Learning macronutrient assessment skills can support improved health outcomes and overall wellbeing. We conducted two Mechanical Turk studies to investigate how users might benefit from the crowd's input in macronutrient assessment education. We first determined whether the wisdom of the crowd alone would provide users with enough insight to arrive at accurate macronutrient estimates. Next, we tested two methods of teaching macronutrient assessment skills (Comparison and Decomposition) and analyzed their effectiveness. Results from these studies indicate that while the crowd alone may not be sufficient to support this type of education, users may yet benefit from access to community-generated photos and labels while they use either the Comparison or Decomposition strategy.
This study examined the use of 3D garment prototyping technology as a remote learning facilitator to create new instructional designs for a product development course. The new instructional designs in a flipped learning approach for the remote, synchronous computer-aided fashion product development course was created, implemented, and evaluated within the Addie framework at one of the largest fashion colleges in the U.S. The students’ submitted final semester projects demonstrated that the new instructional designs were effective for the students’ synchronous remote learning achievement at a high level. The students had an enormous experiential learning experience from the instructor-student collaborative 3D avatar fashion show promoted on the college website and social media. The outcomes of this research can be used as a toolkit to create a new instructional design using a 3D prototyping technology as a learning facilitation tool in a synchronous remote classroom. More research must be conducted to focus on challenges in helping all students adapt to novel online learning environments. The current study must be further expanded to determine the use of other 3D prototyping technologies in different remote courses across disciplines.
Fabric waste has become an escalating problem that stems from the ever-shortening clothing lifecycle. Previous cotton recycling processes used mechanical methods to break the cotton down into fiber; this comes at the cost of compromised strength. Sodium hydroxide has long been used in the textile industry to increase dye absorption and luster through mercerization. In this paper, the deweaving of cotton muslin fabric was attempted using the chemical interactions of NaOH in combination with heat and mechanical forces through agitation. Different NaOH concentrations were tested to determine the optimum condition for fabric decomposition on a laboratory scale. Overall, the muslin fabric treatment with 0.5 M NaOH yielded the most promising results for fiber quality retention and chemical usage. The NaOH solution was shown to be feasible in effectively deweaving multiple muslin fabrics consecutively. While the deweaving process reduces the mechanical strength of the fabric, overall, the recycling method was successful in minimizing chemical waste and deweaving time.
A convolutional neural network (CNN) is a machine learning method under supervised learning. It not only has the advantages of high fault tolerance and self-learning ability of other traditional neural networks but also has the advantages of weight sharing, automatic feature extraction, and the combination of the input image and network. It avoids the process of data reconstruction and feature extraction in traditional recognition algorithms. For example, as an unsupervised generation model, the convolutional confidence network (CCN) generated by the combination of convolutional neural network and confidence network has been successfully applied to face feature extraction.
The purpose of this research is to solve the problems in the modern life, such as the inconvenience caused by fast life pace, the need to save time, the unsatisfactory products for consumers, the low brand awareness in the clothing industry, serious product homogenisation and low life quality. The study of the application of hierarchical perception technology in 3D (three‐dimensional) clothing designs is carried out based on CNN (convolutional neural networks). The study includes the training of CNN, the selection of 3D clothing models and 2D (two‐dimensional) projection of 3D human body models. A simulation experiment is conducted by taking 49‐year‐old males, 22‐year‐old males and 50‐year‐old females as research objects. The findings show that the training network can effectively identify the typical lines of the human's hindneck, chest, shoulders, and waist, and the accuracy of the front and side recognition of the human body can be reached as high as 93% on average. The effective identification of human characteristics is achieved. The study has an important impact on the technical field and clothing industry and also has profound theoretical and practical significance.
Fabric-based flexible sensors prepared from carbon materials as conductive media have promising prospects in human motion detection, gesture recognition, and telemedicine services. Their electro-mechanical properties are influenced by the microscopic nanostructure of the carbon material and the type of fabric substrate. However, choosing suitable carbon materials to fabricate strain sensors for joint movement monitoring has received little attention. In this work, we selected cotton knitted fabrics (CKF) with structures of plain, 1 × 1 rib and 2 × 2 rib as a flexible substrate and reduced graphene oxide (rGO), carboxylic multi-wall carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNTs), and carbon black (CB) as the conductive medium using a scalable impregnation method to prepare rGO/CKF, c-MWCNTs/CKF, and CB/CKF sensors respectively. The electro-mechanical characteristics of the three-carbon material decorated fabric sensors were investigated and compared. The different structures’ knitted fabric sensors showed a bimodal curve under the stretch-release cycle at large elongation. The resistance models were developed to explain the bimodal phenomenon. Among three carbon materials, the fabric sensor made by graphene as a conductive material has the best electro-mechanical property. The rGO/CKF sensors showed highly stretchable and durable performance for joint activity monitoring, capable of being applied in smart clothes. Graphical abstract
Real-time reliability allocation of communication channels is carried out in the environment of limited bandwidth and strong interference, so as to improve the anti-interference ability and communication quality of data transmission in WSNs of smart campus communication in colleges and universities. A real-time adaptive allocation algorithm of data transmission bandwidth in WSNs of smart campus communication in colleges and universities based on Porter’s interval equalization and channel error compensation is proposed. We construct the data transmission channel model of WSNs of smart campus communication in colleges and universities, carry out the optimal distribution interval balance control of the data time series of smart campus communication network according to the attenuation of the data transmission bandwidth of the communication network, adopt the band-limited multipath channel balance control method to suppress the interference in the data transmission channel of smart campus communication WSNs in colleges and universities, and realize the frequency spectrum suppression of data transmission of smart campus communication WSNs in colleges and universities. Time-varying channel and delay spread equalization method are adopted for channel equalization scheduling, and combined with channel error compensation, real-time adaptive allocation of data transmission bandwidth in WSNs of smart campus communication in colleges and universities is realized. The simulation results show that the reliability of data transmission bandwidth allocation in WSNs for smart campus communication in colleges and universities is good, the real-time channel allocation ability and channel balance are improved, the error rate of data transmission in smart campus communication network in colleges and universities is low, and the data transmission quality of smart campus communication network in colleges and universities is improved.
People’s research on nanocrystals is getting more in-depth with the development of science and technology, and the patterned arrangement of nanocrystals can greatly improve the performance of our equipment in related fields, allowing people to control the patterning of nanocrystals. Research on thermal transfer is also increasing. Glass materials doped with patterned metal nanocrystals have great application potential, and the search for a simple and efficient patterned preparation method has attracted great attention of many researchers. Using the directional induced migration effect of the high temperature and high voltage DC electric field, combined with the subsequent heat treatment process, the distribution of silver nanocrystals corresponding to the surface silver film pattern can be formed in the silicate glass substrate, to realize the electric field-induced thermal transfer of the nanocrystal pattern print. This article aims to study the patterned thermal transfer of silver ions and nanocrystals on the glass substrate by applying an electric field to induce and analyze the ink absorption layer structure and printing performance. On this basis, an electron beam-induced thermal transfer method and Maxwell’s equation are proposed to investigate and calculate the structure of the ink absorption layer. The experimental structure shows that using this method increases the success rate of the preparation of silver ions and nanocrystal patterns on the glass substrate by 30%, which improves the ink absorption layer and printing performance to different degrees.
Because the traditional virtual design \method of customized clothing has the problems of poor matching between the designed clothing and the user’s body shape and long design time, a virtual design method of customized clothing based on a three-dimensional image is proposed. Through the way of camera imaging, the three-dimensional human model is established by the linear regression method, and the three-dimensional point cloud image of the human body is obtained. The three-dimensional human key points are extracted by shoulder point extraction, neck point extraction, elbow point extraction, and crotch bottom point extraction. According to the key point extraction results, the customized clothing is registered with the three-dimensional human model. The simulation results show that the proposed method has good matching with the user’s body shape and short design time.
The development of abundant, high-performance electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reactions (OER) is an ongoing challenge to renewable energy. Herein, we rationally synthesized a manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) doped Ni2P nanosheet (MnFe-Ni2P) as a highly efficient electrocatalyst for OER in alkaline solution by a simple hydrothermal method and phosphorylation. The bimetal-doped phosphide nanosheets are directly grown on the conductive nickel foam (NF) to form a 3D structure which facilitates to expose active sites as much as possible. Due to the electron interaction between the Mn, Fe and Ni, which contributes to ion diffusion and gas release, trimetallic MnFe-Ni2P/NF delivers an extremely low overpotential of 220 mV at 10 mA cm⁻² and a small Tafel slope of 53 mV dec⁻¹ in alkaline electrolyte towards OER. Furthermore, the excellent stability of MnFe-Ni2P/NF lasts for at least 24 h at a high current density of 50 mA cm⁻² without much deviation. We demonstrate that the trimetallic MnFe-Ni2P/NF benefits from the doping of Mn, Fe elements and the unique flower-like structure, exhibits more effective electrocatalytic activity compare to conventional noble metal catalysts and Ni2P series materials.
In order to solve the problem of fat metabolism and weight loss of college students, this paper puts forward a problem of the influence of sports energy drinks. Energy drink is a combination of sports drinks, energy drinks, and other special functional drinks (such as nutrient drinks with added vitamins and minerals; herbal drinks with Chinese herbal ingredients), a general term for a large category of drinks that provide specific health and nutritional functions for special groups of people. With the continuous improvement of people's consumption level and their constant attention to their own health, the consumption of energy drinks is also increasing. Energy drinks have become a new generation of drinks after carbonated drinks, drinking water, fruit and vegetable juice, and tea. At present, the total annual output of beverages in the world exceeds 300 billion liters, and functional beverages have become the fastest growing beverage varieties. Fat is the main energy supply material for endurance sports. The catabolism of fat during sports is the key link for the body to obtain energy. For the general population, abnormal fat metabolism is the main cause of obesity. In this paper, 10 healthy male and female college students without training experience were used to determine the maximum fat metabolism intensity FATmax. Based on this, the exercise prescription of maximum fat oxidation intensity for 8 weeks was formulated. The functional ability, maximum oxygen uptake, body fat percentage, quiet heart rate, blood pressure, and vital capacity before and after the experiment were measured to observe the exercise effect. The fitness effect of maximum fat metabolism intensity was studied to provide theoretical support for college students’ fitness exercise. The study found that there was no significant difference between boys and girls in the maximum fat oxidation rate and FATmax, and girls’ E. C. and running speed corresponding to FATmax were significantly lower than those of boys. After 8 weeks of exercise prescription exercise of maximum fat metabolism intensity, the E. C. and maximum oxygen uptake of boys and girls increased significantly; quiet heart rate, vital capacity index, and body fat percentage were significantly improved; and the changes in girls were more significant than boys. The results show that there is no gender difference in FATmax. The corresponding exercise intensity (7.22 METs for boys and 5.25 METs for girls) and running speed (9.73 km/h for boys and 8.65 km/h for girls) can be used as a reference for formulating college students’ fitness exercise prescriptions. The fitness exercise prescription based on FATmax can improve cardiopulmonary function and body composition, especially for girls. FATmax can be used as a reference standard for formulating fitness exercise prescriptions.
With social progress, economic development, the rapid improvement of science, technology and productivity, and the profound change of social productivity, there has been a serious energy and environmental crisis all over the world. By using the candle burning effect of laser, the laser cleaning device can directly absorb the laser energy, vaporize and decompose the pollutants on the surface of clothing materials, so as to achieve the purpose of cleaning. Energy is an important material basis for human survival and development. Stable, reliable and safe energy supply system and efficient, economic and clean energy utilization are indispensable. The prediction of the development trend of solar power generation technology shows that the trend of optical fiber power generation is clear. The combination of sustainable power and laser water washing device is applied to the garment cleaning process. It analyzes that the garment materials are affected by the laser cleaning speed and laser cleaning power in the cleaning process, and adjusts the appropriate parameters to achieve effective cleaning. The application of sustainable power generated by photovoltaic power generation to the actual process of clothing can not only reduce the consumption of natural resources, environmental pollution and other problems, but also be applied to clothing and other manufacturing industries without restrictions. In the era of sustainable development, energy plays an important role in the coordinated development of economy, society and environment. When the carbon fiber surface is cleaned by laser, the relationship between cleaning spacing, cleaning speed, cleaning area and cleaning time is conducive to formulate a reasonable cleaning scheme. According to the experimental research, when the power P = 100 W, the carbon fiber surface is cleaned of particulate matter, and the laser-cleaned surface is in better condition than when it is treated at high temperatures.
Augmented reality- (AR-) based interventions have shown potential benefits for lower limb rehabilitation. However, current literature has not revealed these benefits as a whole. The main purposes of this systematic review were to determine the efficacy of AR-based interventions on lower limb recovery of the larger population based on the current process that has been made in this regard. Relevant studies were retrieved from five electronic databases (Web of Science, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Cochrane Library) using “augmented reality” OR “AR” AND “lower limb” OR “lower extremity” AND “intervention” OR “treatment”. Sixteen studies that met the eligibility criteria were included in this review, and they were further grouped into three categories based on the participant types. Seven studies focused on the elderly adults, six on the stroke patients, and the last three on Parkinson patients. Based on the findings of these trials, the significant effects of AR-based interventions on lower limb rehabilitation (i.e., balance, gait, muscle, physical performance, and fall efficacy) have been initially confirmed. Favorable results were achieved at least the same as the interventions without AR except for the turning and timing in the freezing of gait of Parkinson patients. However, given the infancy of this technology in clinical practices, more robust trials with larger sample sizes and greater homogeneity in terms of devices and treatment settings are warranted for further verification.
In recent years, with the progress and development of social science and technology, remote monitoring of Internet of Things systems has attracted more and more attention. The remote monitoring system is mainly a network system with convenient layout, simple maintenance, and high security performance built on the basis of the wireless network, which can realize real-time monitoring, and collects transmit information. It is mostly used in remote monitoring of room temperature, remote monitoring of intelligent furniture, engineering construction, and teaching. Communication technology dominates the operation of remote monitoring systems. With the introduction of 5G technology, mobile Internet technology has been pushed to the top of technology again. Using 5G mobile communication technology in the monitoring system, people can observe or operate the monitored things at any time. The sensor is an indispensable component of the remote monitoring system, and a new type of optical fiber is added to the sensor to make the system function more complete. However, the related technology is not very mature, and the research on remote monitoring system is relatively backward in China. Relevant studies have found that when the remaining energy of the information node in the remote monitoring system reaches 10%, the information node will die and the speed of information transmission will decrease. Therefore, adding new technologies is conducive to improving the performance of remote monitoring systems.
Many schools do not require business students to take a Principles of Management course, even though the four management principles of planning, organizing, leading and controlling purport to anchor the discipline and are the framework for popular Principles texts. Based on guidance from other curricular research (Aasheim, Williams, Rutner, & Gardiner, 2015; Kung, Yang, & Zhang, 2006; Mishra, Day, Littles, & Vandewalker, 2011), this study investigated the management courses required of all business majors at 114 AACSB-accredited schools in the United States. Results showed that less than half required Principles of Management, with many choosing instead to require a course focused on people management (e.g., Organizational Behavior). Disagreement over the core aims of the required management course for all business majors leaves gaps in their education. Given our findings, we suggest goals for organizing a management course to reflect the full spectrum of what the job of manager entails.
The production, use, and disposal of synthetic textiles potentially release a significant amount of microfibers into the environment. Studies performed on municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) effluent reported a higher presence of microfibers due to the mix of domestic laundry effluent through sewage. As municipal WWTPs receive influents from households and industries, it serves as a sink for the microfibers. However, research on textile industry WWTPs that primarily treat the textile fabric processing wastewater was not explored with the concern of microfibers. Hence, the review aims to analyze the existing literature and enlighten the impact of WWTPs on microplastic emission into the environment by specifically addressing textile industry WWTPs. The results of the review confirmed that even after 95–99% removal, municipal WWTPs can emit around 160 million microplastics per day into the environment. Microfiber was the dominant shape identified by the review. The average microfiber contamination in the WWTP sludge was estimated as 200 microfibers per gram of sludge. As far as the industry-specific effluents are analyzed, textile wet processing industries effluents contained > 1000 times higher microfibers than municipal WWTP. Despite few existing studies on textile industry effluent, the review demonstrates that, so far, no studies were performed on the sludge obtained from WWTPs that handle textile industry effluents alone. Review results pointed out that more attention should be needed to the textile wastewater research which is addressing the textile wet processing industry WWTPs. Moreover, the sludge released from these WWTPs should be considered as an important source of microfiber as they contain more quantity of microfibers than the effluent, and also, their routes to the environment are huge and easy.
Synthetic textile materials are noted as one of the major contributors to microfiber release from household laundry. The higher usage of synthetic textiles was noted as one of the major reasons for the leaching of microfibers into the aquatic system. Though few laundry aids are available to control the release of microfiber from laundry, no successful methods were developed to control it in the fabric itself. Hence, this research aimed to analyze the effectiveness of surface modification of polyester fabric using lipase enzyme and its impact on microfiber shedding. Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array was adopted to optimize the enzyme treatment process parameters to reduce microfiber shedding. The results showed that enzyme concentration was the major influencing factor with a contribution of 35.56%, followed by treatment pH (35.247%), treatment time (17.46%), and treatment temperature (11.74%). The optimization with S/N ratio showed minimum microfiber shedding at an enzyme concentration of 0.5 gram per liter (gpl), treatment temperature of 55°C, 6.5 pH, and a treatment time of 45 minutes. Knitted polyester fabric treated with the optimized enzyme treatment condition showed a significant reduction (p<0.05) in microfiber shedding (count—79.11% and mass—85.68%). The surface changes and the interaction of the enzyme on the fabric were confirmed by hydrolytic activity and FTIR analysis. The optimized treatment on different knit structures and fabric with different grams per square meter (GSM) indicated the versatility of the treatment irrespective of fabric parameters. The repeated laundry process (20 washing cycles) showed that the enzyme-treated samples had a significant level (p<0.05) of reduction in shedding than the control sample. The difference in shedding after 20 washes supports the efficiency and longevity of the enzyme treatment process in reducing microfiber shedding.
Graphene oxide nanosheets are nanomaterials with a layered structure, which have good thermal conductivity and heat dissipation. This article aims to integrate it into clothing design to alleviate the existing contradictions in the development of the clothing market. In this article, an overview of clothing design is firstly suggested, and then the structure and properties of graphene oxide nanosheets are expounded. A comparative test was carried out in terms of style and mechanical properties. The results showed that the thermal conductivity of graphene oxide clothing materials was maintained at a maximum of about 37.8°C, and the heat dissipation performance could be maintained at a minimum of about 27.1°C, which fully verified its operability. Popularizing it in the current stage of clothing design can effectively improve the performance and comfort of clothing.
Bio-based materials have attracted ample research interest due to their intrinsic beneficial impact on human society. Microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) extracted from a variety of bioresources is one of the most prominent candidate in this regard. Herein, the MCC was synthesized from jute fiber by a facile ammonium persulfate (APS) oxidation method resulting in carboxylic functional groups on the fiber surface. The carboxylated MCC was utilized to develop polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) composite films in a solution casting method. The surface chemistry, thermal properties, and surface morphology of MCC and MCC-PVA composite films were studied by FT-IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The SEM images confirmed the rod-like MCC with average particle diameter 4.6 μm and length in 48.4 μm. The FT-IR spectroscopy suggested the complete removal of lignin and hemicellulose from jute fiber. A peak at 1730 cm ⁻¹ was introduced in MCC due to oxidation with APS. The MCC was readily dispersible in water, and chemical interaction with –OH group of PVA was spontaneous due to the carboxylation in MCC. The absorption peak of –OH groups in MCC-PVA composite films were shifted, somewhat disappeared and weakened due to the intra and intermolecular hydrogen bonding of MCC and OH groups in PVA. Thermogravimetric analysis expressed the thermal behavior of MCC and MCC-PVA composite films. The char formation at 500°C of the two different composite films was 15% and 16%, respectively. The stability of MCC-PVA composite films at elevated temperatures is the indication of potential application as flame retardant material.
With the vigorous development of college informatization construction, many colleges and universities have established and applied digital campus platforms. The main research of this paper is the construction and application of the school-based platform of university network education based on smart campus data platform architecture. This article conducts interviews and classroom observations with teachers of different teaching ages. The construction of school-based curriculum system is reflected in the text as the school’s curriculum plan. The average test score of the experimental class is 7.94 points higher than the average score of the control class, which shows that the test score of the experimental class is higher than that of the control class. The experimental data show that the school-based platform of college network education based on the smart campus data platform architecture can effectively improve the learning effect of students, and popularizing it in the construction of the existing school-based network education platform can promote the in-depth development of smart education.
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