Erciyes Üniversitesi
  • Melikgazi, Kayseri, Turkey
Recent publications
Given how quickly the aviation sector is growing, it is crucial to find sustainable ways to supply the demand. Modern technological developments and the creation of alternative jet fuels are crucial elements that could help eliminate greenhouse gases (GHGs) like CO 2 emissions. Traditional jet fuel produces a sizable amount of GHG emissions, which has raised concern on a global scale. Compared to conventional jet fuel, biofuel is thought to be more renewable and less polluting. Biojet fuels might work as an effective substitute. The varieties of bio jet fuel, manufacturing procedures (including alcohol-to-jet, oil-to-jet, syngas-to-jet, and sugar-to-jet ways), existing regulations, and the effects of bio jet fuels on the environment and the economy are all covered in length in this overview. These are the techniques that are most frequently used to create bio-jet fuel from both edible and inedible feedstock. The main conclusions of this review indicate that the most popular method for producing biofuel is hydrogenated esters and fatty acids (HEFA). The Fischer-Tropsch (FT) approaches cost more to install even though they produce fewer GHGs. Environmentally beneficial and technologically advanced, second-generation biofuels are a great choice. It has been revealed that jatropha is a crop that produces a lot of energy. The price of feedstock and the lack of bio-jet fuel are the two biggest obstacles to substituting conventional fuel. To increase the power and quality of energy, further in-depth research on optimal feedstocks is necessary. In order to address the needs of both commercial and military aircraft, biomass jet fuel has a lot of potential to replace conventional jet fuel. High yield should be one of the properties of the feedstock without affecting food production.
Purpose Elevated intraocular presure secondary to angle closure in angle closure glaucoma is considered the primary mechanism in the development of optic nerve damage. There is evidence that vascular mechanisms may play a role in the pathogenesis of primary angle closure disease (PACD). We aimed to evaluate optic nerve head vessel density in PACD. Methods PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched. Observational investigations were included. A frequentist network meta-analysis was performed. The primary outcome was circumpapillary vessel density (cpVD), and the secondary outcome was peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) thickness. Results One thousand twenty four eyes from eleven studies were included in the study. There was no difference in cpVD between the primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) and acute primary angle closure (APAC) group however, there was a significant decreasing in pRNFL thickness in the PACG group compared to APAC group. In the PACG and APAC group, cpVD and pRNFL thickness were decreased compared to primary angle closure (PAC), primary angle closure suspect (PACS), and control group. There was no difference in cpVD and pRNFL thickness between PAC, PACS and control group. Conclusion This study has shown that the elevated intraocular pressure is an important factor affecting optical nerve perfusion in PACD. The decreasing in cpVD and RNFL thickness was more severe in the PACG and APAC group.
As the most readily adopted molecular screening test, low-pass WGS of maternal plasma cell-free DNA for aneuploidy detection generates a vast amount of genomic data. This large-scale method also allows for high-throughput virome screening. NIPT sequencing data, yielding 6.57 terabases of data from 187.8 billion reads, from 12,951 pregnant Turkish women was used to investigate the prevalence and abundance of viral DNA in plasma. Among the 22 virus sequences identified in 12% of participants were human papillomavirus, herpesvirus, betaherpesvirus and anellovirus. We observed a unique pattern of circulating viral DNA with a high prevalence of papillomaviruses. The prevalence of herpesviruses/anellovirus was similar among Turkish, European and Dutch populations. Hepatitis B prevalence was remarkably low in Dutch, European and Turkish populations, but higher in China. WGS data revealed that herpesvirus/anelloviruses are naturally found in European populations. This represents the first comprehensive research on the plasma virome of pregnant Turkish women.
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) is an immunodeficiency caused by defects in the adhesion of leukocytes (especially neutrophils) to the blood vessel wall. As a result, patients with LAD suffer from severe bacterial infections and impaired wound healing, accompanied by neutrophilia. In LAD-I, characterized directly after birth by delayed separation of the umbilical cord, mutations are found in ITGB2, the gene that encodes the β subunit (CD18) of the β2 integrins. In the rare LAD-II disease, the fucosylation of selectin ligands is disturbed, caused by mutations in SLC35C1, the gene that encodes a GDP-fucose transporter of the Golgi system. LAD-II patients lack the H and Lewis Lea and Leb blood group antigens. Finally, in LAD-III, the conformational activation of the hematopoietically expressed β integrins is disturbed, leading to leukocyte and platelet dysfunction. This last syndrome is caused by mutations in FERMT3, encoding the kindlin-3 protein in all blood cells, involved in the regulation of β integrin conformation. This article contains an update of the mutations that we consider to be relevant for the various forms of LAD.
Vermifiltration (VF) is a natural and sustainable biofilter that has many advantages, including being energy-free, cost-effective, and allowing ease of application and maintenance. In this study, the effectiveness of a lab-scale VF system was assessed by the removal efficiency of total suspended solids, electrical conductivity, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, fecal coliform, and heavy metals in organized industrial zones (OIZ) and domestic wastewater (DW) for the first time. Additionally, the reuse suitability of the treated wastewater was determined by comparing different countries' and global irrigational criteria. The lab systems were built with four layers: one worm-bed and three varying filtering materials, and operated at an optimum hydraulic loading rate of 1.8–2 m³/m²/day for 45 days with Eisenia fetida as the earthworm species. The results demonstrated that removal efficiencies of total suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand were found to be 95% and 80% in OIZ wastewater and 90% and 88% in DW, respectively. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus were removed at rates of 69% and 67% in OIZ wastewater, respectively, and 84% and 74% in DW. Besides, the VF system has shown satisfactory removal performance for heavy metals ranging from 51% to 77% in OIZ wastewater that has met Turkish national wastewater discharge limits. Although the final characterization of treated wastewater was suitable, heavy metal and fecal coliform levels have not met many countries' irrigation water quality criteria. To meet global irrigation standards and to enhance the VF performance, further experimental studies should be carried out, including parameters such as bed material type in the reactor, worm type, and different operating conditions.
Nowadays, different vaccines and antiviral drugs have been developed and their effectiveness has been proven against SARS-CoV-2. Pyrazoline derivatives are biologically active molecules and exhibit broad-spectrum biological activity properties. In this scope, four new molecules (4a–d) including a pyrazoline core were synthesized in order to predict their antiviral properties theoretically. Compounds 4a–d were purified by the crystallization method. The structures of 4a–d were completely characterized by NMR, IR, and elemental analysis. The molecular structures of the compounds in the ground state have been optimized using density functional theory with the B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level. The quantum chemical parameters were predicted by density functional theory calculations. Moreover, the molecular docking studies of 4a–d with SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein (Wuhan) and omicron S protein (variant) were presented to investigate and predict potential interactions. The binding sites, binding types and energies, bond distances of the non-covalent interactions and calculated inhibition constants (calc. Ki) as a consequence of molecular docking for 4a–d were presented in this study. Furthermore, the stability of the protein-4a complex obtained from the docking was investigated through molecular dynamics simulation. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most frequent chronic liver diseases worldwide. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a progressive type of NAFLD that may cause cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, or almost mortality. Therefore, early diagnosis of the NASH is crucial. NASH is scored using the main histopathological features: ballooning, inflammation, steatosis, and fibrosis. The diagnosis of NASH by pathologists is time-consuming and can vary subjectively. On the other hand, several studies have reported deep learning approaches to enable fully automated NASH scoring. However, these studies suffer from limited labeled and imbalanced datasets. The purpose of this study to achieve fully automated NASH scoring with deep learning models that overcome data limitations. This study proposes an unsupervised transfer learning model for NASH scoring and fibrosis staging on a small-size dataset within two steps. In the first step, Convolutional Auto Encoder (CAE) is utilized as a deep feature extractor in an unsupervised manner during reconstruction. The second step is fine-tuning for classification consisting of the CAE encoder set as initial layers combined with fully connected layers and softmax. The proposed unsupervised transfer learning model is evaluated on a public NASH dataset. We compare the performance of the proposed network (CAE+classifier) with transfer learning models including Inception-v3, VGG16, ResNet-50. The proposed model has 94.87% AUC for ballooning, 89.47% AUC for inflammation, 96.15% AUC for steatosis, and 93.18% AUC for fibrosis. The proposed model is superior to transfer learning models (Inception-v3, VGG16, ResNet-50) with less parameter size and low computational complexity on a small NASH dataset.
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by the insufficient catabolism of branched-chain amino acids. BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DBT, and DLD encode the subunits of the branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex, which is responsible for the catabolism of these amino acids. Biallelic pathogenic variants in BCKDHA, BCKDHB, or DBT are characteristic of MSUD. In addition, a patient with a PPM1K defect was previously reported. PPM1K dephosphorylates and activates the enzyme complex. We report a patient with MSUD with mild findings and elevated BCAA levels carrying a novel homozygous start-loss variant in PPM1K. Our study offers further evidence that PPM1K variants cause mild MSUD.
Introduction Pheochromocytomas (PCC) are rare tumors (0.8/100000) arising from adrenal medulla cells. The most common symptom of PCC is persistent high blood pressure. Apart from symptomatic cases, PCCs can also be asymptomatic and can be detected incidentally. Surgical treatment is urgent if catecholamine hypersecretion is detected. After the detection of hormonal hyperfunction in patients with PCC, the diagnosis is confirmed by anatomical and functional imaging. As we all know, there is no possibility of histopathological diagnosis before surgery in PCC. Therefore, rare coexistence of false positive Ga68-DOTA-TATE uptake and falsely high urinary catecholamine metabolite levels may lead to adrenalectomy of the patients without PCC. Here we describe a patient who underwent adrenalectomy with a prediagnosis of PCC but received a different pathological diagnosis. Clinical Case A 50-year-old male patient who was diagnosed with AIDS after being investigated for fever of unknown origin was referred to the endocrinology department because of a mass in the left adrenal gland. The patient had complaints of headache, palpitation and sweating. On physical examination, there was a red nodular lesion on his face and a palpable lymph node in the inguinal region. His blood pressure was 160/100 mm-Hg, pulse was 100/min and body temperature were 37.1°C. Ambulatory blood pressure measurements showed that the patient's blood pressure was constantly high. Non-contrast CT showed a tumor of 20×15 mm in size (Hounsfield Unit:38) in the left adrenal gland (Fig-1). In terms of hormonal hyperfunction, no cortisol or aldosterone hypersecretion was detected, but urine normetanephrine was found to be 4 times higher than the upper normal limit (Table 1). Functional imaging revealed pathologically increased Ga68-DOTA-TATE uptake in the left adrenal mass and multiple lymph nodes (SUVmax 5.9 and 3.2) (Fig-1). The pathology of the patient who underwent simultaneous inguinal lymph node excision and adrenalectomy was reported as Kaposi sarcoma (KS). The patient is currently receiving treatment for AIDS and KS. Conclusion KS is a type of cancer that occurs especially in immunocompromised patients. Although there have been publications in the last decade suggesting that 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging may be beneficial in KS, there are no articles recommending the use of Ga68-DOTA-TATE. Upregulation of neuroendocrine genes has also been shown in publications investigating KS, which is thought to originate from endothelial cells. This may explain why there is Ga68-DOTA-TATE involvement in these lesions. Pheochromocytoma is referred to as “the great mimicker” in the articles of radiology and its similarity with all types of adrenal lesions causes PCC to not be excluded by anatomical imaging. We wanted to share these two diseases, which are very unlikely to come together and cause confusion, and explain the factors that can lead to this confusion.
Introduction Insulinoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor originating from pancreatic beta cells and is the most common cause of hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Herein, a rare case of metastatic insulinoma in which many treatment alternatives were used will be presented. Clinical Case A 52-year-old male patient with no known history of chronic disease applied to us with complaints of numbness in the hands, inability to wake up in the morning and fainting. The patient, who worked as a professional referee, stated that he went to football matches with sugar in his pocket and ate sugar when he felt bad during the football matches. The patient needed to eat many times during the day. It was learned that the patient was treated with the diagnosis of transient ischemic attack and vertigo in another hospital where he applied with these complaints. In our hospital, random glucose was determined as 30 mg/dl. Prolonged fasting test was performed. Plasma glucose: 28 md/dl, insülin: 30,81 Uıu/ml, c-peptid 6,17 ng/ml were measured at 6th hour of the test. In abdominal computarized tomography, a 6.5×9.5 cm mass in the tail section of the pancreas and a subcentimetric metastatic nodular lesion in liver were detected. The patient diagnosed with metastatic insulinoma and distal pancreatectomy and liver metastasectomy operations were performed. Pathological examination showed insulinoma in the pancreas and neuroendocrine tumor metastasis in the liver (figure 1). No hypoglycemia was seen after operation. In the postoperative 24th month, fasting plasma glucose: 176 mg/dl and HBA1c: 8.6 were found and diabetes mellitus was diagnosed, insulin detemir was started. At the postoperative 36th month, a metastatic nodular lesion was detected in the liver. Fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed and in pathological examination, neuroendocrine carcinoma metastasis is seen. Octreotide LAR 20 mg/month treatment was started. In the follow-up, another metastasis was detected in two separate foci in liver so, patient's treatment was changed to lanreotide 120 mg/month. Four sessions of radiofrequency ablation were performed to the metastatic liver lesions. The patient is still being followed up by us and has no complaints of hypoglycemia. Plasma glucose values are in the normal range and Hba1c varies between 7.1–7.6%. Conclusion Although insulinoma cases are mostly benign, metastatic cases can also be seen rarely. The main treatment of the disease is surgery. Somatostatin analogues can be used in postoperative recurrence or inoperable metastatic disease. Radiofrequency ablation has an important role in local treatment.
Introduction Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a rare genetic disorder with an increased susceptibility to develop skeletal abnormalities. However, the association of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia and neurofibromatosis type 1 is extremely rare. Herein, we report a case of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia in concomitant with neurofibromatosis type 1. Clinical Case A 45-year-old Turkish female patient, who was followed up in another hospital due to osteoporosis and kyphoscoliosis, applied to us with the complaints of persistent bone pain and inability to walk. She had no chronic diseases other than osteoporosis. The physical examination revealed widespread freckling over her trunk and proximal parts of upper and lower extremities and multiple neurofibromas and cafe au lait spots all over her body (figure 1). It was learned that her 2 brothers, mother and daughter also had the widespread freckling. They have no known chronic diseases. She had a severe degree of kyphoscoliosis. She had not have any complaints up to 24 years of age, and low back pain started after delivery. She was diagnosed with osteoporosis at the age of 29. In about 15 years, her height decreased from 167 cm to 135 cm. She had a severe degree of kyphoscoliosis and severe bone pain and was unable to walk on her own because of pain. Bilateral ophthalmic examination revealed no Lisch nodules. Audiometer revealed no abnormalities. Laboratory findings were as follows: Ca: 9.4 (8.4–10.6 mg/dl), phosphorus: 1.8 (2.3–4.7 mg/dl), albumin: 4.2 g/dl, parathormone: 88.3 (11–80 pg/ml), 25 hydroxy vitamin D: 26.1 ug/L, creatinine: 0.4 mg/dl, alkaline phosphatase: 79 (35–105 U/L), the 24-hour urinary excretion of calcium: 187.5 mg/24 h, the 24-hour urinary excretion of phosphorus: 253 mg/24 h, fractional excretion of phosphate: %8.5 and maximum transport of phosphorus in the renal proximal tubules (TmP/GFR): 0.74 (0.88–1.42 mmol/L). According to laboratory data there was a hyperphosphaturia. On the basis of the physical examination, laboratory and radiological findings, she was diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 1 and hypophosphatemic osteomalacia. Oral phosphate solution (1.5 gram as elemantary phosphorus per day in 3 divided doses) and calcitriol (1 microgram per day in 2 divided doses) were started. After 6 months of therapy, bone pain was significantly decreased and her serum phosphorus level increased. The results of genetic analysis are awaited. Conclusion The coexistence of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia and neurofibromatosis type 1 have been reported in less than 50 cases in the literature. The underlying mechanism is not clarified. The diagnosis of hypophosphatemic osteomalacia should be kept in mind in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1, as they will benefit greatly from oral phosphorus solution and active vitamin D.
The effects of soil texture on trace metal concentrations and geochemical fractions in an apple orchard soils were investigated. For this purpose, soil samples were taken from the apple orchards with two different soil textures located on the same geomorphological unit in Çanakkale, Turkey. A wet digestion was used to determine total trace metal concentrations, and a sequential extraction method was used to determine geochemical fractions of the metals. According to average total concentrations of all metals, except Pb, were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) in clay soils. Sequential extraction analysis showed that potential mobile fractions were ordered as Cd (68.8%) > Pb (52.4%) > Cu (42.0%) > Zn (34.8%) > Ni (32.3%) > Cr (22.9%) in clay soils and as Cd (61.6%) > Pb (51.6%) > Cu (40.2%) > Zn (30.7%) > Ni (30.8%) > Cr (24.9%) in loamy soils. The results revealed that all metals, except Pb, in exchangeable/acid soluble, oxidizable and, potential mobile fractions were found to be significantly higher in clay soils (p < 0.05). It was figured out that clay contents played an effective role in total concentrations of metals and their distribution in geochemical fractions.
This study aimed effects of drying methods on drying kinetics, effective moisture diffusivity, color properties, total phenolic content, antiradical activity and essential oil composition of some selected lavender and lavandin genotypes. Six different genotypes developed by selection breeding at Erciyes University between 2017-2020 were used as plant materials grown under open-field conditions. Six different drying methods (convective, open-shade, open-sun, greenhouse, hybrid and freeze) were performed and compared. Statistical values showed that drying was best described by Wang & Singh mathematical model. Greenhouse drying was the fastest method in terms of drying duration. Freeze drying had relatively good color properties for lavender and lavandin flowers. The greatest effective moisture diffusivity values were obtained in hybrid drying and the lowest in greenhouse drying. The mean values of total phenolic content and antiradical activity of convective drying were statistically lower than from other drying methods. The highest essential oil ratios obtained in following drying methods with decreasing order: convective (5.10%), open-shade (4.65%), freeze (4.53%), open-sun (4.49%), greenhouse (4.33%) and hybrid (2.22%). The linalool ratio ranged between 27.16 to 79.21% and the highest value was obtained in the freeze-drying condition of the G208 genotype. In conclusion, open-shade drying method significantly positively affects bioactive characteristics and essential oil composition.
Plantago psyllium L. seed gum (PPSG)/gelatin nanocomposites containing Cuminum cyminum essential oil (CCEO) were prepared via electrospinning, and the antibacterial properties of the electrospun nanofibers were assessed against Staphylococcus aureus. The nanoemulsion was prepared by adding CCEO to the PPSG/gelatin mixture and sonicated. Uniform nanofibers resulted from the nanoemulsion containing 1.5% PPSG, 8% gelatin, and 3% CCEO, and no chemical reactions between the components of the electrospun nanofibers were detected. Growth inhibition zone diameter indicated that the electrospun nanofibers containing at least 3% CCEO, had the most significant inhibitory effect on the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. The electrospun PPSG/gelatin‐CCEO nanocomposites are capable of being used as a biodegradable material in food packaging as well as in edible coatings for the preservation of food products.
Radiation therapy has demonstrated promising effectiveness against several types of cancers. X-ray radiation therapy can be made further effective by utilizing nanoparticles of high-atomic-number (high-Z) materials that act as radiosensitizers. Here, in purpose of maximizing the radiation therapy within tumors, bovine serum albumin capped gadolinium oxide and gold nanoparticles (Gd2O3@BSA-Au NPs) are developed as a bimetallic radiosensitizer. In this study, we incorporate two high-Z-based nanoparticles, Au and Gd, in a single nanoplatform. The radiosensitizing ability of the nanoparticles was assessed with a series of in vitro tests, following evaluation in vivo in a breast cancer murine model. Enhanced tumor suppression is observed in the group that received radiation after administration of Gd2O3@BSA-Au NPs. As a result, cancer therapy efficacy is significantly improved by applying Gd2O3@BSA-Au NPs under X-ray irradiation, as evidenced by studies evaluating cell viability, proliferation, reactive oxygen species production, and in vivo anti-tumor effect.
Tight junctions (TJ) are the anatomical component of blood‐testis (BTB) and blood‐epididymis (BEB) barriers and contain many proteins, including claudins. The presence of claudins in domestic cat testis and epididymis has not been previously described. This study aimed to determine whether claudin‐1 and claudin‐5 participate in the structure of BTB and BEB and whether their amounts differ between the testis and epididymal segments of adult cats, using Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemistry. WB results demonstrated that claudin‐1 was significantly lower in the testis than in all epididymal segments and higher in the corpus epididymis than in the cauda, while claudin‐5 in the testis was significantly lower than in the caput and corpus. Claudin‐1 was absent at the Sertoli‐Sertoli junctions, while claudin‐5 was detected at the level of the BTB during stages I and VIII. Both claudins were observed in the pachytene spermatocytes and the developing acrosome of the round and elongating spermatids. Claudin‐5 was also detected in the cytoplasm of some spermatogonia, Sertoli cells, and late spermatid acrosome. In the epididymal segments, both claudins were localized to the area of the tight junctions and along the entire length of the lateral plasma membranes of adjacent principal cells and between principal and basal cells. These results may indicate that in the domestic cat, claudin‐1 and ‐5 participate as both tight junction proteins and adhesion molecules in the BEB's structure, claudin 5 is a component of the BTB, and both proteins may be involved in postmeiotic germ cell development, especially acrosome development.
Background Fingolimod, natalizumab, and ocrelizumab are commonly used in the second-line treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). However, these have only been compared in observational studies, not in controlled trials, with limited and inconclusive results being reported. A comparison of their effect on relapse and disability in a real-world setting is therefore needed.Objectives The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of fingolimod, natalizumab, and ocrelizumab in reducing disease activity in RRMS.Methods This multicenter, retrospective observational study was carried out with prospectively collected data from 16 centers. All consecutive RRMS patients treated with fingolimod, natalizumab, and ocrelizumab were included. Data for relapses, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were collected. Patients were matched using propensity scores. Annualized relapse rates (ARR), time to first relapse, and disability accumulation were compared.ResultsPropensity score matching retained 736 patients in the fingolimod versus 370 in the natalizumab groups, 762 in the fingolimod versus 434 in the ocrelizumab groups, and 310 in the natalizumab versus 310 in the ocrelizumab groups for final analyses. Mean ARR decreased markedly from baseline after treatment in all three treatment groups. Mean on-treatment ARR was lower in natalizumab-treated patients (0.09, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.07–0.12) than in those treated with fingolimod (0.17, 0.15–0.19, p<0.001), ocrelizumab (0.08, 0.06–0.11), and fingolimod (0.14, 0.12–0.16, p=0.001). No significant difference was observed in mean on-treatment ARR between patients treated with natalizumab (0.08, 0.06–0.11) and ocrelizumab (0.09, 0.07–0.12, p=0.54). Compared to fingolimod, the natalizumab and ocrelizumab groups exhibited a higher percentage of relapse-free patients and a lower percentage of MRI-active patients at year 1. No significance differences in disability accumulation were determined between the therapies.Conclusion Natalizumab and ocrelizumab exhibited similar effects on relapse control, and both were associated with better relapse control than fingolimod. The effects of the three therapies on disability outcomes were similar.
Turning brittle poly(lactic acid) (PLA) to ductile form via plasticizer inclusion is an effective option in the case of processing with high amounts of additives. Additionally, the integration of natural flame retardants to PLA involving bio‐based plasticizer enables to use of environmentally friendly composites in conditions where fire resistance performance is required. In the current study, ductile green fire retardant PLA composites were manufactured using hydromagnesite&huntite (HH) as a natural fire retardant additive and acetyl tributyl citrate as a bio‐based plasticizer. The influences of plasticizer and HH contents on the fire retardant, thermal and mechanical performances of the composites were explored. According to test results, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of PLA reduced from 29.2 to 28.0 and the UL‐94 V rating changed from V2 to BC with the addition of 20 wt% plasticizer owing to the reduction in melt viscosity. The peak heat release rate (pHRR) and average heat release rate (avHRR) values increased steadily as the concentration of plasticizer increased due to the formation of a more porous residue structure stemming from the increased transportation rate of gases. In order to produce ductile flame retardant material, the plasticizer content was required to 20 wt% of HH. The highest LOI value (36.2) and UL‐94 rating of V0 were achieved with the inclusion of 70 wt% HH in the presence of 20 wt% plasticizer. Improvement in impact resistance and reduction in tensile strength were observed as the added amount of plasticizer increased. Ductile green fire retardant poly(lactic acid) (PLA) composites were manufactured using hydromagnesite&huntite (HH) as a natural fire retardant additive and acetyl tributyl citrate as a bio‐based plasticizer.In order to produce ductile flame retardant material, the plasticizer content was required to 20 wt% of HH. The highest LOI value (36.2) and UL‐94 rating of V0 were achieved with the inclusion of 70 wt% HH in the presence of 20 wt% plasticizer.
Tuning the chemical functionality of lignocellulosic fiber plays a key role in the development of mechanically strong composites to overcome the leakage of compatibility between composite phases which is a major challenge in multidimensional applications of eco-composites. Herein, the coconut fiber (CF) surface was enriched via four kinds of modification routes including mercerization, amino-functional silane treatment, bio-based epoxy resin sizing, and isocyanate treatment to enhance its interfacial adhesion to thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) matrix. Tensile strength and Shore-hardness parameters of composites were improved by surface-modified CF inclusions. Thermo-mechanical response of TPU was optimized after CF loadings regardless of treatment type. Composite involving silane-modified CF exhibited the lowest water uptake due to the hydrophobic behavior of the silane layer. The increase in interfacial interaction between the TPU matrix and modified CF was confirmed by SEM investigations. The chemically enriched surface of CF confers the performance of composites thanks to improved adhesion in the TPU-CF interface.
The intermittent subcutaneous injection of apomorphine is highly effective in the management of motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Although it has been shown that apomorphine injection can be safely used in selected cases at all stages of the disease, there is no consensus regarding intermittent administration strategies. This review aimed to discuss the indications for intermittent subcutaneous apomorphine use in clinical practice, possible side effects and their management, and contraindicated cases in light of the literature and to present practical recommendations for clinical practice.
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4,973 members
Sureyya Burcu Gorkem
  • Department of Radiology
ibrahim Sözdutmaz
  • Department of Virology (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine)
Mustafa Yavuz Köker
  • Department of Immunology
Mahmut DOĞAN
  • Department of Food Engineering
Osman Sonmez
  • Toprak Bilimi ve Bitki Besleme
Erciyes University, 38039, Melikgazi, Kayseri, Turkey
Head of institution
Prof. Dr. Mustafa ÇALIŞ
+90 352 207 6666