Aim of the work To screen for the new development of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and anxiety in rheumatic diseases (RDs) patients and control who recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients and methods The study included 200 RDs patients and 100 matched controls with no previous history of FMS and who recovered from COVID-19. The patients’ RDs included rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n = 50), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (n = 50), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) (n = 40) and spondyloarthritis (SpA) (n = 60). The fibromyalgia symptom scale (FS), fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ) and Hamilton Anxiety rating scale were assessed. Results The mean age of patients was 35.9 ± 8.5 years with female: male 2.6:1. Fibromyalgia and anxiety were significantly higher in cases than control (22.5 % vs 12 % and 27 % vs16 %, p = 0.002, p = 0.03 respectively). Hypertension, obesity, anxiety, severe COVID-19, frequency of SLE and SpA were significantly higher in patients with FMS compared to those without (31.1 % vs 11.6 %, 68.9 % vs 21.9 %, 84.4 % vs 10.3 %, 48.9 % vs 16.8 %, 31.1 % vs 23.2 % and 40 % vs 27.1; p = 0.002, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.014, p = 0.004 respectively).Severity of COVID-19, diabetes and anxiety were significant predictors of FMS(β = 1.1, p = 0.007; β = 3.03, p = 0.001 and β = 4.44, p < 0.001 respectively). Fibromyalgia increases with increase anxiety grade; the percentage of fibromyalgia was 4.7 %, 50 %, 90 % and 100 % among patients with no anxiety, mild, moderate, and severe anxiety respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusion Fibromyalgia is common in RDs patients post-COVID-19. Diabetes, COVID-19 infection severity and anxiety predict the risk of developing post-COVID-19 fibromyalgia. Post-COVID-19 fibromyalgia occurred more in hypertensive, obese, anxious and patients with severe COVID infection.
Objectives: Obesity, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance (IR), and hypertriglyceridemia are common features observed in non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). There is a critical medical necessity to find novel therapeutics that can halt the development of NAFLD. Methods: Bombax ceiba Linn. leaf extract was prepared and its phytochemical profile was determined. Standard and high carbohydrate high-fat diets (HCHF) were prepared. Rats were fed HCHF for 18 weeks to induce a non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) model. Forty male rats were divided into control, B. ceiba Linn. leaf extract, NAFL, prophylactic, and treated groups. Serum fasting blood sugar (FBS), insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), intelectin-1 (ITLN1), p38 MAP kinase (MAPK), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were evaluated. Results: Data obtained showed that HCHF-induced NAFL resulting in a significant increase in FBS, serum insulin, HOMA-IR, cholesterol, LDL, TG, ALT, AST, and IL-6 and a significant decrease in serum levels of HDL, ITLN1, p38 MAP kinase, and PPAR-α compared to the control group. The analysis of B. ceiba Linn. leaf extract showed high content of phenol compounds which may cause a significant decrease in the levels of FBS, insulin, HOMA-IR values, lipid profile, and levels of IL-6 while a significant increase in serum levels of LDL, ITLN1, p38 MAP kinase, and PPAR-α compared to the NAFL group. Conclusions: B. ceiba Linn. Leaf extract is a highly protective and promising therapeutic agent against inflammation and oxidative stress in the NAFLD model induced by HCHF.
Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the proficiency of clear aligners (CAs), and to evaluate all aspects of this orthodontic procedure including bleeding on probing (BOP), plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), and probing pocket depth (PD), which all are clinical parameters of gingival inflammation in addition to the pain score. Material and Methods We performed an electronic search in the different databases such as Cochrane CENTRAL for eligible studies, SCOPUS, PubMed, and Web of Science. The quality of the involved trials has been measured according to Cochrane’s risk of bias tool. The following outcomes have been assumed: BOP, PI, GI, probing PD, and pain score. The homogeneous and heterogeneous data have been evaluated using random-effects model and fixed-effects model, consistently. Results Ten clinical trials have been included in the study. The pooled analysis that The CAs has been associated with a significant decrease in the pain score (standardized mean difference = 0.74 [0.46, 1.02]), ( P = 0.0001). No significant variations between post-treatment and pre-treatment group were found regarding plaque index (mean difference [MD] = −0.11 [−0.45, 0.22]), ( P = 0.5), BOP (MD = 0.20 [−0.01, 0.41]), ( P = 0.06), GI (MD = 0.17 [−0.06, 0.40]), ( P = 0.15), and BOP (MD = 0.01 [−0.16, 0.17]), ( P = 0.94). Conclusion Patients treated by CAs showed a noticeable decrease in pain scores. On contrary, there was not any difference between the pre-treatment data and post-treatment data regarding other indices.
ZrS2 is transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) which is believed one of the most talented applicants to fabricate photovoltaics. Therefore, we present here for the first-time numerical simulation of novel inorganic ZrS2/CuO heterojunction solar cells employing SCAPS-1D. The influence of the thickness, carrier concentration, and bandgap for both the window and absorber layers on the solar cell fundamental parameters was explored intensely. Our results reveal that the solar cell devices performance is mainly affected by many parameters such as the depletion width (Wd), built-in voltage (Vbi), collection length of charge carrier, the minority carrier lifetime, photogenerated current, and recombination rate. The η of 23.8% was achieved as the highest value for our simulated devices with the Voc value of 0.96 V, the Jsc value of 34.2 mA/cm², and the FF value of 72.2%. Such efficiency was obtained when the CuO band gap, thickness, and carrier concentration were 1.35 eV, 5.5 µm, and above 10¹⁸ cm⁻³, respectively, and for the ZrS2 were 1.4 eV, 1 µm, and less than 10²⁰ cm⁻³, respectively. Our simulated results indicate that the inorganic ZrS2/CuO heterojunction solar cells are promising to fabricate low-cost, large-scale, and high-efficiency photovoltaic devices.
Background The plethysmography variability index (PVI) is a non-invasive, real-time, and automated parameter for evaluating fluid responsiveness, but it does not reliably predict fluid responsiveness during low tidal volume (VT) ventilation. We hypothesized that in a ‘tidal volume challenge’ with a transient increase in tidal volume from 6 to 8 ml Kg− 1, the changes in PVI could predict fluid responsiveness reliably. Method We performed a prospective interventional study in adult patients undergoing hepatobiliary or pancreatic tumor resections and receiving controlled low VT ventilation. The values for PVI, perfusion index, stroke volume variation, and stroke volume index (SVI) were recorded at baseline VT of 6 ml Kg− 1, 1 min after the VT challenge (8 ml Kg− 1), 1 min after VT 6 ml Kg− 1 reduced back again, and then 5 min after crystalloid fluid bolus 6 ml kg− 1 (actual body weight) administered over 10 min. The fluid responders were identified by SVI rise ≥ 10% after the fluid bolus. Results The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for PVI value change (ΔPVI6–8) after increasing VT from 6 to 8 ml Kg− 1 was 0.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.76–0.96), P < 0.001, 95% sensitivity, 68% specificity, and with best cut-off value of absolute change (ΔPVI6–8) = 2.5%. Conclusion In hepatobiliary and pancreatic surgeries, tidal volume challenge improves the reliability of PVI for predicting fluid responsiveness and changes in PVI values obtained after tidal volume challenge are comparable to the changes in SVI.
Background: Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), commonly known as the silent killer, impacted the severity of COVID-19 patients during the pandemic era. Thrombosis or blood clots create the buildup of plaque on the coronary artery walls of the heart, which leads to coronary heart disease. Cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) is involved in the production of prostacyclin by systemic arteries; hence, inhibiting the COX-1 enzyme can prevent platelet reactivity mediated by prostacyclin. To obtain good health and well-being, the research of discovery of new drugs for anti-thrombotic still continue. Objective: This study aims to predict the potential of 17 compounds owned by the vanillin analog to COX-1 receptor using in silico. Methods: This research employed a molecular docking analysis using Toshiba hardware and AutoDock Tools version 1.5.7, ChemDraw Professional 16.0, Discovery Studio, UCSF Chimera software, SWISSADME and pKCSM, a native ligand from COX- 1 (PDB ID: 1CQE) was validated. Results: The validation result indicated that the RMSD was
Background The thalamus is crucial in the development of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), which could lead to cognitive dysfunctions, according to data from neuropsychology and advanced neuroimaging investigations. This research aimed to measure the metabolic changes in the thalamus and to assess if could be contributed to cognitive impairment in IGE patients. Thirty IGE patients and thirty healthy volunteers with matched ages, genders, and educational levels participated in this cross-sectional case–control research. The IGE patients and controls were evaluated neuropsychologically using Intelligence Quotient (IQ) to assess general cognitive ability, Digit span for attention, Wechsler memory scale (WMS) for verbal memory, cube drawing test for visuospatial memory, Trail making test for executive functions, and Controlled Oral Word Association test (COWAT) for verbal fluency and quantitative multi-voxel MR spectroscopy (MRS) measurements of N -acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), NAA/Cr, NAA/Cho and Cho/Cr ratios at 1.5 T scanner. The voxels were located over the right and left thalamus. Results The IGE patients showed worse cognitive performance in IQ, attention, executive function, and verbal and visuospatial memory domains compared to the controls. The IGE patients exhibited a significantly decrease NAA in the right thalamus ( p = 0.004) and a lower NAA/Cr ratio in the left thalamus ( p = 0.01). the mean thalamus NAA level exhibited a positive correlation with CDT ( r = 0.45, p = P = 0.01), and WMS-R ( r = 0.39, p = 0.03) and a negative correlation with trail-making A test ( r = 0.42, P = 0.01). Conclusions it was concluded that IGE patients exhibited poor cognition which could be attributed to thalamic neurometabolic changes due to impaired thalamic cortical circuits.
Background: Sesbania sesban (L.) Merr. (Family: Fabaceae), commonly known as Egyptian riverhemp, is a well-known plant widely distributed through Egypt, the rest of Africa and Asia. S. sesban leaves have been traditionally used as an anthelmintic, demulcent, purgative, and anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of eczema, in addition to its agricultural uses. Objective: The aim of this review is to present a comprehensive account of the isolated constituents from S. sesban leaves, along with the correlation between those constituents and the reported biological activities. Methods: This search was performed using SciFinder, Google, Google Scholar, and CrossRef websites using the following keywords: “ Sesbania sesban,” “ Sesbania aegyptiaca,” “Egyptian riverhemp,” “phytochemistry,” “phytochemical constituents,” “isolation,” “steroids,” “triterpenoids,” “saponins,” “coumarins,” “lipoidal contents,” “pharmacological properties,” “biological activities,” “therapeutic uses,” and “review.” Results: S. sesban leaves exhibited several therapeutic potentials such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, anthelmintic, molluscicidal, antifertility, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, anticancer, antianxiety, and mosquito repellant properties. An updated chemical study of S. sesban leaves has provided a variety of essential metabolites belonging to different chemical classes including steroids, triterpenoids, saponins, flavonoids, coumarins, lipids, and other miscellaneous compounds. The correlations between biological activities and phytoconstituents are discussed. Conclusion: This article represents an updated comprehensive evaluation of the phytochemical and biological studies of S. sesban leaves.
Photoinduced Electron Transfer (PET) is the most common mechanism proposed to account for quenching of fluorophores. Herein, the intrinsic fluorescence of dapoxetine hydrochloride (DPX) is in the "OFF" state, owed to the deactivation by the effect of PET. When the amine moiety is protonated, the fluorescence is restored. Protonation of the nitrogen atom of the tertiary amine moiety in DPX leads to "ON" state of fluorescence due to hindrance of the deactivating effect of PET by protonation of the amine moiety. This permits specific and sensitive determination of DPX in human plasma (LLOQ= 30.0 ng mL-1 ). The suggested method adopts protonation of DPX using 0.25 M hydrochloric acid in anionic micelles (6.94 mM SDS) leads to a marked enhancement of DPX-fluorescence, after excitation at 290 nm.
This paper aims to perform metric measurements of narrow street façades using single image captured by smartphone’s camera. Since tight area accompanied by narrow street limits object to camera distance, object lines perpendicular to façade do not appear in image and consequently their vanishing point (VP) is hard to detect. Accordingly, semi-automated MATLAB® application was designed depending only on two orthogonal VPs. Novelty of work comes from using smartphone as a cost and time efficient tool for measurements, depending only on two VPs, and applying image line refinement approach exploiting detected VPs. Three single images were captured by three different smartphones. Then, undistorted single images were formed after calibrating cameras. Image lines for horizontal and vertical object lines were extracted semi-automatically. Two VPs were detected applying two models: Model-I solves for vanishing points’ Cartesian coordinates, whereas Model-II solves for angle coordinate peaks of histogram. Image line refinement approach was applied before applying cross-ratio using one horizontal and one vertical reference lines to calculate object lengths of 46 check lines (horizontal and vertical). Proposed models provided reliable and comparable results. Applying line refinement approach improved solution with best overall accuracy of 0.010 m and 0.011 m for Model-I and Model-II, respectively.
This study aimed to evaluate impacts of dietary probiotics (Bacillus subtilis PB6) and humate substances (HS) supplementation on histomorphometry of small intestine and immune organs, blood parameters of growing quail. A total of 216 unsexed quails (seven days old) were randomly distributed to six groups. The 1st group did not receive any supplements (control), 2nd group received B. subtilis (CloSTAT: 0.5 g/kg diet), 3rd and 4th groups received HS (4 and 8 g/kg diet, respectively), 5th and 6th groups received CloSTAT + 4g HS and CloSTAT + 8g HS, respectively. Results showed that the inclusion of B. subtilis alone in quail diets significantly improved histomorphometry indices of intestine and immune organs compared to the control. Dietary supplementation of HS alone led to deteriorating histomorphometry indices of intestinal segments and immune organs compared to the control. CloSTAT, HS or both improved lipid profile and antioxidant parameters. Serum mineral levels did not differ significantly among groups except for Ca levels. In conclusion, dietary probiotics supplementation enhanced histomorphometry of intestine and immune organs and improved serum Ca, lipid profile and antioxidant indices. Moreover, the addition of HS (4 or 8 g/kg diet) improved lipid profile and antioxidant indices, but led to undesirable results in intestinal development and immune organs.
Infertility is the inability to conceive after one year of regular unprotected intercourse. There is a debate about the therapeutic effect of hysterosalpingography (HSG) and whether the selection of contrast materials makes a difference in the chance of subsequent conception. In this study, we aimed to compare the fertility-enhancing outcomes and adverse effects of oil and water-based contrasts in patients who underwent HSG. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. We searched the Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus until September 2022. We included all primary randomized controlled trials evaluating the fertility-enhancing benefits of HSG in oil-based versus water-based contrast media in women of childbearing age with infertility. Eleven studies with 4,739 patients were selected. The pregnancy rate in the oil group was significantly higher than that in the water group [odds ratio (OR)=1.51 (1.23, 1.86), p<0.0001]. Our meta-analysis favored the oil group in abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding with the odd ratios of 0.73 (0.58, 0.91), (p=0.006) and 0.91 (0.46, 1.81), (p=0.79), respectively. Water-based contrast was associated with less intravasation [OR=2.09 (1.09-4.02), p=0.03]. There were no differences between the contrasts for miscarriage [OR=1.02 (0.71, 1.46), p=0.92], and ectopic pregnancy [OR=0.84 (0.27, 2.63), p=0.77]. HSG with oil-based contrast was related to a higher pregnancy rate, live birth rate, and intravasation rate. While HSG using a water-based contrast medium was associated with increased abdominal discomfort, vaginal bleeding, and the visual-analogue scale pain score. Keywords: Hysterosalpingography, infertility, contrast media, pregnancy outcome
Microorganisms still remain the main hotspots in the global drug discovery avenue. In particular, fungi are highly prolific producers of vast structurally diverse specialised secondary metabolites, which have displayed a myriad of biomedical potentials. Intriguingly, isocoumarins is one distinctive class of fungal natural products polyketides, which demonstrated numerous remarkable biological and pharmacological activities. This review article provides a comprehensive state-of-the-art over the period 2000–2022 about the discovery, isolation, classifications, and therapeutic potentials of isocoumarins exclusively reported from fungi. Indeed, a comprehensive list of 351 structurally diverse isocoumarins were documented and classified according to their fungal sources [16 order/28 family/55 genera] where they have been originally discovered along with their reported pharmacological activities wherever applicable. Also, recent insights around their proposed and experimentally proven biosynthetic pathways are also briefly discussed
Animal Biotechnology ISSN: (Print) ( Hematology profile, digestive enzymes, thyroid hormones, productivity, and nitrogen balance of growing male rabbits supplemented with exogenous dietary lysozyme Hematology profile, digestive enzymes, thyroid hormones, productivity, and nitrogen balance of growing male rabbits supplemented with exogenous dietary lysozyme
In a simple randomized design trial, 420 growing male V-Line rabbits were randomly distributed into four groups to investigate the impact of exogenous dietary lysozyme on some physiological and nutritional parameters of male growing rabbits supplemented with exogenous dietary lysozyme. The witness group received a basal diet without exogenous dietary lysozyme (LYZ0), while the exogenous dietary lysozyme groups received 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg of basal diet (Groups; LYZ50, LYZ100 and LYZ150), respectively. The results showed significantly increased in blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell, lipase, protease, amylase, total protein, triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels, while thyroid stimulating hormone levels significantly lessened in rabbits received LYZ. The LYZ-rabbit diets improved total digestible nutrient, digestible crude protein, and digestible energy values, with the LYZ100 group outperforming the others. LYZ-treated rabbits had significantly higher nitrogen intake, digestible nitrogen, and nitrogen balance than the witness group. The lysozyme in a rabbit's diet is taking on a new role as a digestive enzyme, enhancement thyroid hormones, as well as improvement hematology, daily protein efficiency ratio, daily performance index, hot carcass, total edible parts, nutritional value, and nitrogen balance, with decreasing the daily caloric conversion ratio and total non-edible parts.
Researchers are increasingly coming up with creative solutions to reduce fuel consumption and harmful emissions due to the political unrest around crude oil and harsher environmental legislation around the globe. Using gasoline and ethanol blends as substitutes in SI engines is thought to be a promising approach. To lower the cost of experimental test, it is still necessary to provide a model to explore the emissions, performance and combustion of ethanol mixtures in petrol engine under various operating situations. A comprehensive quasi dimensional two zone model was used. This mathematical model could predict and analyze the engine combustion, emissions and performance parameters using MATLAB. The thermal efficiency was improved for E20 by 3%. Ethanol addition decreased SFC value by average 7.2% for E20 with respect to gasoline. In comparison to gasoline, the increases in output power were 1.1%, 3%, 4%, and 5.5% are obtained with E5, E10, E15, and E20. and 45% The highest increases in peak cylinder pressure and cylinder temperature for E20 about gasoline are 14 and 11%, respectively about gasoline. At 2500 rpm, the greatest percentage declines in NOx, CO, and HC emissions for E20 are 3.3, 23.5 and 45% about gasoline. The results of comparing the mathematical model’s validity to those acquired from experimental data and diesel RK software demonstrate that the MATLAB code is appropriate. The mathematical model proved that ethanol blending can be used up to 20% as alternative fuels to improve the gasoline engine performance, combustion and emissions.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the differential impact of various COVID-19 stressors (economic, infection fears, grief, and lockdown stressors) and their cumulative impact on peri-post-COVID-19 syndrome. Peri-post-COVID-19 syndrome (PPCS) is a mental health and cognitive syndrome associated with chronic traumatic stress, particularly COVID-19. The sample consisted of 490 Kuwaiti citizens aged 18–60 years ( M = 24.97, SD = 9.10), with 66.3% being female. Data were collected from October 2021 to January 2022. We assessed how individuals felt about COVID-19 stressors, cumulative traumatic events and stressors, complex PTSD (CPTSD), PTSD, anxiety, depression, and executive functions. A structural equation was used to test the differential and cumulative impact of COVID-19 stressors. COVID-19 cumulative stressors, especially lockdown, had the strongest correlation with CPTSD. The highest variance was accounted for by lockdown stressors ( R ² = .752). COVID-19 cumulative stressors had a medium-to-large effect on PPCS. In the affluent Kuwaiti context, lockdown stressors appear to have a greater impact on mental health and executive dysfunction than other COVID-19 stressors. In the PPCS, CPTSD appears to be the most robust outcome variable. Conceptually, the study provided preliminary evidence of the PPCS and associated cognitive deficits as powerful drivers for COVID-19 and of continuous/prolonged traumatic stress for COVID-19. The study highlighted the need for innovation in developing multiparameter intervention strategies with a pericognitive and cognitive training component to address the multiple impacts of the pandemic.
While upper limb lymphoedema following breast and axillary surgery is well established in the literature, breast lymphoedema is rarely documented. Our primary objective was to identify risk factors of breast lymphoedema, and our secondary aim was to assess the possibility of using a breast ultrasound scan to assess breast lymphoedema. This study was a case series analysis, including patients who had wide local excision for primary breast cancer treatment between January 2013 and January 2018. Patients’ demographics, including age, weight, body mass index (BMI), breast volume, tumour characteristics, and histological findings, were noted. All patients had a clinical assessment and ultrasound scan 6 months and 12 months after surgery, comparing ipsilateral to the contralateral breast skin, subcutaneous thickness, as well as parenchymal changes. We have included two hundred eighty-six breast cancer; the mean age was 54.7 years SD 17.3, the mean weight was 76.5 kg SD 12.6, the mean BMI was 31.5 SD 5.2, and the mean breast volume was 1223 ml SD 179. This study identified breast lymphoedema in patients with clinically detected skin oedema in the absence of radiotherapy skin changes; skin and subcutaneous 5 mm added thickness more than the contralateral side, and based on that, 22 patients (7.7%) were found to have breast lymphoedema. We have also found that patients with high BMI, larger breast volume, upper outer quadrant tumours, and patients who had axillary lymph node clearance had an increased incidence of breast lymphoedema. The incidence of breast lymphoedema in this cohort was 7.7%. We suggest that breast lymphoedema should be considered if skin and subcutaneous thickness are 5 mm more than the contralateral side in the absence of severe radiotherapy skin changes. Also, we have found that high body mass index (BMI), larger breast volume, upper outer quadrant tumours, and patients who had axillary lymph node clearance are associated with an increased incidence of breast lymphoedema.
Background: Health authorities have struggled to increase vaccination uptake since the COVID-19 vaccines became available. However, there have been increasing concerns about declining immunity after the initial COVID-19 vaccination with the emergence of new variants. Booster doses were implemented as a complementary policy to increase protection against COVID-19. Egyptian hemodialysis (HD) patients have shown a high rate of hesitancy to COVID-19 primary vaccination, yet their willingness to receive booster doses is unknown. This study aimed to assess COVID-19 vaccine booster hesitancy and its associated factors in Egyptian HD patients. Methods: A face-to-face interview was conducted with closed-ended questionnaires distributed to healthcare workers in seven Egyptian HD centers, mainly located in three Egyptian governorates, between the 7th of March and the 7th of April 2022. Results: Among 691 chronic HD patients, 49.3% (n = 341) were willing to take the booster dose. The main reason for booster hesitancy was the opinion that a booster dose is unnecessary (n = 83, 44.9%). Booster vaccine hesitancy was associated with female gender, younger age, being single, Alexandria and urban residency, the use of a tunneled dialysis catheter, not being fully vaccinated against COVID-19. Odds of booster hesitancy were higher among participants who did not receive full COVID-19 vaccination and among those who were not planning to take the influenza vaccine (10.8 and 4.2, respectively). Conclusion: COVID-19 booster-dose hesitancy among HD patients in Egypt represents a major concern, is associated with vaccine hesitancy with respect to other vaccines and emphasizes the need to develop effective strategies to increase vaccine uptake.
Plants of the genus Tylophora have commonly been used in traditional medicine in various communities, especially in the tropical and subtropical regions of climatic zones. Of the nearly 300 species reported in the Tylophora genus, eight are primarily used in various forms to treat a variety of bodily disorders based on the symptoms. Certain plants from the genus have found use as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-allergic, anti-microbial, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, anti-oxidant, smooth muscle relaxant, immunomodulatory, and anti-plasmodium agents, as well as free-radical scavengers. Pharmacologically, a few plant species from the genus have exhibited broad-spectrum anti-microbial and anti-cancer activity, which has been proven through experimental evaluations. Some of the plants in the genus have also helped in alcohol-induced anxiety amelioration and myocardial damage repair. The plants belonging to the genus have also shown diuretic, anti-asthmatic, and hepato-protective activities. Tylophora plants have afforded diverse structural bases for secondary metabolites, mainly belonging to phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids, which have been found to treat several diseases with promising pharmacological activity levels. This review encompasses information on various Tylophora species, their distribution, corresponding plant synonyms, and chemical diversity of the secondary metabolic phytochemicals as reported in the literature, together with their prominent biological activities.
Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are global environmental pollutants. In this study, Nostoc sp. MK-11 was used as an environmentally safe, economical, and efficient biosorbent for the removal of Cd and Pb ions from synthetic aqueous solutions. Nostoc sp. MK-11 was identified on a morphological and molecular basis using light microscopic, 16S rRNA sequences and phylogenetic analysis. Batch experiments were performed to determine the most significant factors for the removal of Cd and Pb ions from the synthetic aqueous solutions using dry Nostoc sp. MK1 biomass. The results indicated that the maximum biosorption of Pb and Cd ions was found under the conditions of 1 g of dry Nostoc sp. MK-11 biomass, 100 mg/L of initial metal concentrations, and 60 min contact time at pH 4 and 5 for Pb and Cd, respectively. Dry Nostoc sp. MK-11 biomass samples before and after biosorption were characterized using FTIR and SEM. A kinetic study showed that a pseudo second order kinetic model was well fitted rather than the pseudo first order. Three isotherm models Freundlich, Langmuir, and Temkin were used to explain the biosorption isotherms of metal ions by Nostoc sp. MK-11 dry biomass. Langmuir isotherm, which explains the existence of monolayer adsorption, fitted well to the biosorption process. Considering the Langmuir isotherm model, the maximum biosorption capacity (q max) of Nostoc sp. MK-11 dry biomass was calculated as 75.757 and 83.963 mg g −1 for Cd and Pb, respectively, which showed agreement with the obtained experimental values. Desorption investigations were carried out to evaluate the reusability of the biomass and the recovery of the metal ions. It was found that the desorption of Cd and Pb was above 90%. The dry biomass of Nostoc sp. MK-11 was proven to be efficient and cost-effective for removing Cd and especially Pb metal ions from the aqueous solutions, and the process is eco-friendly, feasible, and reliable.
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Fayoum - Fayoum University - Faculty of Medicine, Biochemistry Department, 63514, Al Fayyūm, Al Fayoum, Egypt
Head of institution
Prof . Amr Zahra