Banana belongs to the (Musaceae) family. It is a crop of immense economic importance worldwide. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of Banana cultivars for yield and yield components. Nine banana cultivars and one standard check cultivar were compared in Tepi agricultural research center. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The analysis of variance showed that, for all phonological and vegetative traits except leaf width, significant variation has been recorded. The combined analysis of the over seasons revealed significant difference due to cultivars and years for most of the characters tested. The over years combined analyses of variance revealed that there were significant differences (P < .05) among cultivars for all parameters considered in the study. Among the cultivars, the highest yield (39.58 t/ha) was recorded for cultivar Ambowha Selle-3, but statistically on par with cultivars Dinke-1 (38.27), Williams-1 (38.17), Ambo-2 (38.02), William hybrid (37.88), and Paracido Alrey (37.14) t/ha. In contrast, the lowest yield was recorded for lady finger (33.81) which is statistically similar to Chinese dwarf (36.72) and Paracido Alrey (37.14) t/ha.
Viruses are among the significant biotic constraints burdening global potato production, particularly in developing countries where seed certification is not common and production, availability and accessibility to quality seed potato is a big hindrance. Virus infection in seed potato reduces yield, and the problem is exacerbated when an early-generation seed is affected. The prevalence of six key potato viruses, PVY, PVX, PLRV, PVA, PVS, and PVM, was assessed among decentralized seed multipliers such as individuals, farmer seed group cooperatives, private companies, and agricultural research center that produce early generation seed in six major potato growing districts in Ethiopia. A total of 262 leaf samples were randomly collected from potato plants and analyzed using a double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) for potato viruses. Potato virus prevalence was calculated as the proportion of samples that tested positive for the viruses against the total number of samples tested. Only 1.8% of the samples were virus-free, while 98.2% of the samples collected from farmers' fields were infected with at least one of the six viruses. About 17% of the samples had a single viral infection with one of the six viruses, whereas 81% had multiple infections. Early generation seed and germplasm samples collected from breeding, research, and private screenhouses were infected with PLRV (68.1%), PVY (57.4%), PVS (40.4%), PVM (34%) and PVX (23.4%). These results indicate that virus infection is widespread in the country, posing challenges and threats potato production and food security efforts. To address this issue, it is critical to developing a robust system that prevents viral infection build-up and spread in the seed system through regular seed quality assurance and certification, particularly for early generation seed. Furthermore, smallholder farmers need to use an integrated management approach to effectively combat potato viruses.
Introduction: Leishmaniasis is one of the neglected tropical diseases, threatening lives of about 350 million people globally. Brucea antidysenterica seeds are used for the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the traditional medicine in Ethiopia. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate Brucea antidysenterica seeds' anti-leishmanial activity in vitro. Methods: The crude (80% methanol) extract of Brucea antidysenterica seeds and its fractions were evaluated for their anti-leishmanial activities against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania donovani and Leishmania aethiopica, and for their cytotoxic effects against mammalian cells. The quantitative estimations of total phenolic compounds (TPCs), flavonoids (TFCs) and alkaloids (TACs) were determined, spectrophotometrically. Median inhibitory concentration (IC50) and median cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of the extract and its solvent fractions were calculated using GraphPad Prism 9.1.0 computer software. Data was presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). Results: The crude extract and its hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions showed anti-leishmanial activities, with IC50 values of 4.14-60.12 µg/mL against promastigotes, and 6.16-40.12 µg/mL against amastigotes of both Leishmania species. They showed moderate cytotoxicity against Vero cell lines and peritoneal mice macrophages, with CC50 values of 100-500 µg/mL, but >1600 µg/mL against red blood cells. Selectivity indices ranged from 7.97 to 30.97. The crude extract, and its ethyl acetate and hexane fractions possessed 54.78-127.72 mg of gallic acid equivalent TPC, 18.30-79.21 mg of quercetin equivalent TFC, and 27.62-97.22 mg of atropine equivalent TAC per gram of extracts. Conclusion: The seeds of the plant possessed anti-leishmanial activities against L. aethiopica and L. donovani that might provide a scientific justification for its use in the treatment of leishmaniasis by traditional healers. Future works are recommended to isolate, purify and identify the possible secondary metabolites attributed to the anti-leishmanial activity.
Dairy cattle production is an integral part of smallholder farming systems in the central highlands of Ethiopia, but it is characterized by low milk productivity mainly due to nutritional constraints. This study assessed the comparative advantage of using improved forage-based feeding system over the traditional feeding practices on feed intake, milk yield and quality, and cost benefit analysis of crossbred dairy cows under smallholder farmers. The study was conducted at Welmera and Ejere districts on 12 farmers and two cows per farmer, and two dietary treatments were assigned to each cow randomly, and the study lasted 8 weeks. The treatments were: 1) intervention diet composed of oats-vetch mixture hay with concentrate supplementation at the rate of 0.5 kg/l of milk and 2) basal diet following farmers’ current feeding practices: crop residues and native hay, commonly soaked with local brewery residue (“Atela”) and water. The results showed that there was no difference in total dry matter intake between the two diets. However, the basal feed intake was higher in the traditional feeding practice by 11% whereas the concentrate intake was higher in the intervention diet by 25%. Crude protein intake was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the intervention group by 23%. As a result, milk yield was increased by 36% under oat-vetch mixed fodder-based feeding system as compared to the traditional feeding practice. Consequently, the amount of feed required per unit of milk was lower in the intervention group, indicating higher feed conversion efficiency as compared to the traditional feeding practice. On the other hand, there was no significant variation in milk composition between the two groups. Partial budget analysis indicated that the benefit from the intervention diet (95 birr/cow/day) was greater by 266% than that obtained from the traditional practice (45 birr/cow/day). Utilization of improved forage varieties was proven to play significant role in supplying good quality and abundant feed resource that increased milk yield and also fetch additional economic return for smallholder farmers compared to the existing traditional practice. In general, this study demonstrates that adoption of improved forage production and feeding practices along with sufficient training on balanced ration formulation has been observed to increase dairy productivity and food security through provision of sustainable livelihood opportunity for smallholder farmers.
Spices are known to have important benefits in our daily diet, and it is common to see industrial and traditional spicy foods in our households and markets. In the present work, a systematic profiling of the nutritional, physicochemical, and textural properties of red pepper, garlic, red onion, and ginger was conducted. The detailed data of forty eight (48) parameters that consisted of macronutrients, micronutrients, physicochemical properties, functional property, and rheological properties of each of the components were organized. The result showed that red pepper had the highest content of crude protein (14.7%), crude fat (11.3%), crude fiber (38.57%), ash (6.7%), redness (a ∗ value) (32.5), CI (37.4%), and porosity (37.43%) compared to garlic, ginger, and red onion. Garlic had the highest content of carbohydrate content (76.42%), energy (346.58 kcal), pH (6.03), total soluble solid (26.76), particle size (D90, 561 µm), and volume weighted mean (238 µm) which is related to the high antimicrobial and antioxidant quality of garlic. Red onion had the highest content of Zn (71.16 mg/100 g), Na (94.5 mg/100 g), and Ca (71.16 mg/100 g) indicating that it is a rich source of minerals. The availability of data about the nutritional, physicochemical, functional, and textural properties of the ingredients is crucial for the production and formulation of industrial and traditional spicy foods with the highest quality and stability.
The biophysical drivers that affect coffee quality vary within and among farms. Quantifying their relative importance is crucial for making informed decisions concerning farm management, marketability and profit for coffee farmers. The present study was designed to quantify the relative importance of biophysical variables affecting coffee bean quality within and among coffee farms and to evaluate a near infrared spectroscopy-based model to predict coffee quality. Twelve coffee plants growing under low, intermediate and dense shade were studied in twelve coffee farms across an elevational gradient (1470–2325 m asl) in Ethiopia. We found large within farm variability, demonstrating that conditions varying at the coffee plant-level are of large importance for physical attributes and cupping scores of green coffee beans. Overall, elevation appeared to be the key biophysical variable influencing all the measured coffee bean quality attributes at the farm level while canopy cover appeared to be the most important biophysical variable driving the above-mentioned coffee bean quality attributes at the coffee plant level. The biophysical variables driving coffee quality (total preliminary and specialty quality) were the same as those driving variations in the near-infrared spectroscopy data, which supports future use of this technology to assess green bean coffee quality. Most importantly, our findings show that random forest is computationally fast and robust to noise, besides having comparable prediction accuracy. Hence, it is a useful machine learning tool for regression studies and has potential for modeling linear and nonlinear multivariate calibrations. The study also confirmed that near-infrared spectroscopic-based predictions can be applied as a supplementary approach for coffee cup quality evaluations.
Barley scald is very important in temperate and wet regions worldwide and has become one of the most important foliar diseases. Before the development of recent technologies, several scientists had argued that Rhynchosporium secalis is the causal agent of scald disease. However, the causal agent of this disease was revised and recognized as Rhynchosporium commune. Again recently, Rhynchosporium graminicola was suggested to be replaced as the causal agent of R. commune. The disease outbreak is depending on cool and frequent rainfall. Because of scald disease significance, numerous management practices have been advocated. Then, resistance materials, and mixing of resistant and susceptible cultivars have been used as the best management methods. Several studies have demonstrated that some cultivars and landraces of barley are resistant to scald disease during the seedling and adult growth stages. The first cultivar is “Atlas 46″ which was created from the cultivar “Turk”. From biological method: Bacillus polymyxa, Paenibacillus polymyxa KaI245, and Bacillus subtilis are very effective in treating this disease. Finally, as a last option, different fungicides have been suggested. Pathogenicity testing, seed treatments, tillage, cultivar mixtures, and biological control are all commonly overlooked in developing countries. Cultural practices such as times of fungicide application, appropriate time of sowing to scape disease, and tillage practices which are adopted for other diseases are greatly missed for scald disease. Then, we are intended to assess the various findings available on barley scald biology, taxonomy, and management.
Coffee wilt disease (CWD) is a serious threat to the food security of small-scale farmers in Ethiopia, causing significant reductions in coffee yield. Currently, there are no effective control measures available against the causative agent of CWD, Fusarium xylarioides. The main objective of this study was therefore to develop, formulate, and evaluate a range of biofungicides against F. xylarioides, derived from Trichoderma species and tested under in vitro, greenhouse, and field conditions. In total, 175 Trichoderma isolates were screened as microbial biocontrol agents against F. xylarioides. The efficacy of two biofungicide formulations, wettable powder and water dispensable granules, were tested on the susceptible Geisha coffee variety in three different agro-ecological zones in southwestern Ethiopia over three years. The greenhouse experiments were set up using a complete block design, while in the field a randomized complete block design was used, with twice yearly applications of biofungicide. The test pathogen spore suspension was applied to the coffee seedlings by soil drenching, and the subsequent incidence and severity of CWD evaluated annually. The mycelial growth inhibition profiles of the Trichoderma isolates against F. xylarioides ranged from 44.5% to 84.8%. In vitro experiments revealed that T. asperelloides AU71, T. asperellum AU131 and T. longibrachiatum AU158 reduced the mycelial growth of F. xylarioides by over 80%. The greenhouse study indicated that wettable powder (WP) of T. asperellum AU131 had the highest biocontrol efficacy (84.3%), followed by T. longibrachiatum AU158 (77.9%) and T. asperelloides AU71 (71.2%); they also had a significant positive impact on plant growth. The pathogen-treated control plants had a disease severity index of 100% across all the field experiments, and of 76.7% in the greenhouse experiments. In comparison to untreated controls, the annual and cumulative disease incidence over the three years of the study period varied from 46.2 to 90%, 51.6 to 84.5%, and 58.2 to 91%, at the Teppi, Gera and Jimma field Frontiers in Plant Science CITATION Mulatu A, Megersa N, Teferi D, Alemu T and Vetukuri RR (2023) Biological management of coffee wilt disease (Fusarium xylarioides) using antagonistic Trichoderma isolates. experimental locations. Overall, the greenhouse and field experiments and in vitro assays support the biocontrol potential of Trichoderma isolates, and T. asperellum AU131 and T. longibrachiatum AU158 in particular are recommended for the management of CWD under field conditions.
Animal sourced foods, such as dairy products, are common sources of Salmonella enterica, a foodborne pathogen of increasing global concern, particularly in developing countries. In Ethiopia, most data on the prevalence of Salmonella in dairy products is highly varied and limited to a specific region or district. Furthermore, there is no data available on the risk factors for Salmonella contamination of cow milk and cottage cheese in Ethiopia. This study was therefore conducted to determine the presence of Salmonella throughout the Ethiopian dairy value chain and to identify risk factors for contamination with Salmonella. The study was carried out in three regions of Ethiopia, including Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples, and Amhara during a dry season. A total 912 samples were collected from milk producers, collectors, processors, and retailers. Samples were tested for Salmonella using the ISO 6579-1: 2008 method, followed by PCR confirmation. Concurrent with sample collection, a survey was administered to study participants to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella contamination. Salmonella contamination was highest in raw milk samples at the production (19.7%) and at milk collection (21.3%) levels. No significant difference in the prevalence of Salmonella contamination among regions was detected (p > 0.05). Regional differences were apparent for cottage cheese, with the highest prevalence being in Oromia (6.3%). Identified risk factors included the temperature of water used for cow udder washing, the practice of mixing milk lots, the type of milk container, use of refrigeration, and milk filtration. These identified factors can be leveraged to develop targeted intervention strategies aimed at reducing the prevalence of Salmonella in milk and cottage cheese in Ethiopia.
Avocado is a member of the Lauraceae family. It is a crop with enormous economic significance all over the world. The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of avocado cultivars for yield and yield components. Six avocado cultivars and one local check cultivar were compared in Teppi Agricultural Research Center. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. The analysis of variance showed that, for most growth traits except girth above union and girth below union, significant variation has been recorded. The combined analysis over seasons revealed that significant difference between cultivars for most of the characters tested. The over years combined analyses of variance revealed that there was significant difference (P < .05) among cultivars for yield performance. Among the cultivars, the highest yield (29.13 tha⁻¹) was recorded for Ettinger. In contrast, the lowest yield was recorded for local (6.20 tha⁻¹). The cultivars, Ettinger, Hass and Fuerte performed better as compared to other cultivars. Therefore, these cultivars should be multiplied and disseminated for further popularization. The gaps in cultivar improvement, agronomic management and post-harvest handling also need due attention to improve the productivity of avocado in target area.
Background: Brucellosis is a contagious, economically significant bacterial disease that affects animals worldwide and is one of the most neglected zoonotic diseases in the world. The disease poses a barrier to the trade of animals and animal products, represents a public health hazard, and is an impediment to free animal movement. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out from December 2019 to May 2020 in order to determine seroprevalence and identify potential risk factors for brucellosis in dairy cows in the Central Highlands of Ethiopia with recent cases of abortion. Purposive sampling was carried out on the farms and kebeles in question to screen for recent cases of abortion in dairy cows. For the purpose of performing serological testing, 352 blood samples from dairy cattle were obtained. The Rose Bengal Plate test was used to initially screen the serum samples, and the Complement Fixation test was utilized as a confirmatory test. Results: Using combined RBPT and CFT tests, the overall seroprevalence of bovine brucellosis was 0.6% (95% CI: 0.16-2.09). Retained fetal membrane (OR = 32.74, p = 0.006), market-based stock replacement (OR = 16.55, p = 0.002), breeding method (OR = 7.58, p = 0.027), and late stage of abortion (OR = 14.74, p = 0.0002) are all significantly associated risk factors. Conclusion: The present seroprevalence study revealed that brucellosis is prevalent at a lower rate among dairy cattle in the study areas. However, there is a possible risk of brucellosis transmission in dairy cattle and the exposed human population in research locations because no control measures were put in place there. Implementing a test and slaughter method with compensation for farmers is advised due to the low prevalence of bovine brucellosis in government-owned and small-holder farms.
A new member of the genus Alphacarmovirus was detected in Stellaria aquatica using high-throughput RNA sequencing analysis. The complete genome sequence of this new virus isolate, tentatively named "Stellaria aquatica virus A" (StAV-A), comprises 4,017 nucleotides with five predicted open reading frames (ORFs) and has a typical alphacarmovirus genome organization. Pairwise comparison of StAV-A with selected members of family Tombusviridae showed 44–58%, 32–64%, and 19–49% sequence identity for the overall nucleotide sequence, polymerase, and coat protein, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of polymerase sequences places StAV-A alongside other members of the genus Alphacarmovirus in the family Tombusviridae.
Agriculture is a sector that is very vulnerable to the effects of climate change while contributing to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere. Therefore, applying Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) technologies and practices (referee hereafter as CSA technologies) that can sustainably boost productivity, improve resilience, and lower GHG emissions are crucial for a climate resilient agriculture. This study sought to identify the CSA technologies used by farmers and assess adoption levels and factors that influence them. A cross-sectional survey was carried out gather information from 384 smallholder farmers in the Great Rift Valley (GRV) of Ethiopia. Data were analyzed using percentage, chi-square test, t test, and the multivariate probit model. Results showed that crop diversification, agroforestry, and integrated soil fertility management were the most widely practiced technologies. The results of the chi-square and t tests showed that there are differences and significant and positive connections between adopters and non-adopters based on various attributes. The chi-square and t test results confirmed that households who were older and who had higher incomes, greater credit access, climate information access, better training, better education, larger farms, higher incomes, and more frequent interactions with extension specialists had positive and significant associations with CSA technology adopters. The model result showed that age, sex, and education of the head; farmland size; livestock ownership; income; access to credit; access to climate information; training; and extension contact influenced the adoption of CSA technologies. Therefore, considering barriers to the adoption of CSA technologies, in policy and action is anticipated to support smallholder farmers in adapting to climate change while lowering GHG emissions.
Background: High-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant and robust form of genetic variants and hence make highly favorable markers to determine the genetic diversity and relationship, enhancing the selection of breeding materials and the discovery of novel genes associated with economically important traits. In this study, a total of 105 barley genotypes were sampled from various agro-ecologies of Ethiopia and genotyped using 10 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. The refined dataset was used to assess genetic diversity and population structure. Results: The average gene diversity was 0.253, polymorphism information content (PIC) of 0.216, and minor allelic frequency (MAF) of 0.118 this revealed a high genetic variation in barley genotypes. The genetic differentiation also showed the existence of variations, ranging from 0.019 to 0.117, indicating moderate genetic differentiation between barley populations. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 46.43% and 52.85% of the total genetic variation occurred within the accessions and populations, respectively. The heat map, principal components and population structure analysis further confirm the presence of four distinct clusters. Conclusions: This study confirmed that there is substantial genetic variation among the different barley genotypes. This information is useful in genomics, genetics and barley breeding.
Orobanche crenata is a serious parasitic weed and a major constraint on legume crops, particularly for faba bean, which causes about 75–100% of yield losses in Ethiopia. Twenty faba bean genotypes were evaluated in Orobanche infested fields and pot experiments in Tigray, Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to determine the critical stage of host plants affected by parasite and to evaluate resistance level of faba bean genotypes. The degree of infection and host resistance level was evaluated at three host growing stages (flowering, pod setting, and maturity stages) using different traits like number of Orobanche emerged per plant, per plot, incidence, and severity. The agronomic data such as stand count at emergence, flowering, pod setting, maturity, plant height, pod number, seed per pod, hundred seed weight, and grain yield were recorded from five and three randomly selected plants in the field and pot experiments, respectively. The analysis of variance showed that there were high significant variations p < 0.01 in measured traits between the three host growing stages and between genotypes in agronomic traits. The effect of O. crenata on host plant was started from the flowering stage, but the pod setting stage is economically important stage at which actual effect of the parasite was observed both at field and pot experiments. Based on the result of the study, all tested traits at field and pot experiments allowed separating the faba bean genotypes into three groups: partially resistant and or tolerant genotypes “Ashange, Dide’a, and Obse,” moderately susceptible genotypes “Holleta, Selale, Wayu, Welki, Mesay, Bulga, Degaga, Gachena, Mosise, and Shalo,” and highly susceptible genotypes “Moti, Gebelcho, Dosha, Tumsa, Hachalu, and Tesfa Aloshe.”
Spatial variation and genotype by environment (GxE) interaction are common in varietal selection field trials and pose a significant challenge for plant breeders when comparing the genetic potential of different varieties. Efficient statistical methods must be employed for the evaluation of finger millet breeding trials to accurately select superior varieties that contribute to agricultural productivity. The objective of this study was to improve selection strategies in finger millet breeding in Ethiopia through modeling of spatial field trends and the GxE interaction. A dataset of seven multi-environment trials (MET) conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two replications laid out in rectangle (row x column) arrays of plots was used in this study. The results revealed that, under the linear mixed model, the spatial and factor analytic (FA) models were efficient methods of data analysis for this study, and this was demonstrated with evidence of heritability measure. We found two clusters of correlated environments that helped to select superior and stable varieties through ranking average Best Linear Unbiased Predictors (BLUPs) within clusters. The first cluster was chosen because it contained a greater number of environments with high heritability. Based on this cluster, Bako-09, 203439, 203325, and 203347 were the top four varieties with relatively high yield performance and stability across correlated environments. Hence, scaling up the use of this efficient analysis method will improve the selection of superior finger millet varieties.
Sorghum is an important food and feed crop in the dry lowland areas of Ethiopia. Farmers grow both early-sown long-duration landraces and late-sown short-duration improved varieties. Because timing and intensity of drought stress can vary in space and time, an understanding of major traits (G), environments (E), management (M), and their interactions (G×E×M) is needed to optimize grain and forage yield given the limited available resources. Crop simulation modeling can provide insights into these complex G×E×M interactions and be used to identify possible avenues for adaptation to prevalent drought patterns in Ethiopia. In a previous study predictive phenology models were developed for a range of Ethiopian germplasm. In this study, the aims were to (1) further parameterize and validate the APSIM-sorghum model for crop growth and yield of Ethiopian germplasm, and (2) quantify by simulation the productivity-risk trade-offs associated with early vs late sowing strategies in the dry lowlands of Ethiopia. Field experiments involving Ethiopian germplasm with contrasting phenology and height were conducted under well-watered (Melkassa) and water-limited (Miesso) conditions and crop development, growth and yield measured. Soil characterization and weather records at the experimental sites, combined with model parameterization, enabled testing of the APSIM-sorghum model, which showed good correspondence between simulated and observed data. The simulated productivity for the Ethiopian dry lowlands environments showed trade-offs between biomass and grain yield for early and late sowing strategies. The late sowing strategy tended to produce less biomass except in poor seasons, whereas it tended to produce greater grain yield except in very good seasons. This study exemplified the systems approach to identifying traits and management options needed to quantify the production-risk trade-offs associated with crop adaptation in the Ethiopian dry lowlands and further exemplifies the general robustness of the sorghum model in APSIM for this task.
Poor storage facilities expose seeds to deterioration, resulting in low seed quality under a prolonged storage time. We compared the performance of five bag types: Two hermetic bags (Super GrainPro bag [SGB] and Purdue Improved Crop Storage bag [PICS]), with three non‐hermetic bags (woven polypropylene bag lined with polyethylene [WPP lined with PE], polypropylene bags [PP], and jute bags) for the storage of faba bean seeds for 24 months. Faba bean seed quality was assessed under ambient conditions after 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months of storage. Parameters investigated include seed moisture content, thousand seed weight, germination percentages, vigor index I and II, speed of germination, percentage of insect‐damaged seed, and insect counts. Results indicated that there was a significant (P ≤ 0.01) interaction of bag types and duration for all tested parameters. Hermetic bags and WPP lined with PE maintained germination percentage above 90% during 12 months of storage. The vigor index remained above 1600 mg% for hermetic bags and WPP lined with PE during 12 months of storage. However, non‐hermetic bags exhibited a rapid drop in vigor index beginning from 6 months of storage. Hermetic bags and WPP lined with PE allowed minimal insect breeding and hence decreased the seed damage caused by insects. The present results demonstrated that in addition to the PICS bags and SGB, the WPP lined with PE can be used for short‐period storage for up to 12 months without incurring a significant loss of seed quality. Hence, we recommend the introduction of WPP lined with PE as faba bean seed storage technique under conditions where hermetic bags are inaccessible to resource‐poor farmers.
Cocoa seed fermentation involves a well-stabilized succession of microbial processes and the action of enzymes. Microorganisms (yeast, lactic acid bacteria, and acetic acid bacteria) play a critical role in cacao fermentation by degrading mucilage pulp by producing a stabilized succession of enzymatic reactions that contribute to its quality. Nowadays, the majority of cacao fermentation practiced in our planet is in the traditional form to produce aroma flavor. The art of using starter culture to substitute naturally occurring microorganisms in cacao fermentation is crucial for the development of the aroma and flavor of cacao for sustainable uniformity and quality improvement and unique cacao flavor development. In this sense, this review presents an overview of cacao fermentation process and its impacts on quality, starter culture and microorganisms involved in cacao fermentation process, cacao bioactive compounds and its health benefits. Moreover, the research perspectives needed and the advance made in terms of fermentation process in order to reduce fermentation period are reviewed.
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Megenagna, In front of Egizabeherab Church, Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Head of institution
Dr. Feto Esimo