antimicrobial activity of G. citriodora EO (GcEO) was evaluated against pathogenic bacteria and phytopathogenic fungi. The experimental design was completely randomized (CRD), and used doses for each microorganism. Gram-positive strains were the most sensitive with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 5.0 μL mL⁻¹, while Gram-negative strains were 10.0 μL mL⁻¹. The most potent antifungal activity was against Alternaria alternata (MIC of 1.25 μL mL⁻¹). In addition, it fully inhibited A. alternata conidia germination at the minimum inhibitory concentration. The nucleic acid and soluble protein contents were significantly released from the conidia of A. alternata after treatment with GcEO. Using SEM (scanning electron microscopy), morphological alterations were observed in the conidia, which indicates that a lesion in the cytoplasmic membrane is one of its mechanisms of action. Overall, these results indicate that GcEO is an antimicrobial agent with potential applications in the agriculture, food, and pharmaceutical industries.
High impedance faults (HIF) may occur in the medium voltage distribution systems and constitute a danger to human beings. Many cases of HIF are caused due to downed power cables in the distribution network. These cables in contact with the ground generate a great risk to the population, animals and fire risk. In this paper, a methodology for detecting HIF, generated by cable breakage, is presented. The algorithm is based on the analysis of the harmonic and symmetrical components of the current. The method aims to gain reliability in HIF detection, where the detection of conductor breakage incorporated into the method allows a better distinction of HIF from other events. A distribution network based on a Brazilian real feeder was implemented, as well as two well know HIF models. The method is validated using real-time digital simulations and hardware implementation, or HIL (hardware-in-the-loop) concept with OPAL-RT real-time simulator. A comparison with other methods is also performed in order to evaluate the performance of the method. The results show that the proposed methodology has presented a better performance under different types of HIF, models of HIF, and achieved a general accuracy of 90% and security of 100% for the tests performed.
In this work, we consider the piezoelectric beams model with second sound, that is, the model includes thermal effect given by the Cattaneo’s law of heat conduction. Existence and uniqueness of solutions of the system is proved by the semigroup theory. We prove that the system is exponentially stable using the energy method with the multiplier techniques. This result is obtained without depending on any relationship between the coefficients.
Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that became a public health problem due to environmental contamination caused by anthropogenic activity. In this sense, oral homeostasis can undergo changes due to the toxic effects of metal on the salivary glands. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the proteomic and genotoxic changes in salivary glands after exposure to inorganic mercury (IHg). Forty Wistar rats that were divided into a control group, which received distilled water, and an exposed group, which received 0.375 mg/kg of mercury chloride for 45 days via orogastric gavage. After that, the animals were euthanized, and the parotid and submandibular glands were collected for analysis of the genotoxic effects, using the comet assay and proteome global profile assessment. The results showed that IHg promoted damage to cellular DNA associated with proteomic changes that showed events such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, changes in the cytoskeleton, and apoptosis. Therefore, these findings show a profile of molecular changes due to the interactions of IHg with several proteins and mechanisms inherent to the cell, which consequently may result in dysfunction of the salivary glands and impaired homeostasis of the oral cavity.
Fatty Acid Ethyl Esters (FAEEs) were obtained via single-step esterification of non-edible raw materials, namely a distillate from the deodorization of palm oil (DDPO), an agro-industrial by-product of high concentration of free fatty acids (FFAs approximately 84%) with Ethanol (EtOH) over a solid acid catalyst MF4W15 prepared from Amazon flint kaolin (FK). This material exhibited a catalytic activity reaching 94% conversion of DDPO using a molar ratio of DDPO to EtOH of 1:30 in 2.5 h at 140 °C with a 5% catalyst content. The stability of the catalytic activity of the catalyst was examined through recovery and reuse after washing and drying through five consecutive use cycles, maintaining its activity (60% conversion) with higher values than those of autocatalysis (28%). The results presented prove the efficiency of the MF4W15 catalyst as a promising low-cost and reusable material with adequate catalytic properties to promote esterification reactions involving residual FFAs for sustainable biofuels production. The utilization of waste for catalyst synthesis and FAEEs production can minimize the overall production costs of biofuels. Graphical Abstract
With the growing demand for food production worldwide, natural landscapes are increasingly being replaced by agricultural areas, which directly affects biodiversity and local ecosystem services. Agroforestry systems, which are the intentional integration of trees and shrubs into crop and animal farming systems, are a more sustainable production approach that has been increasing in several forested areas around the globe. Here, we examine the trends of agroforestry in the Brazilian Legal Amazon and estimate the associated value of ecosystem services mediated by pollinators. Using data from 2006 and 2017, we detected an increase in agroforestry activity in the Amazon, both in the number (3.27%) and in the area (23.18%) of establishments. Crop production in forested areas increased by 45.61% in the same period, and the main products cultivated in both years were native products from the Amazon, such as açaí , Brazil nut and babassu. Although the crop data are from forested areas, all the five crops with the highest production value are associated with agroforestry in the Amazon. Pollination services also increased during the same period from US$73.3 to US$156.7 million (113.76%). In 2006, the value of pollination services corresponded to 44% of the total crop production, and it jumped to 64.43% in 2017. Bees and beetles were the two main groups of pollinators quoted for the analysed crops. Our estimates show the important contribution of pollinators to crop production in the Amazon forest. However, a growing loss of Amazon forest has been observed, and this can jeopardize pollinators and have detrimental consequences on food production in the near future. Public policies are urgently needed to encourage crop production in harmony with natural areas, combining the protection of forests and pollinators with food production.
Mangroves are expanding poleward in North and South America, but it is unclear whether such ecotonal-shift is an Industrial-Era phenomenon, or a recurring occurrence tied to Holocene climate variability. Our multi-proxy and remote sensing data from the U.S. Gulf Coast and southeastern Brazil suggest that the Industrial Era is the first time throughout the Holocene when mangroves were able to extend their distributions to the current boreal and austral range limits. A mangrove expansion of ∼1.3 ha (from 0.002 to 1.33 ha), 103 ha (from 23 to 126 ha), and 1.42 ha (from 0.39 to 1.81 ha) are documented at Bolivar Flats (Texas, U.S.A.), Mississippi River Delta (Louisiana, U.S.A.), and Apalachicola (Florida, U.S.A.), respectively, since the early 2000s, suggesting that mangrove expansion in North America is a 21st -century phenomenon and likely governed by warming winters. In contrast, the relatively slow mangrove expansion (from 96.1 to 106 ha between 2003 and 2019) at the austral range limit is controlled primarily by available habitats with suitable salinity and sediment substrate.
A new virus, named Mutum virus, related to members of the family Tymoviridae , was isolated from mosquitoes ( Mansonia spp.) in clone C6/36 cells, and its complete genome was sequenced. Its genome is 6494 nt in size with an organization resembling that of tymovirids. The isolated virus is phylogenetically related to two viruses isolated from Culex spp. mosquitoes: Ek Balam virus, reported in Mexico, and Culex-originated Tymoviridae-like virus, isolated in China. The results of this study suggest that this virus is a new member of the family Tymoviridae.
We examined whether practice in an open skill video-game task would lead to changes in performance, attention, motivation, perceived effort, and theta, alpha, and beta waves. Specifically, we were interested on whether potential performance gains from practice would be primarily explained by the neural efficiency (i.e., cortical idling) or the neural proficiency hypothesis (i.e., mix of heightened and reduced activation across the cortex). To this end, we asked 16 novice participants (8 males and 8 females; Mage = 23.13 years) to play a Nintendo Wii video-game shooting task, namely Link’s Crossbow Training. Pre-test scores, which were followed by an acquisition phase, were compared to post-test scores. Performance and subjective data were recorded for each trial and EEG data was continuously recorded using the portable EEGO System. Our findings revealed that performance increased while attention decreased at post-test, thereby confirming that practice leads to performance gains and reduces attentional overload. No changes in motivation or perceived effort were observed, perhaps because effort is a gestalt multidimension construct and video-gaming is an inherently motivating activity. EEG frequency analysis revealed that, for the most part, performance gains were accompanied by increased cortical activity across frequencies bands, thus lending primary support to the neural proficiency hypothesis. Accordingly, neurofeedback interventions to aid motor learning should teach performers not only how to silence their brains (i.e., quiescence state linked to automaticity and “flow”) but also how to amplify task-relevant brain networks.
Yellow fever (YF) is an infectious disease considered a public health problem in tropical and subtropical areas. YF has many pathophysiological events that are correlated with the host immune response. In this study, the in situ Th22 cytokine profile was evaluated. Liver tissue samples were collected from 21 YFV-positive patients who died of the disease and five flavivirus-negative controls who died of other causes and whose hepatic parenchyma architecture was preserved. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of tissues in the hepatic parenchyma of YF cases showed significantly higher expression of interleukin (IL)–22, IL-13, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, and FGF basic (FGF b) in YFV-positive cases than that in flavivirus-negative controls. These results indicate that the response of Th22 cytokines emerges as an alternative for a better understanding of adaptive immunity in the hepatic parenchyma, highlighting the role of cytokines in the repair and suppressive responses in the immunopathogenesis of YFV infection.
Dengue fever is a clinical manifestation of dengue virus (DENV) infection well defined by the intense host immune response with the development of high fever, anorexia, headache and muscle pain. Several immune mediators are involved in the pathophysiology of DENV infection, in which polymorphisms in immune molecule genes contribute with the susceptibility and severity of the infection. Several meta-analyses are available with significant findings in the association between genetic variants in immune-mediator genes and dengue, though the results may be false positive. Hence, to solve this issue, we have performed a systematic revaluation with Bayesian approaches to verify the false positive rate in these results. A systematic search was performed for meta-analytic studies on the aforementioned issue. The calculations of false positive report probability (FPRP) and the Bayesian false-discovery probability (BFDP) at the prior probability of 10⁻³ and 10⁻⁶ have been performed. To verify the methodological quality of the studies included, the evaluation by the Venice criteria was applied. In addition, gene-gene and protein-protein networks were designed. As results, seven meta-analyses on genetic variants in several immune-inflammatory mediator genes and DENV infection comprise the results. Only the polymorphisms in the TNF, MICB, PLCE1, VDR, CD32 and HLA-A genes were considered as noteworthy. There was a heterogeneity profile for the results on Venice criteria indicating variability in the methodological quality. The gene-gene and protein-protein networks showed these immune mediators as relevant players in the disease. We suggest these polymorphisms as potential biomarkers for the pathogenesis and immune response against DENV.
Research involving environmental perception is effective to understand the interrelationships between man and the environment. This study evaluated the influence of seven sociodemographic factors of 154 residents of Ourém, Eastern Amazon, Brazil, on their perception of impacts caused by aggregate mining. Structured questionnaires, informal conversations and non-participant observation were used to collect information. The analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data was performed through non-parametric statistics, adopting significance at p < 0.05, and by the content analysis technique, respectively. It was observed that the population is dissatisfied with the impacts caused by mining companies in the municipality. The residents considered the impacts to the landscape as the most serious, followed by impacts to the air, water and health, while the economic and social advantages were perceived at the lower intensity level. Older people, individuals from rural areas, and people with no schooling were the ones who most perceived social benefits. The perception of impacts to the air, health and landscape was greater among older residents. Residents living far from mines pointed to a higher level of environmental satisfaction and noticed noise pollution and water disturbances with greater intensity. It is believed, therefore, that it is necessary that the government and the companies take the heterogeneity of attributes that constitute the topofilia of the subjects and the dynamics of the ecosystems into account to establish and to implement policies of conservation and progress based on sustainable development.
Purpose of review Central nervous system (CNS) hypersomnias can be triggered by external factors, such as infection or as a response to vaccination. The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, which was caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), led to a worldwide effort to quickly develop a vaccine to contain the pandemic and reduce morbidity and mortality. This narrative review is focused on the literature published in the past 2 years and provides an update on current knowledge in respect of the triggering of CNS hypersomnias by infection per se, vaccination, and circadian rhythm alterations caused by social isolation, lockdown, and quarantine. Recent findings At present, there is no consensus on the association between hypersomnias and COVID-19 vaccination or infection per se; however, the data suggest that there has been an increase in excessive daytime sleepiness due to vaccination, but only for a short duration. Kleine Levin syndrome, hypersomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and narcolepsy were aggravated and exacerbated in some case reports in the literature. Both increased and decreased sleep duration and improved and worsened sleep quality were described. In all age groups, delayed sleep time was frequent in studies of patients with hypersomnolence. Summary The hypothesis that there is a pathophysiological mechanism by which the virus, vaccination, and the effects of quarantine aggravate hypersomnias is discussed in this review.
the reduction of habitat integrity and canopy cover will lead to a lower richness of the Zygoptera sub-order, due to the restrictions of its thermoregulation and oviposition behavior in relation to Anisoptera, since the higher light input would favor heliother-mic and exophytic species; (3) alterations in habitat integrity create ecological thresholds and points of change in the abundance and frequency of Odonata species, generating gradients in the environmental integrity conditions. Specimens were collected from 24 streams (first to third order), in a gradient of land uses. Canopy cover and stream width were predictors of taxonomic richness and abundance of the subor-ders Anisoptera and Zygoptera, with greater coverage and smaller width, positively affecting Zygop-tera and negatively Anisoptera. The turning points were determined by a habitat integrity index, where below 0.38 there is an increase in generalist taxa and Abstract Aquatic ecosystems are affected by different land uses that modify gradients of environmental conditions. These impacts act directly on the community structure, especially the most sensitive ones, such as aquatic insects. Thus, dragonflies have been used as good models to assess these changes, since their suborders Anisoptera and Zygoptera have different ecophysiological and behavioral requirements. This study aimed to evaluate the following hypotheses: (1) dragonfly species composition differs along the environmental gradients of streams; therefore, we expect a higher proportion of species of the suborder Anisop-tera in environments with a higher degree of disturbance , since these environmental conditions select heliothermic species with exophytic oviposition; (2) Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at https:// doi. a decline in sensitive taxa. On the other hand, above 0.79, there was a sensitive taxa increase in detriment of generalists. Four individual taxa indicators were selected, two of which associated with a negative response (Perithemis tenera and Acanthagrion aepi-olum) and two with positive responses (Epipleoneura metallica and Zenithoptera lanei) for habitat integrity. Our results are important to guide management strategies, recovery, and protection policies for areas of permanent protection, aiming to conserving biodiversity and natural resources essential to life quality maintenance.
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6,632 members
Julio Cesar Pieczarka
  • Cytogenetics Laboratory
Rosivaldo S Borges
  • Faculty of Pharmacy
Valiria Cerqueira
  • Faculty of Veterinary Medicine
Daniel Guerreiro Diniz
  • Institute of Biological Sciences (ICB)
Wagner Luiz Ramos Barbosa
  • Faculty of Pharmacy
Rua Augusto Correa, S/N, 66075-110, Belém, Pará, Brazil
Head of institution
Emmanuel Tourinho
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