Fairleigh Dickinson University
  • Teaneck, New Yersey, United States
Recent publications
Pressures to maximize survey space or mitigate respondent fatigue can lead researchers to employ abbreviated during data collection. This is problematic because short-form measures can suffer from reduced reliability and validity. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to determine whether the use of brief measures of the Big Five in business research tends to produce psychometrically sound and criterion-valid results. We compared scale internal consistencies and effect size estimates from our study with meta-analytic estimates for long measures of the Big Five, as established in the literature. Our results indicated that, in general, internal consistency estimates were not substantively different. However, the criterion-related validity comparisons indicated that several point estimates for individual measures did not fall within the credibility intervals obtained from prior meta-analyses. This suggests that although brief measures of the Big Five might appear acceptable for use in business research, caution should be exercised when choosing a brief measure.
Purpose of Review The intent of this review is to provide an update in polypharmacy in older adults and women with a focus on common determinants and strategies to mitigate polypharmacy. Recent Findings Polypharmacy is becoming a critical focus in the management of cardiovascular diseases. It may emerge unintentionally while managing multimorbidity in older adults or in the vulnerable subgroup of patients, such as pregnant and lactating females. Clinicians should utilize several approaches such as deprescribing, sex-specific risk assessment, and encouraging healthy lifestyle to minimize inappropriate and unnecessary use of medications. Summary A shared decision-making model along with coordination and collaboration among healthcare providers should be utilized in the selection and management of pharmacotherapies.
Purpose of Review This paper synthesizes the extensive psychological, psychiatric, and neurophysiological literature on delusions of misidentification (DMI), including the well-known Capgras and Fregoli delusions. Recent Findings By considering DMI from these many angles, this paper illuminates how disturbances in creating and maintaining mental representations of self and others, however varied the etiology, result in the wide range of phenotypic expression seen in this complex and fascinating set of delusions. The companion article in this issue (Garrett and Leighton) more fully elaborates the emerging alignment between recent neuropsychological models of DMI and modern psychodynamic theories, further enhancing our understanding of the striking nature of delusional misidentifications. Summary DMI violate some of the basic attributes of identity of people, objects, and places that allow humans to navigate the physical and social worlds. As such, DMI reveal much about the fundamental workings of human cognition and affect: sensation, perception, prediction, hierarchical inference, belief evaluation, and memory.
In this observational, retrospective study, we performed economic analyses between robotic arm-assisted total knee arthroplasty (RATKA) and manual total knee arthroplasty (MTKA). Specifically, we compared: (1) index costs including computed tomography (CT) scans; (2) 90-day postoperative health care utilization, (3) 90-day episode-of-care (EOC) costs, and (4) lengths of stay between CT scan-based robotically-assisted versus MTKAs. A large national database, Blue Health Intelligence (BHI), was used for RATKAs and MTKAs performed between April 1, 2017 and September 30, 2019. Based on strict inclusion–exclusion criteria, with propensity score matching, 4,135 RATKAs and 4,135 MTKAs were identified and analyzed. Index costs to the payer for RATKA patients were found to be less than those for MTKA patients ($29,984 vs. $31,280, p <0.0001). Overall, 90-day EOC costs for RATKA patients were found to be less than that for MTKA patients in the inpatient and outpatient settings. This also holds true for the use of skilled nursing facilities, pharmacies, or other services. In conclusion, the results from our study show that RATKA were associated with lower costs than MTKAs, even when including the cost of CT scans. These results are of marked importance given the emphasis to contain and reduce health care costs.
The growing consciousness among consumers regarding the toxic effects of traditional beauty products has developed consumer interest in organic beauty products as an alternative. This study investigates how social media and consumer engagement reinforce this interest and influence consumer purchase intention of organic beauty products. The results of 213 datasets collected through the online platform and analyzed by structural equation modeling suggest that both social media and consumer engagement positively and significantly affect the intention to purchase organic beauty products. The research also found a significant mediating role of consumer engagement between social media influence and purchase intention. While no moderating effect of generativity was found between consumer engagement and purchase intention. As consumers’ purchase decision of organic products is influenced by social media, this study suggests marketers allocate greater budgets to social media to increase consumer engagement. Additionally, it presents a fresh perspective on the organic beauty industry through the lenses of social influence theory and calls for further research into the new paradigm of social media influence on the consumption of organic beauty products.
Objective: Research has consistently illustrated the impact of personality on marital quality. Given the inherent dyadic nature of relationships, recent investigations have integrated spouse-rated personality to account for both spouses' perspectives. Grounded in Contemporary Integrative Interpersonal Theory, we view personality through an interpersonal lens and conceptualized maladaptive interpersonal functioning as interpersonal problems. The present study examined the incremental validity of spouse-rated interpersonal problems beyond self-reported interpersonal problems to predict marital quality within an expanded actor-partner interdependence model (APIM). Method: Within a community sample of heterosexual, married couples (N = 110), we used expanded APIMs, integrating both self-report and spouse-rating, to test the incremental validity of spouse-perceived interpersonal problems over self-perceived interpersonal problems on marital quality through a model comparison approach. We tested for possible gender differences in effects. Results: Spouse perception, notably spouse-rated partner effects, appears to be the most frequent predictor of marital quality, and self-perception had less impact. Conclusion: Given the implications marital quality has on health and well-being, intervention efforts capitalizing on self-reflection likely to lead to greater improvements in quality and overall health.
Wrongful convictions are an indicator of the flaws of the American justice system and represent the consequences of disproportionate crime control policies. To date, few scholars have documented how the public views wrongful conviction frequency or who is responsible for these miscarriages of justice. In this study, we draw on a national sample to examine public perceptions of the prevalence of wrongful convictions and the degree to which the public believes the government is responsible for compensation after a wrongful conviction. Our results demonstrate that most Americans believe felony wrongful convictions happen at least occasionally and that the government should provide compensation to exonerees. These findings are not consistent across groups. Race, political affiliation, gender, and age are significantly related to differences in views of wrongful conviction frequency. Likewise, age and political affiliation are significantly related to differences in support of government compensation. Limitations and future directions are also discussed.
Communication security is one of the top security challenges for connected devices. Different from other links such as backhaul, the last mile technology also depends on the requirements of end users. Wireless technologies are generally selected for the mobility of users and ease of use. However, wireless medium has an open nature and thus wireless links are more prone to physical layer attacks compared to their wired counterparts. Moreover, simple end devices have constrained resources in both hardware and software, and it is not always feasible to apply conventional cryptographic approaches to provide security. We turn to chaos theory to provide security for simple devices at physical layer. The FM-DCSK and FM-CSK transmission system are built and implemented in the proposed secure communication system. The information message is embedded in wideband random-like signals, making the message remain covert. Transmission security is achieved by using the initial conditions and spreading factor as keys. To guard against active attacks, procedures for dynamic adjustment of initial conditions and other parameters are proposed. The scheme's cost effective features include the simplicity of communication setup and the low power consumption in generating and controlling the chaos signal. The sensitivity to initial condition and complex dynamic feature of chaotic function make it a promising approach for physical layer security.
Leaders often need to project themselves into alternative situations, but there is a limited understanding of how, why, or when leader self-projection might influence their teams’ outcomes. Based on the notion that brain activity in the default mode network (DMN) underlies self-projection, such as future-oriented mental simulations, we argue that the effect of leaders’ DMN activity on team behavior such as collective role performance may be understood by considering both the leaders’ visionary behavior and their orientation towards socialized vision. Specifically, we posit that a leader’s trait-like brain activity in the leader’s DMN is associated with the leader’s visionary behavior. Furthermore, we argue that visionary leader behavior, when accompanied by socialized vision orientation, facilitates collective role performance of the team. As such, we examine the moderating role of a socialized orientation toward serving the interests of a wide range of stakeholders in reinforcing the positive effect of visionary leader behavior on collective role performance of team members, as well as the indirect effect of leader DMN activity on collective role performance via visionary leader behavior. We found support for our hypotheses using diverse research methodologies, including quantitative electroencephalogram (qEEG), multi-source multi-wave surveys, and interview coding.
Cancer databases collect original cancer studies and patient clinical information into one site that allows for global analysis. While many courses focus on cancer, few utilize these powerful cancer databases. Our goal was to create a lab experience in which students could explore original cancer study databases, looking at the expression and incidence of driver mutations of cancer. First, the students focus on a specific patient including demographic data and type of cancer. Then the students analyze mRNA expression levels associated with mutations of the gene, determining if it is a tumor suppressor or oncogene. Students also learn which mutations are actionable and how they affect survival. In summary, this module allows students to analyze global trends in driver mutations in cancers and dive into specific patient features.
Background Parole officers are one of many actors in the legal system charged with interpreting and enforcing the law. Officers not only assure that parolees under their supervision comply with the terms of their release, but also monitor and control parolees’ criminal behavior. They conduct their jobs through their understanding of their official mandate and make considered and deliberate choices while executing that mandate. However, their experiences as legal actors may impact their implicit cognitions about parolees. This experiment is the first of its kind to examine implicit (i.e., automatic) associations between the self and parolees among actors of the legal system. Objective The present study examines the implicit cognitive consequences of the quality of the parole officer-parolee relationship from the perspective of the parole officer; specifically, whether parole officers who are reminded of positive experiences with parolees implicitly associate more with the group parolees than those reminded of a negative experience. In addition, we explore the moderating effects of parole officers’ subjective professional orientation and identification. Method Eighty-four New Jersey parole officers participated in the study. First, an experimental manipulation of either a past positive or negative experience was administered via a writing task. Participants then completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure associations between the self-concept of parole officers with parolees who are part of the group criminal, followed by measures of professional orientation and identification. Results Participants who were reminded of a positive experience with a parolee exhibited stronger associations between self and the group parolee when compared to those who were reminded of a negative experience. Neither professional orientation nor parole officer group identification were related to implicit associations and did not moderate the effect of the past experience reminder on implicit associations. Conclusion and Implications Implicit cognitions of parole officers may influence their behaviors and interactions with those whom they supervise. Positive reminders affect implicit self-associations with parolees presumably via empathy, which is known to affect the quality of therapeutic and supervision relationships; thus, theoretically, leading to improved outcomes for both officers and parolees.
Objective: Drink offers are related to increased alcohol consumption, which is linked to sexual activity among college students. However, offers of alcohol may increase the odds of sexual activity that night independent of the amount of alcohol consumed. Participants: 540 undergraduate students were recruited for a longitudinal study of daily experiences. Method: Participants completed up to four annual waves of a measurement burst daily diary study. Using these longitudinal data, we examined whether receiving a drink offer on a given night was related to greater odds of having sex. Results: Receiving a drink offer (but not the number of drinks accepted) is related to greater odds of having sex, controlling for drinking level. Conclusions: Receiving a drink offer is uniquely related to odds of having sex when controlling for the amount of alcohol participants consumed. This may have implications for psychological functioning and relationship development.
Purpose of Review Individuals with chronic pain are significantly more likely to have experienced overwhelming trauma early and often in key developmental years. There is increasing acknowledgment that childhood trauma disrupts how individuals process and cope with both physical and emotional pain. Emerging studies acknowledge elevated rates of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in chronic pain populations. This review provides a theoretical framework to understand the relationship between NSSI behavior and pain experience in persons with chronic pain and childhood trauma histories. We discuss how NSSI may act to regulate neurobiological (e.g., endogenous opioid systems) and psychological (e.g., heightened negative affect and emotion dysregulation) systems affected by childhood trauma, leading to temporary pain relief and a cycle of negative reinforcement perpetuating NSSI. As these concepts are greatly understudied in pain populations, this review focuses on key areas relevant to chronic pain that may provide a testable, conceptual framework to support hypothesis generation, future empirical investigation, and intervention efforts. Recent Findings See Fig. 1. Summary See Fig. 1.
Stalk lodging, or failure of the stalk structure, is a serious problem in the production of maize (corn). Addressing this problem requires an understanding of the parameters that influence lodging resistance. Computational modelling is a powerful tool for this purpose, but current modelling methods have limited throughput and do not provide the ability to modify individual geometric features. A parameterised model of the maize stalk has the potential to overcome these limitations. The purposes of this study were to (a) develop a parameterised model of the maize stalk cross-section that could accurately simulate the physical response of multiple loading cases, and (b) use this model to rigorously investigate the relationships between cross-sectional morphology and predictive model accuracy. Principal component analysis was utilised to reveal underlying geometric patterns which were used as parameters in a cross-sectional model. A series of approximated cross-sections was created that represented various levels of geometric fidelity. The true and approximated cross-sections were modelled in axial tension/compression, bending, transverse compression, and torsion. For each loading case, the predictive accuracy of each approximated model was calculated. A sensitivity study was also performed to quantify the influence of individual parameters. The simplest model, an elliptical cross-section consisting of just three parameters: major diameter, minor diameter, and rind thickness, accurately predicted the structural stiffness of all four loading cases. The modelling approach used in this study model can be used to parameterise the maize cross-section to any desired level of geometric fidelity, and could be applied to other plant species.
Introduction: Many pharmacy programs have been reviewing their curricula to ensure that unconscious bias is not interwoven throughout. However, few programs have looked at their assessment tools to determine if unconscious bias exists in them. Since research on unconscious bias in assessment tools is currently limited, this study was developed to explore how race, ethnicity, age, and gender were used in multiple-choice item banks at one pharmacy program. Methods: A total of 27 pharmacy test banks, including examinations from first-, second-, and third-year pharmacy curricula, were examined. The exams administered in the 27 courses provided 3621 questions for review and coding based on reference to race, ethnicity, age, and gender. Results: Of the total 3621 exam items reviewed, 40 referenced race. Of those 40, it was determined that race was only applicable/relevant to two (5%) of the questions, linked to Whites. Gender breakdown was 56% male and 45% female, with no mention of transgender. Gender was central to 72 of the 426 questions. Age was mentioned in 381 of the questions and was central in only 46. Ethnicity was not mentioned in any of the questions. In none of the questions were these variables self-identified. Conclusions: The routine mention of race in preparation of materials such as question banks, with no specified goal, risks contributing to racial bias. The goal of all pharmacy educators is to graduate pharmacists that possess sound academic knowledge, clinical skills, and the cultural humility to provide quality care to their patients.
Having an agreed-upon definition of character education would be useful for both researchers and practitioners in the field. However, even experts in character education disagree on how they would define it. We attempted to achieve greater conceptual clarity on this issue through a prototype analysis in which the features perceived as most central to character education were identified. In Study 1 (N = 77), we asked character education experts to enumerate features of character education. Based on these lists, we identified 30 features. In Study 2 (N = 101), experts assessed which features were central to character education through a categorization task. In Study 3 (N = 166), we assessed the extent of centrality using scalar items. We conclude by offering practical advice for the development of future character education studies and programs rooted in what is deemed central to such programs.
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2,497 members
Harvey Winters
  • School of Natural Sciences
Benjamin N. Johnson
  • School of Psychology and Counseling
Lana A Tiersky
  • School of Psychology - Metropolitan Campus
Stephen Armeli
  • Department of Psychology
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Teaneck, New Yersey, United States
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