Low-frequency non-ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) emanates from antennas in Mobile Base Stations (MBS). There is a general concern that living close to a Mobile Base Station (MBS) could be associated with health effects such as headache, sleep disorder, and fatigue. Using a High-Frequency Spectrum Analyzer (HF-2025E) coupled with its hyper-log antenna (HL-7025) and a set of questionnaires, this work assessed radiated power on human body surface from eleven (11) MBSs located in Lafia, Nasarawa State, and knowledge of residents on EMR from MBSs. The result shows that mobile operators’ frequencies in the 900MHz band were found to be dominant. The minimum power density was 0.02 μWm ⁻² and the maximum power density was 927.97 μWm ⁻² in the 900 MHz bands. The maximum average absorbed radiated power was 297.77 μW on an adult male body surface area. These maximum values are below the ICNIRP standard of 4.5 Wm ⁻² ; concerns however, are on prolonged exposure whose value may exceed the ICNIRP limit. Results from the questionnaire show an average level (53% and 51%) of awareness of EMR from respondents living close to the MBSs and their safety issues. This paper recommends more public awareness of issues relating to EMR from MBSs.
Background The pituitary glands normally produce and store gonadotropic hormones (GnH) that are responsible for ovulation and spermiation in animals. However, whether such fish pituitary extracts can elicit the same effects in treated animals need elucidation as a prelude to their practical usage in animals. Background The pituitary glands normally produce and stores gonadotropic hormones (GnH) that are responsible for ovulation and spermiation in animals. However, whether such fish pituitary extracts can elicit same effects in treated animals need elucidation as a prelude to their practical usage in animals. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the oestrus-inducing potential of the pituitary gland extract of the Africa Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in immature Wistar rats. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the oestrus-inducing potential of the pituitary gland extract of the Africa Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in immature Wistar rats. Methods The experiment involved the use of 18 immature female Wistar rats and 10 male catfish brood stocks with the use of six Wistar rats per groups as follows: Group A had human choriogonadotropin (hCG) treatment. Group B had only normal saline treatment whereas Group C had the C. gariepinus pituitary extract administration to induce oestrus with treatments occurring twice six hours apart in each group. Results There was an obvious expression of visible signs of heat and the presence of uterine horn oedema with significant (p<0.05) increase in reproductive tract weight and uterine width and length. However, only progesterone levels increased significantly (p<0.05) in the hCG and the C. gariepinus pituitary extract treated groups compared to other assayed hormones. Conclusion These results showed that C. gariepinus pituitary extract has the capacity to induce oestrus in Wistar rats because of its gonadotropic effects, which needs further investigations at higher doses and for longer exposure periods for possible oestrus induction and synchronization in domestic ruminants. Other None
Urena lobata, a pan-African weed has been described as a noxious invader which has spread across several countries in the world. Its ability to grow in a variety of habitats has enabled its success as an invader. However, there is a paucity of data on its invasion ecology in relation to land use in invaded ranges of Nigeria. In this study, the cover of U. lobata along roadsides and in relation to the land use of adjacent lands in five sites across major cities in Nasarawa State, Nigeria was assessed. Its abundance and impacts on native plant diversity and species richness were investigated. U. lobata was discovered in 74.6% of the sampled sites along the roadsides in Nasarawa State. Land use of the adjacent land had a significant effect on the roadside cover of U. lobata in the study area. The density of U. lobata ranged from 9533 to 17,166 mature individual ha⁻¹ across the State. This plant exhibited a negative impact on native plant diversity by reducing the species richness and diversity indices of the invaded sites. From this study, it is evident that land use plays a significant role in the spread and establishment of U. lobata across the guinea savanna vegetation of Nigeria.
Background Understanding the pathogenesis of animal trypanosomiasis can be improved by studying the genetics of bovine trypanosomes. Pathogenic animal trypanosomes are a major impediment to livestock production, with negative economic consequences spreading beyond Sub-Saharan Africa to subtropical regions of Northern Africa, Southeast Asia, and Central and South America. An atypical K1 strain of Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) isolates from infected cattle in Nigeria was analyzed. The therapeutic effect of phenolic-rich compounds on the histopathology of wistar rats infected with the K1 strain was studied. Methods The K1 strain T. evansi was analyzed molecularly using PCR and sequence analysis of the Spacer-1 ribosomal RNA gene. To assess the evolutionary relationship, this was phylogenetically compared to other species studied in different parts of the world. Thirty adult male wistar rats were divided into six groups of five each. Animals in group A served as the standard control (not infected). Group B animals were infected but not treated. Group C animals were infected and given 3.5 mg/kg body weight of the standard drug diminazene aceturate. Animals in groups D, E, and F were infected and treated with phenolic-rich compounds isolated from Brassica oleracea (B. oleracea) at concentrations of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The phytochemicals were extracted using standard analytical procedures, and GCMS analysis revealed the presence of phenolic-rich compounds. The animals were given 0.2 mg/ml trypanosome intraperitoneally, diluted with normal saline. The vital organs of the animals were harvested and histologically examined. Results The nested PCR amplification of the trypanosome's ITS-1 region revealed a DNA amplicon of 627 base pairs. The rRNA nucleotide sequence was deposited in GenBank under the accession number MN462960. Basic Local Alignment search of the obtained ITS-1 rRNA sequences revealed that the K1 strain trypanosome and other strains from different regions have an evolutionary relationship. The phenolic-rich compounds had protective effects on the organs of infected animals, resulting in a decrease in parasitemia levels. They have anti-trypanosome activities at the minimum and maximum effective doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Conclusions The K1 strain T. evansi was isolated from naturally infected cattle in this study. The results indicate that phenolic-rich compounds have anti trypanosoma activities capable of healing organ damage caused by trypanosomiasis.
Crude oil is an essential source of energy. Without access to energy, output growth is impossible. As a result of this link, volatility in oil prices has the ability to induce fluctuations in the output of both developed and developing economies. Moreover, factors such as business cycles and policy changes often introduce nonlinearity into the transmission mechanism of oil price shocks. This study therefore examines not only the interconnectedness of oil price volatility and output growth, but also the nonlinear, asymmetric impact of oil price volatility on output growth in the countries making up the Group of Seven. To this end, monthly data on West Texas Intermediate oil price and industrial production indices of the Group of Seven countries over the period 1990:01 to 2019:08 is used for empirical analysis. The study employs the DCC and cDCC-GARCH techniques for symmetric empirical analysis. The asymmetric empirical analysis is also conducted via GJR-GARCH, FIEGARCH, HYGARCH and cDCC-GARCH techniques. The findings reveal disparities in the magnitudes of the positive and negative (asymmetric) effects of oil price shocks on output growth. The results also reveal that past news and lagged volatility have a significant impact on the current conditional volatility of the output growth of the Group of Seven countries. The study concludes that the impact of oil price volatility on output growth in the selected economies is asymmetric, the volatility is highly persistent and clustered, and the asymmetric GARCH models outperform the symmetric GARCH models.
The emergence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) motivates continuous efforts to develop robust and accurate diagnostic tests to detect severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Detection of viral nucleic acids provides the highest sensitivity and selectivity for diagnosing early and asymptomatic infection because the human immune system may not be active at this stage. Therefore, this work aims to develop a label-free electrochemical DNA biosensor for SARS-CoV-2 detection using a printed circuit board-based gold substrate (PCBGE). The developed sensor used the nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N) gene as a biomarker. The DNA sensor-based PCBGE was fabricated by self-assembling a thiolated single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) probe onto an Au surface, which performed as the working electrode (WE). The Au surface was then treated with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol (MCH) before detecting the target N gene to produce a well-oriented arrangement of the immobilized ssDNA chains. The successful fabrication of the biosensor was characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The DNA biosensor performances were evaluated using a synthetic SARS-CoV-2 genome and 20 clinical RNA samples from healthy and infected individuals through EIS. The developed DNA biosensor can detect as low as 1 copy per μL of the N gene within 5 minutes with a LOD of 0.50 μM. Interestingly, the proposed DNA sensor could distinguish the expression of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in a patient diagnosed with COVID-19 without any amplification technique. We believe that the proposed DNA sensor platform is a promising point-of-care (POC) device for COVID-19 viral infection since it offers a rapid detection time with a simple design and workflow detection system, as well as an affordable diagnostic assay.
Although photovoltaic (PV) panels are extensively used to convert solar energy into electric energy, the continuous change in the sun's angle with reference to the earth's surface limits their capacity to collect sufficient energy. To improve efficiency, solar trackers are used to constantly adjust the PV panels towards the sun to maximize energy capture. There has been an increase in the use of deep learning (DL) in solar tracking systems as it has proven to be one of the most efficient techniques owing to its success in related fields. Although there are several studies on different designs of solar tracking systems, a synthesis of the state-of-art knowledge is lacking in the literature. Therefore, this study carried out a review of the DL methods used in solar tracking systems. Specifically, dataset usage, preprocessing methods, feature engineering methods, DL algorithms and the performance metrics used in the identified studies. The review considered the studies published from 2012 to 2022. In the initial search, 5,724 articles were selected from 7 digital libraries. Only 37 academic papers were included in the review based on the inclusion criteria. The results revealed that deep hybrid learning models were the most popular among researchers. Further, the study identified research challenges and future directions relating to the availability of DL-based PV solar tracking with respect to datasets, image data, data normalization, data decomposition, and feature engineering methods. This work will be resourceful to current and future researchers in addressing the trends and challenges related to the application of DL in PV solar trackers.
There has been a proliferation of free trade agreements (FTAs) over the last three decades and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) has since greatly embraced the development. However, research on the effect of trade agreements on trade in the Southeast Asia region has not received adequate attention. The few studies conducted on the issue fail to account for the heterogeneity of the FTA effects and the role of the quality of domestic economic and political institutions in shaping the effects. Therefore, this study evaluates the role of institutions vis-à-vis the trade diversion and creation effects of the FTAs on trade flow in ASEAN over the period 2000–2018. The study accounts for FTA endogeneity and multilateral resistance terms by estimating a structural gravity model using Poison pseudo-maximum likelihood with a high-dimensional fixed effect (PPMLHDFE). The findings reveal that the inclusion of the indicators of political and economic institutions into the specification significantly changed the magnitudes of the trade creation and diversion effects of FTA on international and intra-ASEAN trade. And, the effects of the quality of institutions are robust to the different trade flows (total trade, exports, and imports) of the ASEAN economies. Therefore, we conclude that the trade diversion and creation effects of the FTAs on trade flows in ASEAN largely depend on the quality of economic and political institutions in the region
Bring your own device (BYOD) paradigm that permits employees to come with their own mobile devices to join the organizational network is rapidly changing the organizational operation method by enhancing flexibility, productivity, and efficiency. Despite these benefits, security issues remain a concern in organizational settings. A considerable number of studies have been conducted and published in this domain without a detailed review of the security solution mechanisms. Moreover, some reviews conducted focused more on conventional approaches such as mobile content management, and application content management. Hence, the implementation of security in BYOD using the conventional method is ineffective. Thus, machine learning approaches seem to be the promising approach, which provides a solution to the security problem in the BYOD environment. This study presents a comprehensive systematic mapping review that focused on the application of the machine learning approach for the mitigation of security threats and attacks in the BYOD environment by highlighting the current trends in the existing studies. Five academic databases were searched and a total of 753 of the primary studies published between 2012 and 2021 were initially retrieved. These studies were screened based on their title, abstract and full text to check their eligibility and relevance for the study. However, forty primary studies were included and analyzed in the systematic mapping review (SMR). Based on the analysis and bubble plot mapping, significant research trends were identified on security threats and attacks, machine learning approaches, datasets usage, and evaluation metrics. The SMR result demonstrates the rise in the number of investigations regarding malware and unauthorized access to existing security threats and attacks. The SMR study indicates that supervised learning approaches such as SVM, DT, and RF are the most employed learning model by the previous research. Thus, there is an open research issue in the application of unsupervised learning approaches such as clustering and deep learning approaches. Therefore, the SMR has set the pace for creating new ground research in the machine learning implementation in the BYOD environment, which will offer invaluable insight into the study field, and researchers can employ it to find a research gap in the research domain.
Citation: Shahriar, S.A.; Husna, A.; Paul, T.T.; Eaty, M.N.K.; Quamruzzaman, M.; Siddique, A.B.; Rahim, M.A.; Ahmmed, A.N.F.; Uddain, J.; Siddiquee, S. Colletotrichum truncatum Causing Anthracnose of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in Malaysia. Abstract: Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is a popular nutritious vegetable crop grown in Malaysia and other parts of the world. However, fungal diseases such as anthracnose pose significant threats to tomato production by reducing the fruit quality and food value of tomato, resulting in lower market prices of the crop globally. In the present study, the etiology of tomato anthracnose was investigated in commercial tomato farms in Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 22 fungal isolates were obtained from anthracnosed tomato fruits and identified as Colletotrichum species, using morphological characteristics. The phylogenetic relationships of multiple gene sequence alignments such as internal transcribed spacer (ITS), β-tubulin (tub2), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh), actin (act), and calmodulin (cal), were adopted to accurately identify the Colletotrichum species as C. truncatum. The results of pathogenicity tests revealed that all C. truncatum isolates caused anthracnose disease symptoms on inoculated tomato fruits. To our knowledge, the present study is the first report of tomato anthracnose caused by C. truncatum in Malaysia. The findings of this study will be helpful in disease monitoring, and the development of strategies for effective control of anthracnose on tomato fruits.
The study investigated the comparative influence of different extraction solvents on spermiogram, hormonal profiles and antioxidant activities in rabbit bucks. Adult New Zealand White rabbit bucks (n=18), with average live weight of 1.2±0.03 kg and aged 10-18 mo were fed ad libitum on a commercial diet. They were administered five different Azanza garckeana (AG) fruit pulp extracts at 500 mg/kg via oral gavage, comprising control group (Con), crude (AG Cr), methanol (AG M), n-hexane (AG H), ethyl acetate (AG E)and aqueous (AG AQ) for four weeks. The extracts improved the spermiogram in rabbit bucks administered methanol (AG M) and the reaction time was significantly (P<0.05) lower in AG E group when compared to other groups. The ejaculate volume, sperm motility, pH and sperm concentration were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the AG M group when compared to the other groups. There was a significant (P<0.05) increase in concentrations of blood testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone in methanol extract group (AG M). While the glutathione and malondialdehyde concentrations were (P<0.05) lower, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were significantly (P<0.05) higher in the groups administered methanol extract (AG M). It was concluded that AG M extracts of AG pulp elicited the best response in spermiogram, hormonal concentrations and antioxidant activities in New Zealand White rabbit bucks. Its use as the extraction solvent is recommended.
Background We aimed to determine associations between the mental health status of adolescents by self-reported sexual identity; and to determine associations between the mental health status of sexual minority adolescents living with and without HIV. Methods This cross-sectional study collected data from Nigerians aged 13–19 years old using an online survey. We collected information on dependent (sexual identity) and independent (presence of depressive symptoms, generalised anxiety disorder, suicidal attempt/ideation, HIV status) study variables. A multivariate regression model determined associations between the dependent and independent variables. A second multivariate regression model was developed to establish associations between HIV status among sexual minority individuals and the dependent variables. All models were adjusted for age, sex assigned at birth and education level. Results Among 1247 respondents living in Nigeria, 497 (39.9%) identified as sexual minority individuals. Compared with their heterosexual peers, sexual minority adolescents had significantly higher odds of reporting depressive symptoms (adjusted OR (AOR): 5.54; 95% CI: 4.10 to 7.47; p<0.001), high general anxiety (AOR: 3.56; 95% CI: 2.64 to 4.79; p<0.001) and history of suicidal attempt/ideation (AOR: 2.95; 95% CI: 2.20 to 3.94; p<0.001). Sexual minority adolescents living with HIV had significantly higher odds of high general anxiety (AOR: 2.42; 95% CI: 1.21 to 4.84; p=0.013), while those with unknown HIV status had significantly higher odds of depressive symptoms (AOR: 3.82, 95% CI: 2.78 to 5.27; p<0.001), high general anxiety (AOR: 3.09; 95% CI: 2.29 to 4.17; p<0.001) and suicidal attempt/ideation (AOR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.22 to 2.24; p=0.001). Conclusion Sexual minority adolescents reported poorer mental health status than heterosexual adolescents. Although there was no significant difference in the mental health status of sexual minority adolescents living and not living with HIV, sexual minority adolescents with unknown HIV status reported worse mental health than their HIV-negative peers. Sexual minority adolescents in Nigeria need comprehensive rights-based care that improves access to mental health services, and those with unknown HIV status may need both HIV and mental health screening and care.
In this work, an orthogonal polynomial with weight function w(x) =x2 + x + 1 in the interval [-1, 1] was constructed and used as the basis function to develop block methods, using collocation and interpolation approach. An efficient class of continuous and discrete numerical integration schemes of implicit hybrid form for third-order problems were developed and successfully implemented. Three different problems were solved with these schemes and they performed favourably. The investigation, using the appropriate existing theorems, shows that the methods are consistent, zero-stable and hence, convergent.
This study evaluates the explosive behavior and Granger causality episodes in manufacturing job postings in the United States (JOBPUS) and COVID-19-induced uncertainty (COVIDEMV). This study applied the novel unit root tests with explosive behavior, and the novel time-varying Granger cau-sality test for a sample period ranging from 1 January 2020 to 29 July 2022. Further, this study used date stamping to identify the subperiods of the explosive behavior and causality. The findings revealed that JOBPUS exhibits explosive behavior, with several episodes of exuberance (bubbles) across the sample period while COVIDEMV does not exhibit explosivity during the period. However, the results of the causality provide evidence of bidirectional causality, with several episodes between the variables. Moreover , the episodes of the explosivity and causality coincide with significant episodes in the history of the COVID-19 pandemic worldwide and in the United States particularly, such as the date when United States recorded a COVID-19-related death toll of over 100,000 people for the first time, after the presidential election, after Halloween celebrations, after the discovery and administration of COVID-19 vaccines as well as the discovery of the Delta and the Omicron variants of COVID-19. Therefore, the time-series characteristics of JOBPUS and its causal nexus with COVIDEMV largely depend on the intensity of the instability caused by the pandemics. Hence, explosivity and time-varying causal behavior should necessarily be accounted for when modelling the job market conditions in the United States, particularly during pandemic-related crises.
This paper proposes a modified version of the Dwarf Mongoose Optimization Algorithm (IDMO) for constrained engineering design problems. This optimization technique modifies the base algorithm (DMO) in three simple but effective ways. First, the alpha selection in IDMO differs from the DMO, where evaluating the probability value of each fitness is just a computational overhead and contributes nothing to the quality of the alpha or other group members. The fittest dwarf mongoose is selected as the alpha, and a new operator ω is introduced, which controls the alpha movement, thereby enhancing the exploration ability and exploitability of the IDMO. Second, the scout group movements are modified by randomization to introduce diversity in the search process and explore unvisited areas. Finally, the babysitter's exchange criterium is modified such that once the criterium is met, the babysitters that are exchanged interact with the dwarf mongoose exchanging them to gain information about food sources and sleeping mounds, which could result in better-fitted mongooses instead of initializing them afresh as done in DMO, then the counter is reset to zero. The proposed IDMO was used to solve the classical and CEC 2020 benchmark functions and 12 continuous/discrete engineering optimization problems. The performance of the IDMO, using different performance metrics and statistical analysis, is compared with the DMO and eight other existing algorithms. In most cases, the results show that solutions achieved by the IDMO are better than those obtained by the existing algorithms.
Th e present article aims to initiate a conversation with Alena Rettová on her article "Post-Genocide, Post-Apartheid: Th e Shift ing Landscapes of African Philosophy, 1994-2019" that was published in Modern Africa in the Summer of 2021. We identify several issues in her historical account of African philosophical thoughts that need polyphonic engagement in order to ensure that Africa's pluralistic intellectual heritage is not reduced to a monophonic one. We are intentional at being Rettová's intellectual dialogical partner on the reading of African philosophy, while bearing in mind that the ideologies of apartheid and genocide are still active. While we explore some key aspects of her work, we also acknowledge that African philosophy is constantly in the making and it would be problematic to use the yardstick of one context, in this case, the Western context, as a benchmark in order to account for the progression of philosophical thoughts in other philosophical contexts (Africa) without taking into account the historical peculiarities of each context.
The ecological changes in vegetation and land of an area can be monitored and managed through the assessment of its past and present land use and land cover (LULC). In this study, we assessed the changes in the LULC of Penang Island between 2010 and 2021. We also determined the corresponding impacts on the land surface temperature (LST) and vegetation index in the form of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Landsat-5 and Landsat-8 were selected for the study. The LULC types were classified using both supervised and unsupervised multivariate maximum likelihood techniques. The LULC change analysis revealed a considerable increase in the urbanized areas (45.71%), a slight increase in the forests (1.57%) and a sizeable reduction in the agricultural/herbaceous areas (− 33.49) of the city within the stipulated period. The urbanized areas were observed to have the highest LST in 2010 and 2021 (28.75–34.0 °C) followed by the bare land (29.76–29 °C). The increase in temperature could have been driven by the reduction in the greenness of the city coupled with the openness of vegetation cover. Similarly, strong positive correlations were observed between the LST and NDVI in the urbanized areas (R ² = 0.92), and bare lands (R ² = 0.86). We, therefore, hypothesize that urbanization is the main driver of the LULC changes on Penang Island.
Barium titanate-based bismuthate glasses doped with Er³⁺ ions have been fabricated by employing the conventional melt quench technique. Various characterization studies have been performed on the samples for their physical, structural and optical analysis such as the density and molar volume measurements, X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Raman, and UV–Vis spectroscopies. The amorphous nature of the prepared glass samples has been confirmed by the broad humps observed in the X-Ray diffractograms. The FTIR spectra confirmed an increment in the non-bridging oxygen atoms (NBOs) and also the transformation of [BiO6] units to [BiO3] pyramidal units in the structural network of the glass matrix. Raman spectra in the high-frequency region have also been recorded which provided information related to the structural changes in the glass system upon the building of Er-O linkages. Absorption spectra of UV–Vis spectroscopy depicted six transition states such as ⁴F7/2, ²H11/2, ⁴S3/2, ⁴F9/2, ⁴I11/2, and ⁴I13/2. The spectroscopic and optical parameters such as energy band gap, optical conductivity, penetration depth, Judd-Ofelt (JO) parameters, refractive index, dielectric constant, Urbach energy, and transmission coefficient for the glasses have been determined, among others. The nephelauxetic ratio (β) and bonding parameters (δ) obtained from transitions of rare-earth ions have revealed the ionic character of the glasses. The calculated values of indirect and direct energy bandgap (Eg) of the prepared samples have been found to decrease from 2.04 to 1.93 and 2.67 to 2.45 resp. on increasing Er³⁺ ions. Judd-Ofelt (JO) parameters follow the order given by Ω2> Ω6> Ω4 and have been consistent with the literature. A decrement in the values of Ω2 from 3.761 to 2.699, confirmed the lowest asymmetry in the crystal field of rare-earth ions of glass system. The obtained values of refractive index, Urbach energy, dielectric constant, electronic & ionic polarizability and the metallization criterion suggest that the presently studied glass samples are amorphous semiconducting, optically non-linear and are suitable for the applications in erbium-doped fiber-amplifier (EDFA), lasers and optoelectronic devices.
Introduction A large number of medical imaging needs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) could be addressed with the provision of ultrasound. Yet, according to a World Health Organization (WHO) report, more than half of the global population lack access to this basic imaging device. This study was designed to describe issues facing ultrasound use in LMICs and to aggregate reported solutions Methods PubMed search was conducted on clinical use of ultrasound in LMICs. Search terms used were ultrasound, low income, remote setting, poverty, limited resource. Studies included were in English and published from 2000 - 2022. Qualitative synthesis was done by extracting results under the following headings: benefit, challenges, and adaptations made to implement ultrasound in LMICs. PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews were followed. Results A total of 205 abstracts were reviewed, and 65 articles were included. Ultrasound in LMICs improves diagnoses of wide range of diseases and impact clinical management. It is particularly useful in obstetrics care by reducing maternal and neonatal mortality and increasing the rate of facility attendance and delivery by women. However, lack of trained personnel, equipment, power supply, consumables, ethical issues, and patient knowledge and perception are often reported as barriers. Modify strategies included, targeted education and training, community advocacy, education and engagement, regulation, use of solar system, training of local equipment repair technician, technological innovations, remote learning and interpretation of results Conclusion Ultrasound has a wide range of application benefits, in a variety of clinical settings in LMICs that are faced with increasing burden of imaging needs. Nonetheless, significant barriers exist with respect to access. Policy and decision makers in health, and equipment manufacturers should focus on plan for sustainability, training, education, technological innovations and regulation to improve ultrasound use in LMICs.
Introduction Artificial Intelligence (AI), suitably referred to as modern technology is a prevalence word in the industry with no exception to healthcare sector and its impact rapidly evolving. AI was alleged a great object that has capacity to think and act reasonably as human, which has invaded every aspect of our lives. In Radiotherapy, increasing transformation in the field is a constant phenomenon due to improvement in technology with a primary purpose of precision, better tumour coverage while sparing healthy tissues and safety for quality value to the wellbeing of patient living with cancer diseases. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of AI in radiotherapy practice. Methods The study was a systematic review of the history, and advancement in the practice of radiotherapy and clinical oncology of radiotherapy department of a Nigerian Hospital. 20 Articles published on Radiotherapy and AI in Nigeria between 2009- 2020 were reviewed. PubMed was used to source for articles using advanced search in the Medical Subject heading (MeSH). Key words were selected using the guideline for conducting systematic reviews. Results Outlines radiation treatment planning and radiation treatment delivery. It showed how AI had impacted positively with the view of relief with this overwhelming process. The indication and clinical application of machine learning to radiotherapy field was explored. Conclusion The findings demonstrated the application of AI assisting with radiotherapy challenging process. The study also pointed clearly on the challenges, potential future directions and prospective partnership and alliances to promote cancer patients’ experience and treatment outcome.
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Makurdi - Jos Rd, Nigeria., 950101, Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria
Head of institution
Prof. Muhammad Sunusi Liman