Lack of Sign Language-based learning tools is a hindrance in acquiring knowledge for deaf students. Technology-based tools have introduced innovative ways of learning textbook contents. Augmenting textbook contents with sign can significantly help in learning. This paper proposes SignText, a bilingual tool for learning textbook lessons. This web-based tool works on a web browser to provide sign language-based instructions. Along with signs, simultaneous text-based instructions are also provided to enhance learning. The effectiveness of this tool was studied using an experiment in which 34 deaf students participated. Both quantitative and qualitative studies were conducted to find the effectiveness of SignText. Results show that SignText improves learning for deaf students.
A novel copolymer possessing greater potential to yield high open circuit voltage for photovoltaic devices is presented here. Donor-Acceptor (D-A) type copolymer, based on benzothiadiazole (BTZ) as acceptor unit and 3-hexylthiophene (3-HT) as donor unit, was designed, synthesize, characterized and its possibilities for solar cell applications were studied. Copolymers, synthesized using direct arylation, were undergone electrochemical, thermal, morphological studies along with the determination of its electronic structure. Potential of the copolymer to function as vital part of a photovoltaic device was analyzed by fabricating solar cells with basic device structure of ITO/ZnO/P(3-HT-BTZ):PCBM/Ag. Here the entire device fabrication except Ag deposition was undergone in an open atmosphere without using any glove box setup. Photovoltaic (PV) parameters of the device, especially Voc observed to have a strong dependence on copolymer-PCBM interfacial area, where the probability of electron-hole recombination is dominant. Device configuration having an optimum copolymer-PCBM interfacial area ensures efficient exciton dissociation and long charge carrier life time and yielded Voc of 1.85 V.
In a world that demands the use of sustainable practices for producing more eco-friendly products, the idea of a circular economy prevails through the gradual reduction in consumption of finite resources. Mycelium is that collection of filamentous fibers extending out from the hyphae of any fungus. Mycelium is a biomaterial that is renewable in nature and has the capability to grow quickly on agricultural wastes. Thin fibers grown from the fungus can bind the matrix material to form biocomposite materials that are strong as well as biodegradable. These bio composite materials can be easily molded into various shapes suitable for the manufacturing of shock resistant packaging materials, and can also be used as a construction material or as an insulation material. They use cost-effective raw materials to form the biocomposite and the developed material is a sustainable substitute to synthetic materials like expanded polystyrene (EPS). These attributes make the mycelia-based bio composite material to have every chance of becoming a material of choice in packaging applications. This chapter gives an overview of the current state of the art technologies and the challenges ahead in the development of mycelium based bio composite materials regenerating from agro-industrial waste. While the main focus is on the packaging applications of fungal mycelium-based biodegradable composites, the chapter also focuses on a variety of applications as a viable substitute for synthetic polymer materials like expanded polystyrene.
For the analysis of rainwater tank outcomes, some researchers used monthly water balance model, which ignores an important factor such as overflow from the tank. Recently, to improve the accuracy of such analysis facilitated by the availability of daily rainfall data, many researchers started using daily timestep models. In the daily timestep models, the daily rainwater demand is deducted from the available storage, once in a day and there are debates on whether to apply that deduction at the beginning of the day or at the end of the day. Moreover, there is significant diurnal variation of water demand, which can not be accounted for in a daily timestep model. To overcome this, current study investigates an hourly timestep model considering hourly rainfall data and hourly variable rainwater demands. Hourly rainfall data was collected from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology for a raingauge station located in Melbourne. An earlier developed daily water balance model was converted to hourly scale incorporating hourly variable rainwater demands. Model simulated results for three distinct years (dry, average and wet) were compared with the results using a daily timestep model with the same data. Variations of water savings and overflow amounts are presented under four combinations of roof area and daily rainwater demand with tank sizes varying from 2500 L to 20,000 L. It is found that in all the selected years, the daily timestep model underestimated the annual water savings compared to the hourly timestep model and the highest difference was estimated to be 13,750 L for a smaller tank size connected with a bigger roof having higher rainwater demand.
Aim To propose a set of dynamic model generation algorithm DPGA, the algorithm can generate parameter models and service models based on user scenarios. Background Buildings in the traditional sense have become increasingly unable to meet modern humans’ pursuit of high-quality living and working environments, with the pace of urban development, modern buildings have gradually entered people's lives Objective Research on Electronic Data Energy Consumption Monitoring System Based on the Construction of Internet of Things Method The author made two definitions of the communication format between the middleware and the wireless sensor network, the author has designed the software and hardware functions of the nodes of the system's wireless sensor network, the author implements part of the node. Finally, the author describes the specific implementation of the application program interface and data interface between the modules of the middleware system, and take the internal environment of a typical office building as an example, the author discussed the deployment plan of system nodes in specific environments and the division of similar areas. Result It has been verified that the platform is committed to strict monitoring and management of energy-consuming equipment Conclusion Realize the reasonable distribution of energy consumption, energy saving, and humanized and automated energy consumption monitoring functions in the office area of large office buildings in modern cities.
Solar parks are well-defined areas developed in the high solar potential area, with the required infrastructure to minimize the potential threat for the developers. Land occupancy is a major concern for the solar park. The government policy mostly emphasizes the use of waste-degraded land for solar parks. In a competitive energy market, any attempt to use waste-degraded land parcels, without policy regulatory support, can bring large-scale disruptions in the quality and cost of power. The present study investigates the potential of using waste degraded land, with a focus on the impact on the cost of generation and decision making. The study investigates the possibility of including the cost of the externalities in the overall cost economics, through policy and regulatory interventions. Data related to India has been considered in the present analysis. Results show that there are less socio-economic and ecological impacts in using wastelands, compared to land, in urban-semi urban areas with an opportunity cost. Thus, the policy and regulatory interventions could promote wasteland utilization and lure favorable decision-making on investments.
Artificial intelligent approaches have been considered as the promising techniques to enable smart communications in future wireless networks. In this paper, we investigate the deep learning based resource allocation approach for secure transmission in a simultaneously wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) network. In particular, we design the resource allocations to maximize the minimum achievable secrecy rate of the legitimate user under the constraints of energy harvesting requirements of the energy receivers (ERs). Conventionally, the optimal or suboptimal solutions of resource allocation problems can be obtained by exploiting convex optimization approaches, which are often developed based on iterative algorithms, and always result in long computational time. To satisfy ultra low latency demands and achieve physical layer security for future SWIPT systems, we develop a DNN based approach that has the capability to optimize the power allocations for a SWIPT network, where the computational time and complexity have been significantly cut down. Numerical results are provided to illustrate that the effectiveness of our proposed DNN based approach, which is capable to achieve near optimal secrecy rate performances in comparing with convex optimization approach.
The plastic shrinkage may sometimes cause early age cracking before the setting on the young concrete surface. One of the serious problems in concrete elements especially in structures with large surface area/volume ratios is the shrinkage cracking and it affects the durability of the structure. This paper quantifies the effectiveness of fly ash on reducing plastic shrinkage cracking of self-compacting concrete. The aim of this experimental work was to study the plastic shrinkage evolution in self-compacting concrete (SCC) in which the cement was replaced by fly ash at various percentages of 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45% by weight of cement. The results show that replacing cement by fly ash at higher percentages exhibited a delayed formation in the crack in the concrete and the crack width was reduced at higher dosage of fly ash. The mould based on ASTM C1579 was used to carry out the test. At early ages compressive strength of the SCC mixes was similar to that of the reference mix and the maximum strength was observed for 25% replacement by Fly ash. The test result of normal concrete, SCC with various percentages of fly ash was compared.
Overtaking is one of the major process in the driving operation. This process contributes to the majority of road accidents across the globe. The human behavior during overtaking influence the result of the whole overtaking manoeuvre. Overtaking studies are conducted across the world studying the driver’s nature, overtaking parameters and other processes during an overtaking operation. In India these studies are conducted but is limited to the studies of National highways and major roads. This paper is an investigational study of the overtaking behavior on an undivided state highway. Overtaking involves lane-changings, speeding up and speeding down actions, speed of overtaking and overtaken vehicles, and also, speed and distance of vehicles in the opposite lane. In roads without any barrier or separation for the incoming and ongoing vehicles, the driver will have a tendency to use the opposite lane for the overtaking operation. The study is specifically on the undivided roads in mixed traffic conditions. Moving car method is used for data collection and overtaking parameters along with overtaking types are found out.
The steep increase in the number of motor vehicles on the road is primarily due to the occurrence of traffic problems such as accidents, congestion, and delays, especially in the urban areas of developing countries. In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the various traffic problems and to suggest sustainable traffic management measures in Kathrikadavu, Ernakulam, India. Direct field surveys were used to collect data on traffic level, land use, and pedestrian movement activities. The collected data showed that poor junction planning, shortage of traffic signals, and lack of proper traffic management are the most significant contributors to traffic congestion. Various remedial measures, based on junction enhancement, alternative service plans, and junction signalization along with sustainable measures are proposed as a feasible solution. The efficiency of the mounted signal can be evaluated using microscopic simulation models, PTV VISSIM and VISTRO. The VISSIM software shows how traffic simulation can be used to assess the efficiency and protection of an unsignalized intersection. The models are also able to produce detailed outputs such as queue length, different types of delay in various traffic inputs and time intervals, etc.
X-shaped pipe damper (XPD) is a recently proposed metallic-yielding steel damper which is fabricated from commonly used pipes. This damper is assembled through welding the two oppositely positioned pipe halves to form an x-shaped core and connecting the x-shaped core to side plates with fillet and circumferential welds. The x-shaped pipe damper provides energy dissipation and resistance behaviours through tension brace mechanism. This study examines the effects of x-shaped pipe damper in a single storey frame equipped with XPD of various geometrical properties on chevron brace by static non-linear pushover analysis using ANSYS 19.0 software. The more effective x-shaped pipe damper numbers and its dimensions are determined by comparing with the developed models.
Experiences from past earthquakes show that incorporating shear walls is an effective way in improving a buildings resilience to tolerate seismic activity. To overcome the limitations of conventional RC shear wall, a new resilient hybrid shear wall system with post tensioned tendons and external energy dissipating reinforcements (EEDR) is utilized. Previous research works on shear wall with EDR is limited and this research is intended to fill this gap. The study focuses on evaluating the effect of aspect ratio, post-tensioning force and tendon location on the behaviour of post-tensioned hybrid shear wall with external energy dissipating reinforcements. The scope of effort includes simulating twelve hybrid post-tensioned shear wall with varying aspect ratio, four specimens with varying post-tensioning force and two specimens with varying tendon profile.
Earthquakes are one of the most dangerous disasters which cause severe threats to life and property. Lack of land availability and rising demands for better housing facilities have made vertical construction to gain significant importance. Nowadays, multi-storey buildings are being constructed even in high earthquake prone regions. Conventionally, buildings are made seismic resistant by constructing shear walls or by installing passive energy dissipating devices like dampers. The use of coupled shear wall (CSW) systems instead of conventional shear walls is an innovative technique that aims at enhancing the performance of buildings which are located even in high seismic zones. In the present study, a multi-storey RC building which is symmetrical in plan and having coupled shear wall system was modelled using ETABS software and it was assumed to be located in a region of high seismic activity. Response spectrum analysis was carried out on the building model and the results were compared with seismic responses of the same building having conventional shear walls instead of coupled shear walls. Therefore, improved performance of buildings having CSW systems and the use of such systems for better seismic resistance was understood.
Plastic lumber is a sustainable alternative to lightweight structural wood material which is produced from virgin or recycled plastics. With the use of recycled plastic as the construction material, the amount of plastic waste going into landfills and incineration can be reduced. The raw material used in this study being recycled plastic is available in ample quantities. This paper is intended to propose a sustainable composite beam made with recycled plastic lumber blocks strengthened with cold-formed steel. Cold form steel is widely utilised in the manufacture of lightweight structural elements. Both the material can be used to produce lightweight building elements at a much lower manufacturing cost compared to conventional materials. Plastic lumber beams strengthened internally as well as externally using CFS encasement are statically analysed and optimised. Study of strength characteristics of plastic lumber beams by varying orientations, B/D ratio and thickness of laminates is also conducted. Ultimate load, ultimate displacement, ductility and failure patterns are also computed and analysed using Ansys Workbench 19.0 software. Optimisation of result is obtained by comparing the performance of compsite recycled plastic lumber beams with CFS beam and plastic lumber beam with similar dimensions. This paper proposes an innovative sustainable lightweight composite beam over a short span.
A large amount of energy is dissipated to the structure during a major earthquake causing structural damage to the building. Based on the understanding about seismic activities, the need for seismic energy dissipation has become an important factor in structural engineering. A new vibration system based on seesaw mechanism characteristics and pretension effect is the seesaw energy dissipation system. The system comprises braces, seesaw members, and dampers. The frame moves right and left under a lateral load, and the tensile force generated in the braces is delivered to the seesaw member and the dampers dissipate the energy. As the tensile force occurs in bracing members, the issue of brace buckling problem can be avoided, such that it enables the use of steel rods for bracing members. Long steel rods can be used as bracing between the seesaw members and the moment frame connections, by introducing pretension in rods. This study focuses on the analysis of the seismic performance of the seesaw braced steel structure using different bracing configurations in different seismic zones as per IS code using the SAP 2000. This type of vibration control device provides an alternate solution for typical low rise steel frames with substantial damping and seismic response reduction.
The majority of death and building damages in natural disasters are caused by earthquake. The seismic performance of structure depends on its structural properties and ground motions. An effective lateral load resisting system should be provided in all structures to ensure safety. Recently, a new hysteretic device were developed by researchers known as Crescent Shaped Bracing (CSB) within the frame work of stiffness, strength and ductility design. CSB has a special “ad-hoc” shape which allows to choose lateral stiffness independently from the yield strength of the device. This made CSB as an alternative for the conventional energy dissipating devices. In this study, dynamic response of steel building with crescent shaped bracing system with various angles and configuration were investigated. Nonlinear time history analysis was carried out in ETABS to evaluate the performance based on maximum storey displacement and maximum storey drift.
An event of prolonged shortage in supply of water is called drought. It is considered to be a weather event with severe economic implications after hurricanes. Altered weather patterns, climate change, fluctuating ocean and land temperatures, reduced soil moisture, deforestation, soil degradation and other manmade interventions are the predominant reasons for drought events. This study examines the intensity of drought in Kannur district of Kerala, India. With an increase in population density and improper urbanization activities in place, human interventions are considered to be one of the primary causes of drought events in the district. Uneven rainfall patterns over the past 10 years have helped intensify the scenario for the worst. It eventually leads to decrease in available water which results in disappearance of wetlands, groundwater depletion and impact on water quality. Drought causes significant yield reductions both for rain fed and irrigated crops. Agriculture in Kannur district of Kerala, India is the worst affected by drought events. One of the other primary causes of droughts in Kannur district of Kerala is improper use of available water. Irrigation water is either over supplied or under supplied in most cultivable areas. Our study will focus on identifying such areas by creating a drought intensity map.
Steel beams have been a part of the construction industry since the last decades of the nineteenth century and they have gained importance due to their improved functionality compared to conventional concrete structural elements. Among various types of steel beams corrugated steel beams are special light-weight beams with corrugations at the web portions. Weight reduction aspects of corrugated steel beams aids in considerable savings in cost of structure. Corrugated beams suffer deteriorations mainly due to unexpected excessive loading and exposure to extreme surroundings. Various researches in this field suggest that the strengthening of deteriorated corrugated steel beams can be done by post tensioning techniques in the locations of deterioration. The post tensioning technique is recommended in the areas where damages are mainly due to corrosion. The deteriorations are provided at different locations of the beam. Post tensioning is achieved through reinforcement bars of suitable diameter. The result includes the ultimate load carrying capacity, total deformation, and strain and stress distribution of strengthened beams. The present study focuses on the effect of post tensioning as an innovative strengthening technique for retrofitting the deteriorated corrugated steel beams. Strengthening of corrugated steel beams is expected to increase the ultimate load carrying capacity as well as improve the functional utility and life span of the structure.
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