Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
  • Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Recent publications
Arboviruses are agents transmitted by arthropods and represent a considerable threat to public health worldwide, causing diseases in humans and animals. A serological investigation was carried out to detect total antibodies against different types of arboviruses in free-living coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Iguaçu National Park (INP) through the Hemagglutination Inhibition test. Serum samples were tested using antigens from 33 arboviruses belonging to the genera Alphavirus, Flavivirus, Orthobunyavirus, and Phlebovirus. The data showed that 23.6% (17/72) of coatis were seropositive for at least one of the tested antigens, including monotypic and heterotypic reactions. Seropositivity was detected for Alphavirus (5.9%, 1/17; WEEV), Flavivirus (64.7%, 11/17; YFV, ILHV, SLEV, BSQV, ROCV, WNV, DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3, DENV-4, and NJLV), Phlebovirus (88.2%, 15/17; ICOV and BUJV) and Orthobunyavirus (5.9%, 1/17; ORIV). The presence of antibodies to these viruses in coatis from INP indicated an apparent silent circulation of arbovirus, implying N. nasua to be a possible amplifying host of these arboviruses in the studied area. The data reported also serve as a warning about the possible risk of establishing an arbovirus transmission cycle involving vector arthropods and coatis, or even other wild animals, consequently, including humans in this transmission chain.
A graph G is well-covered if every maximal independent set of G is maximum. A (k,ℓ)-partition of a graph G is a partition of its vertex set into k independent sets and ℓ cliques. A graph is (k,ℓ)-well-covered if it is well-covered and admits a (k,ℓ)-partition. The recognition of (k,ℓ)-well-covered graphs is polynomial-time solvable for the cases (0,1), (0,2), (1,0), (1,1), (1,2), and (2,0), and hard, otherwise. In the graph sandwich problem for a property Π, we are given a pair of graphs G1=(V,E1) and G2=(V,E2) with E1⊆E2, and asked whether there is a graph G=(V,E) with E1⊆E⊆E2, such that G satisfies the property Π. The problem of recognizing whether a graph G satisfies a property Π is equivalent to the particular graph sandwich problem where E1=E2. In this paper, we study the graph sandwich problem for the property of being (k,ℓ)-well-covered. We present some structural characterizations and extending previous studies on the recognition of (k,ℓ)-well-covered graphs, we prove that Graph Sandwich for (k,ℓ)-well-coveredness is polynomial-time solvable when (k,ℓ)∈{(0,1),(1,0),(1,1),(0,2)}. Besides, we show that it is NP-complete for the property of being (1,2)-well-covered.
Island canaries Serinus canaria (Linnaeus) are finches native to the North Atlantic Islands, however, they have a worldwide distribution in captivity due to their relevance as a pet bird. Coccidians are the most reported parasites of passerines worldwide, both in the wild and in captivity, being frequently associated with disease in passerines kept in rehabilitation centers and commercial breeders. This study aimed to identify coccidians from island canaries kept in captivity in Brazil. Three hundred and fifteen genomic DNA extracted from fecal samples of island canaries from different breeders from Southern and Southeastern Brazil were used to perform a nested PCR assay to amplify a partial fragment of the 28S small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (28S) of Isospora spp. Microscopic screening and morphological identification of Isospora oocysts was performed in fecal samples corresponding to PCR positive DNA samples. Fecal samples have been formalin-stored for approximately four years. Positivity rate for both microscopy and PCR was 10.5% (33/315). Posteriorly, Isospora serini (Aragão, 1933) Box, 1975 and Isospora canaria Box, 1975 were morphologically identified from fresh fecal samples of island canaries maintained by a breeder in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, providing a genotypic characterization via sequencing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and 28S genes. The 28S and COI sequences referring to the morphological identification of I. canaria was, respectively, 100% and 99% similar to sequences deposited as Isospora serinuse Yang, Brice, Elliot & Ryan, 2015 from island canaries kept in a rehabilitation center in Australia. The COI sequence referring to the morphological identification of I. serini was 100% similar to a sequence of an extraintestinal Isospora, corroborating this identification/sequencing since I. serini is the first isosporan with an extra-intestinal cycle demonstrated. The comparison of morphological and molecular data from I. canaria and I. serini from this study with published data of Isospora spp. from canaries worldwide, allowed the specific identification from preliminary generic identifications, correction of misidentifications, as well as the establishment of junior synonyms. Finally, this study provides morphological and molecular data that ensure the correct identification of the two Isospora spp. from island canaries in future studies worldwide.
Across the globe, the legal land rights and tenure of many Indigenous peoples are yet to be recognized. A growing body of research demonstrates that tenure of Indigenous lands improves livelihoods and protects forests in addition to inherently recognizing human rights. However, the effect of tenure on environmental outcomes has scarcely been tested in regions with high development pressure, such as those with persisting forest–agriculture conflicts. In this paper, we conduct an event study and a difference-in-differences analysis to estimate the average treatment effect of land tenure on forest cover change for 129 Indigenous lands in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil from 1985 to 2019. We found that forest outcomes in Indigenous lands improved following tenure compared to pretenure and that forest outcomes improved in tenured compared to nontenured lands. We also found that formalized tenure, rather than incomplete tenure, was necessary to improve forest outcomes. Our study is the first rigorous analysis of the effect of tenure on Indigenous lands in the globally important Atlantic Forest biome and contributes to a growing body of literature on the role of rights-based approaches to conservation. The evidence presented in this study may support efforts to secure the legal rights and autonomy of Indigenous peoples.
A young male free-ranging giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) was found with paralysis of pelvic limbs on a highway and kept under human care. Radiographs confirmed multiple incomplete fractures in the thoracolumbar vertebrae. Due to the poor prognosis, euthanasia was chosen. The infection was established by viral SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in the rectal swab, spleen and kidney samples. Immunohis-tochemistry detected the viral nucleocapsid protein in sections of the lungs, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and large intestine sections, and spike protein antigen in the lung tissue. Pilosa order species should be included as potential hosts of natural infection of SARS-CoV-2.
The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how Argentine experience of internal repression was passed on to Paraguay as a result of the meetings between its intelligence services. The meetings were carried out by the military in the 1970s, aiming at joint operations of political persecution and extermination of the opponents of the dictatorships that prevailed in these two countries. The author analyzes documentation transmitted during the meeting called IIda Regional Bilateral Meeting of Intelligence between Paraguay and Argentina in 1978. Documentation reports to the Paraguayan military the strategies and tactics of war developed by the Argentine armed forces in the so-called Operation Toba. The importance of discussing Operation Toba is to demonstrate the similarity of the repressions that took place in other countries of the Southern Cone. The techniques and tactics used illustrate that such massacres have repressive synchrony and are consistent with a single internationalized process of repression. Although the repression called Operation Toba was developed only by the Argentine State, it demonstrates an international chain of repression, as well as the similarity in the modus operandi of the precepts of the widespread Counter-Revolutionary War Doctrine, developed by the French during the fighting in Indochina and Algeria in the 1950s.
Abstract Background Mosquito-borne diseases affect millions of people. Chemical insecticides are currently employed against mosquitoes. However, many cases of insecticide resistance have been reported. Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) have demonstrated potential as a bioinsecticide. Here, we assessed the invasion of the EPF Beauveria bassiana into Aedes aegypti larvae and changes in the activity of phenoloxidase (PO) as a proxy for the general activation of the insect innate immune system. In addition, other cellular and humoral responses were evaluated. Methods Larvae were exposed to blastospores or conidia of B. bassiana CG 206. After 24 and 48 h, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was conducted on the larvae. The hemolymph was collected to determine changes in total hemocyte concentration (THC), the dynamics of hemocytes, and to observe hemocyte-fungus interactions. In addition, the larvae were macerated to assess the activity of PO using L-DOPA conversion, and the expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) was measured using quantitative Real-Time PCR. Results Propagules invaded mosquitoes through the midgut, and blastopores were detected inside the hemocoel. Both propagules decreased the THC regardless of the time. By 24 h after exposure to conidia the percentage of granulocytes and oenocytoids increased while the prohemocytes decreased. By 48 h, the oenocytoid percentage increased significantly (P
Within the framework of Density Functional Theory (DFT), the relevance of the term Hartree-Fock exchange (HFE) for a variety of molecular properties is a critical point. For this reason, we spend efforts to understand these relationships in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) parameters in a water solvent. This work takes advantage of the appropriate aug-cc-pVTZ-J basis set and the Minnesota family of DFT methods, which consider different portions of HFE contributions. With regard to solvent participation, the results are based on a sequential Monte Carlo/Quantum Mechanics procedure, which builds the structures of the liquid under realistic thermodynamic conditions. Compared to the accurate results of second-order polarization propagator approximation (SOPPA) and experimental data, all NMR parameters show a huge dependence on the size of the HFE contribution. For instance, the inclusion of this term in 1JOH and 2JHH indirect spin-spin couplings does vary with 49.661 and 25.459 Hz, respectively. The M06-HF method accounts for 100% of HFE and better matches the σO and σH shielding constants. On the other hand, 1JOH and 2JHH demand a medium contribution (54% of HFE), the best description being associated with the M06-2X method. Thus, the dependence varies regarding the phenomenology of the property in focus and the order for independent treatments. For elements that participate in hydrogen bonds simultaneously as donor and acceptor actors, the results indicate that explicit solvent molecules must be considered in the quantum mechanical calculations for better modeling of paramagnetic shielding constants.
Considering the practice of using ‘brewer’s yeast’ (BY) - liquid brewery yeast waste from the brewing industry - in animal feed in some establishments in the south of the State of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, this study was conducted to establish safety margins and to determine epidemiological and clinical aspects. In addition, this study suggested prophylactic measures that can prevent or minimise alcohol intoxication due to BY in sheep and swine. The main characteristics of the clinical features in both natural poisoning and controlled spontaneous ingestion in swine as well as intoxication by controlled ingestion of BY using a ruminal probe in sheep were found to be staggering gait, tripping and falls. Overall, 3.8 and 8.875mL/kg of ethanol content in the BY caused mild-moderate and severe clinical conditions, respectively, in swine and sheep. The following prophylactic measures are suggested: 1. BY must be adequately diluted in water, whey, or with BY that has been previously stored in the property (old BY); 2. It must be administered in proportion to the animals’ weight and size. 3. It must be administered continuously, without interruptions, and with the provision of other food in the trough (such as soybean meal or cornmeal and water ad libitum). In conclusion, although BY is increasingly used in sheep and swine breeding properties - in the south of the State of Rio de Janeiro - many owners use one or more of the suggested prophylactic measures. Hence, ethanol intoxications because of BY are infrequent and rarely cause deaths; therefore, BY can be used provided adequate prophylactic measures are followed.
Esse artigo apresenta, de maneira introdutória, a obra do professor Gilmar Mascarenhas. Trata-se do primeiro geógrafo brasileiro a trabalhar com a temática do futebol e da geografia dos esportes de maneira mais ampla. Apresentamos inicialmente algumas passagens da sua biografia e de sua carreira acadêmica para, em seguida, apresentar um conjunto de textos que ele deixou como um dos mais ricos legados para os estudos da área. Finalmente indicamos alguns orientandos que seguem seus ensinamentos. Com isso desejamos reconhecer a incontestável contribuição deste pensador que, infelizmente, nos deixou precocemente. Ele foi mais uma vítima da violência contra o ciclista nas ruas da cidade do Rio de Janeiro.
The low natural fertility and compaction of agricultural soils in the Cerrado are the main limitations for agricultural production. Changes in management systems are necessary to optimize the use of natural resources. The objective of this study was to map and evaluate the presence of penetration resistance and its relationship with soil chemical attributes in pasture areas in the Cerrado of Piauí. The experiment was carried out in the municipality of Corrente-PI, Brazil. The area was divided into two sub-areas of 0.5 ha each: the first is remaining vegetation and the second is pasture. Fifty soil samples were collected in the 0.00-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m layers, with a sampling grid of 10 x 10 m. The pH in water, organic matter, calcium, magnesium, and soil penetration resistance were analyzed. The introduction of animals in the pasture area increased soil compaction by 2%. Chemical attributes, pH, organic matter, calcium and magnesium vary according to soil compaction by 2%. The native forest area has soil penetration resistance at acceptable levels (<2 MPa) and availability of nutrients at adequate levels. The maps of variability of organic matter, calcium, magnesium and penetration resistance showed the heterogeneity of the areas, allowing decisions based on specific management zones, localized application of nutrients and decompaction, and recovery of areas with inefficient management.
On-farm methane (CH4) emissions need to be estimated accurately so that the mitigation effect of recommended practices can be accounted for. In the present study prediction equations for enteric CH4 have been developed in lieu of expensive animal measurement approaches. Our objectives were to: (1) compile a dataset from individual beef cattle data for the Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) region; (2) determine main predictors of CH4 emission variables; (3) develop and cross-validate prediction models according to dietary forage content (DFC); and (4) compare the predictive ability of these newly-developed models with extant equations reported in literature, including those currently used for CH4 inventories in LAC countries. After outlier's screening, 1100 beef cattle observations from 55 studies were kept in the final dataset (~ 50 % of the original dataset). Mixed-effects models were fitted with a random effect of study. The whole dataset was split according to DFC into a subset for all-forage (DFC = 100 %), high-forage (94 % ≥ DFC ≥ 54 %), and low-forage (50 % ≥ DFC) diets. Feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) were the main predictors of CH4 emission (g d−1), whereas this was feeding level [dry matter intake (DMI) as % of body weight] for CH4 yield (g kg−1 DMI). The newly-developed models were more accurate than IPCC Tier 2 equations for all subsets. Simple and multiple regression models including ADG were accurate and a feasible option to predict CH4 emission when data on feed intake are not available. Methane yield was not well predicted by any extant equation in contrast to the newly-developed models. The present study delivered new models that may be alternatives for the IPCC Tier 2 equations to improve CH4 prediction for beef cattle in inventories of LAC countries based either on more or less readily available data.
Introduction: Contrary to international studies, there was an increase in sickle-cell disease (SCD) mortality rate in Brazil after the implementation of the neonatal screening program, probably due to improving access to diagnosis. Aim: To assess differences in the temporal trend of the mortality rate and median age at death from SCD in Brazil, considering implemented measures to expand diagnosis and improve health care access in-country and the international scenery. Methods: Time series were extracted from the Brazilian Mortality System from 1996 to 2019. Changes in the magnitude of mortality rate and the median age at death were performed in segmented regression models, stratified by sex, region of residence, and age. Results: Most deaths occurred in colored, young adults, and the inhabitants of the Southeast and Northeast. There was an increase in the SCD mortality rate until 2010 (13.31%; CI: 6.37; 20.70), particularly in individuals aged 30 years or more (12.78%; CI: 2.98; 23.53) and in the Northeast (12.27%; CI: 8.92; 15.72). Most deaths occurred in the second decade of life (3.01 deaths/million), with a 59% increase in the median age of death in Brazil, from 27.6 to 30.3 years, more pronounced in women and the North. Conclusion: The observed gain in the survival of SCD in Brazil is still much lower than in developed countries and with regional disparities, probably due to lack of access to health care and recent treatments, such as hydroxyurea, still restricted to hematological referral centers of Brazilian capitals. Note: The article has been accepted in Cadernos de Saúde Pública (Report in Public Health)
Purpose: Albeit being a major determinant of exercise-related energy expenditure (EE), there is a lack of research on the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) after different exercise modalities in older adults. This study compared the EPOC after isocaloric bouts of resistance (RE) and aerobic (AE) exercise. Methods: The EE during exercise was determined through telemetric indirect calorimetry in ten physically active participants aged 63 to 82 years (5 women, 73 ± 6 years, 70.5 ± 9.9 kg, 161 ± 8 cm). The target EE in AE corresponded to values achieved during RE, and the EPOC was assessed for 30 min in the supine position. Results: The EE during AE and RE were 126.0 ± 30.7 kcal and 123.9 ± 30.6 kcal, respectively. The time to achieve the target EE was 2.3 times shorter in AE vs. RE. The EPOC magnitude was greater after AE (7.9 ± 2.4 L, 40.1 ± 11.1 kcal) than RE (5.9 ± 1.8 L, 26.9 ± 11.5 kcal). Conclusion: Older adults showed greater EPOC after isocaloric sessions of AE vs. RE. Additionally, AE had better temporal efficiency than RE to elicit a given EE.
Essential oil (EO) of Cannabis sativa (C. sativa) was evaluated against the egg, larval, pupal, and adult stages of the flea Ctenocephalides felis felis. The chemical composition of EO was determined by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometry. EO mainly comprised γ-elemene (16.2%) and caryophyllene oxide (14.2%) as major compounds. To evaluate the mortality of flea stages in vitro, filter paper tests were performed at different concentrations. EO of C. sativa showed insecticidal activity (100% mortality at the highest concentrations) for flea control at egg, larval, pupal, and adult stages, with lethal concentrations (LC50) of 32.45; 91.61; 466.41 and 927.92 μg/cm2, respectively. EO of C. sativa indicated the potential for the development of ectoparasiticide for veterinary use, especially for fleas in egg and larval stages.
The risk of bovine cysticercosis is mutable over time, since population habits, local infrastructure, and bovine herd size change through the years. Hence, the aim of this study was to update the risk map of bovine cysticercosis occurrence in Espírito Santo State, Brazil, by choosing the following risk factors: inadequate sewer service; bovine population per municipality; risk of flooding; and land use and occupation, examined with a mathematical model using the GIS program ArcGis 10.5. The risk map of occurrence demonstrated that the state is composed of 12.8, 24.5, 36.2 and 26.5% of areas of very high, high, medium, and low risk, respectively. The northern area stood out for areas of very high risk, with the cities of Linhares and São Mateus accounting for 99% of the area with this classification. Of the state's 78 municipalities, 15 had a portion of their territory with very high risk, 11 had over 50% of the territory with high risk and all except Irupi (100% of low risk) had some percentage of medium risk. These findings demonstrate the areas where actions to prevent bovine cysticercosis should be preferentially conducted.
This study assessed the sources of contamination of water matrices in a rural area using detection of a host-specific virus (human adenovirus [HAdV], porcine adenovirus [PAdV] and bovine polyomaviruses [BoPyV]) as potential microbial source-tracking tool, and rotavirus A [RVA], given its epidemiological importance in Brazil. From July 2017 to June 2018, 92 samples were collected from eight points (P1-P8) of surface and raw waters in southeastern region of Brazil. Fifty-five (59.8%) were positive for HAdV, 41 (44.5%) for RVA, 10 (10.9%) for PAdV and four (4.3%) for BoPyV. HAdV and RVA were detected at all sites, and over the entire sampling period, PAdV was detected at a porcine breeding area and at Guarda River site, presenting high concentrations up to 2.6 × 10⁹ genome copies per liter [GC/L], and viral concentrations ranging from 9.6 × 10¹ to 7.1 × 10⁷, while BoPyV (1.5 × 10⁴ GC/L–9.2 × 10⁵ GC/L) was only detected in samples from the bovine breeding areas. The combination of human and animal virus circulation presents a potential impact in the environment due to raw sewage discharge from regional communities, as well as potential hazard to human and animal health.
This study aimed to evaluate the ploidy and survival of larvae resulting from crosses between tetraploid females and diploid males of yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae, both females (three diploids and three tetraploids) and males (n = 3 diploids). Breeders were subjected to hormonal induction with pituitary gland extract from common carp fish (Cyprinus carpio). Females received two doses at concentrations of 0.3 and 3.0 mg/kg -1 body weight and at intervals of 6 h. Males were induced with a single dose of 3.0 mg/kg -1 applied simultaneously with the second dose in females. Oocytes from each diploid and tetraploid female were fertilized with semen from the same male, resulting in two crosses: cross 1 (diploid male and diploid female) and cross 2 (diploid male and tetraploid female). The procedures were performed with separate females (diploid and tetraploid) and diploid males for each repetition (n = 3). For ploidy determination, 60 larvae from each treatment were analyzed using flow cytometry and cytogenetic analyses. As expected, flow cytometry analysis showed that progenies from crosses 1 and 2 presented diploid and triploid individuals, respectively, with a 100% success rate. The same results were confirmed in the cytogenetic analysis, in which the larvae resulting from cross 1 had 50 metaphase chromosomes and those from cross 2 had 75 chromosomes. The oocytes have a slightly ovoid shape at the time of extrusion. Diploid oocytes had a size of 559 ± 20.62 μm and tetraploid of 1025.33 ± 30.91 μm. Statistical differences were observed between eggs from crosses 1 and 2 (P = 0.0130). No significant differences between treatments were observed for survival at the 2-cell stage (P = 0.6174), blastula (P = 0.9717), gastrula (P = 0.5301), somite (P = 0.3811), and hatching (P = 0.0984) stages. In conclusion, our results showed that tetraploid females of the yellowtail tetra A. altiparanae are fertile, present viable gametes after stripping and fertilization using the 'dry method', and may be used for mass production of triploids. This is the first report of these procedures within neotropical characins, and which can be applied in other related species of economic importance.
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2,818 members
Ion Vancea
  • Department of Physics (DEFIS)
Douglas Mcintosh
  • Animal Parasitology
Tácio De Mendonça Lima
  • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Patricia S Golo
  • Departamento de Parasitologia Animal (DPA)
Helio Ricardo da Silva
  • Departamento de Biologia Animal (Department of Animal Biology)
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BR465, Km7 campus Seropédica, 23897-000, Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
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Ricardo Luis Louro Berbara
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www.ufrrj.br
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