Emory University
  • Atlanta, GA, United States
Recent publications
Parkinson disease (PD) is a heterogeneous and progressive neurodegenerative disorder. PD was traditionally defined as a movement disorder resulting from loss of dopamine in the basal ganglia, but its pathology is now known to be more widespread, involving both the central and peripheral nervous system, and leading to various motor and nonmotor signs and symptoms. Recent discoveries have led to major insights into the neurobiology of PD, in particular the pathophysiology and the central role of cellular α-synuclein aggregation in the pathogenesis of genetic and sporadic forms of PD. While insights into the pathophysiology have resulted in novel pharmacological and surgical therapies addressing the parkinsonian motor signs, efforts to halt the progression of the disease have so far failed. Exploration of novel molecular and interventional targets in genetic cellular and animal models and the introduction of biomarkers to stratify patients for clinical trials offer hope for the development of more effective symptomatic and neuroprotective therapies.
Significant progress has been made in the expansion of our understanding of the biological basis of anxiety disorders. Preclinical research examining the biological basis of fear learning, emotional memory regulation, and the expression of fear in animal models has, in conjunction with clinical research in patients with anxiety disorders, promoted the development of a biologically based understanding of the pathophysiology of fear-related anxiety disorders and suggested points of clinical intervention that may yield novel treatments for these disorders. This chapter will review the historical classification, clinical manifestations, psychobiology, and treatment of anxiety disorders, with an emphasis on fear-related anxiety disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder.
γδ T lymphocytes represent an emerging class of cellular immunotherapy with preclinical promise to treat cancer, notably neuroblastoma. The innate-like immune cell subset demonstrates inherent cytoxicity toward tumor cells independent of MHC recognition, enabling allogeneic administration of healthy donor-derived γδ T cell therapies. A current limitation is the substantial interindividual γδ T cell expansion variation among leukocyte collections. Overcoming this limitation will enable realization of the full potential of allogeneic γδ T-based cellular therapy. Here, we characterize γδ T cell expansions from healthy adult donors and observe that highly potent natural killer (NK) lymphocytes expand with γδ T cells under zoledronate and IL-2 stimulation. The presence of NK cells correlates with both the expansion potential of γδ T cells and the overall potency of the γδ T cell therapy. However, the potency of the cell therapy in combination with an antibody-based immunotherapeutic, dinutuximab, appears to be independent of γδ T/NK cell content both in vitro and in vivo, which minimizes the implication of interindividual expansion differences toward efficacy. Collectively, these studies highlight the utility of maintaining the NK cell population within expanded γδ T cell therapies and suggest a synergistic action of combined innate cell immunotherapy toward neuroblastoma.
Background: Inhibition is a critical executive control process and an established neurobiological phenotype of PTSD, yet to our knowledge, no prospective studies have examined this using a contextual cue task that enables measurement of behavioural response and neural activation patterns across proactive and reactive inhibition. Objective: The current longitudinal study utilised functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine whether deficits in proactive and reactive inhibition predicted PTSD symptoms six months after trauma. Method: Twenty-three (65% males) medical patients receiving emergency medical care from a level 1 trauma centre were enrolled in the study and invited for an MRI scan 1-2-months post-trauma. PTSD symptoms were measured using self-report at scan and 6-months post-trauma. A stop-signal anticipation task (SSAT) during an fMRI scan was used to test whether impaired behavioural proactive and reactive inhibition, and reduced activation in right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG), ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and bilateral hippocampus, were related to PTSD symptoms. We predicted that lower activation levels of vmPFC and rIFG during reactive inhibition and lower activation of hippocampus and rIFG during proactive inhibition would relate to higher 6-month PTSD symptoms. Results: No significant associations were found between behavioural measures and 6-month PTSD. Separate linear regression analyses showed that reduced rIFG activation (F1,21 = 9.97, R2 = .32, p = .005) and reduced vmPFC activation (F1,21 = 5.19, R2 = .20, p = .03) significantly predicted greater 6-month PTSD symptoms; this result held for rIFG activation controlling for demographic variables and baseline PTSD symptoms (β = -.45, p = .04) and Bonferroni correction. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that impaired rIFG and, to a lesser extent, vmPFC activation during response inhibition may predict the development of PTSD symptoms following acute trauma exposure. Given the small sample size, future replication studies are needed. Highlights: Impaired inhibition may be an important risk factor for the development of PTSD following trauma, with less right inferior frontal gyrus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex activation during response inhibition predicting PTSD development.
Epidemiological studies in adults have shown that exposure to ambient air pollution (AAP) is associated with the composition of the adult gut microbiome, but these relationships have not been examined in infancy. We aimed to determine if 6-month postnatal AAP exposure was associated with the infant gut microbiota at 6 months of age in a cohort of Latino mother-infant dyads from the Southern California Mother's Milk Study (n = 103). We estimated particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure from birth to 6-months based on residential address histories. We characterized the infant gut microbiota using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing at 6-months of age. At 6-months, the gut microbiota was dominated by the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Our results show that, after adjusting for important confounders, postnatal AAP exposure was associated with the composition of the gut microbiota. As an example, PM10 exposure was positively associated with Dialister, Dorea, Acinetobacter, and Campylobacter while PM2.5 was positively associated with Actinomyces. Further, exposure to PM10 and PM2.5 was inversely associated with Alistipes and NO2 exposure was positively associated with Actinomyces, Enterococcus, Clostridium, and Eubacterium. Several of these taxa have previously been linked with systemic inflammation, including the genera Dialister and Dorea. This study provides the first evidence of significant associations between exposure to AAP and the composition of the infant gut microbiota, which may have important implications for future infant health and development.
Inflammatory phenomena are found in many psychiatric disorders-notably, depression, schizophrenia, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Inflammation has been linked to severity and treatment resistance, and may both contribute to, and result from, the pathophysiology of some psychiatric illnesses. Emerging research suggests that inflammation may contribute to symptom domains of reward, motor processing, and threat reactivity across different psychiatric diagnoses. Reward-processing deficits contribute to motivational impairments in depression and schizophrenia, and motor-processing deficits contribute to psychomotor slowing in both depression and schizophrenia. A number of experimental models and clinical trials suggest that inflammation produces deficits in reward and motor processing through common pathways connecting the cortex and the striatum, which includes the nucleus accumbens, caudate nucleus, and putamen.The observed effects of inflammation on psychiatric disorders may cut across traditional conceptualizations of psychiatric diagnoses. Further study may lead to targeted immunomodulating treatments that address difficult-to-treat symptoms in a number of psychiatric disorders. In this review, we use a Research Domain Criteria framework to discuss proposed mechanisms for inflammation and its effects on the domains of reward processing, psychomotor slowing, and threat reactivity. We also discuss data that support contributing roles of metabolic dysregulation and sex differences on the behavioral outcomes of inflammation. Finally, we discuss ways that future studies can help disentangle this complex topic to yield fruitful results that will help advance the field of psychoneuroimmunology.
Despite significant advances in the treatment and care of people with HIV (PWH), several challenges remain in our understanding of disease pathogenesis to improve patient care. HIV infection can modify the host epigenome and as such can impact disease progression, as well as the molecular processes driving non-AIDS comorbidities in PWH. Epigenetic epidemiologic studies including epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) offer a unique set of tools to expand our understanding of HIV disease and to identify novel strategies applicable to treatment and diagnosis in this patient population. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge from epigenetic epidemiologic studies of PWH, identify the main challenges of this approach, and highlight future directions for the field. Emerging epigenetic epidemiologic studies of PWH can expand our understanding of HIV infection and health outcomes, improve scientific validity through collaboration and replication, and increase the coverage of diverse populations affected by the global HIV pandemic. Through this review, we hope to highlight the potential of EWAS as a tool for HIV research and to engage more investigators to explore its application to important research questions.
Background The pathologic accumulation and aggregation of tau is a hallmark of tauopathies including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms mediating tau aggregation in AD remain elusive. The incidence of AD is increased in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), which is characterized by the amyloid deposition of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) in the pancreas. However, the molecular mechanisms bridging AD and T2DM remain unknown. Methods We first examined the presence of IAPP in the neurofibrillary tangles of AD patients. Then we tested the effect of IAPP on tau aggregation. The biochemical and biological characteristics of the IAPP-tau fibrils were tested in vitro. The seeding activity and neurotoxicity of the IAPP-tau fibrils were confirmed in cultured neurons. Lastly, the effect of IAPP on tau pathology and cognitive impairments was determined by injecting the IAPP-tau fibrils and IAPP fibrils into the hippocampus of tau P301S mice. Results We found that IAPP interacts with tau and accelerates the formation of a more toxic strain, which shows distinct morphology with enhanced seeding activity and neurotoxicity in vitro. Intrahippocampal injection of the IAPP-tau strain into the tau P301S transgenic mice substantially promoted the spreading of tau pathology and induced more severe synapse loss and cognitive deficits, when compared with tau fibrils. Furthermore, intracerebral injection of synthetic IAPP fibrils initiated tauopathy in the brain of tau P301S transgenic mice. Conclusions These observations indicate that IAPP acts as a crucial mediator of tau pathology in AD, and provide a mechanistic explanation for the higher risk of AD in individuals with T2DM.
Background Targeting mitochondrial oncoproteins presents a new concept in the development of effective cancer therapeutics. ATAD3A is a nuclear-encoded mitochondrial enzyme contributing to mitochondrial dynamics, cholesterol metabolism, and signal transduction. However, its impact and underlying regulatory mechanisms in cancers remain ill-defined. Methods We used head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) as a research platform and achieved gene depletion by lentiviral shRNA and CRISPR/Cas9. Molecular alterations were examined by RNA-sequencing, phospho-kinase profiling, Western blotting, RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry, and immunoprecipitation. Cancer cell growth was assessed by MTT, colony formation, soft agar, and 3D cultures. The therapeutic efficacy in tumor development was evaluated in orthotopic tongue tumor NSG mice. Results ATAD3A is highly expressed in HNSCC tissues and cell lines. Loss of ATAD3A expression suppresses HNSCC cell growth and elicits tumor regression in orthotopic tumor-bearing mice, whereas gain of ATAD3A expression produces the opposite effects. From a mechanistic perspective, the tumor suppression induced by the overexpression of the Walker A dead mutant of ATAD3A (K358) produces a potent dominant-negative effect due to defective ATP-binding. Moreover, ATAD3A binds to ERK1/2 in the mitochondria of HNSCC cells in the presence of VDAC1, and this interaction is essential for the activation of mitochondrial ERK1/2 signaling. Most importantly, the ATAD3A-ERK1/2 signaling axis drives HNSCC development in a RAS-independent fashion and, thus, tumor suppression is more effectively achieved when ATAD3A knockout is combined with RAS inhibitor treatment. Conclusions These findings highlight the novel function of ATAD3A in regulating mitochondrial ERK1/2 activation that favors HNSCC development. Combined targeting of ATAD3A and RAS signaling may potentiate anticancer activity for HNSCC therapeutics.
Hypertensive eye disease includes a spectrum of pathological changes, the most well known being hypertensive retinopathy. Other commonly involved parts of the eye in hypertension include the choroid and optic nerve, sometimes referred to as hypertensive choroidopathy and hypertensive optic neuropathy. Together, hypertensive eye disease develops in response to acute and/or chronic elevation of blood pressure. Major advances in research over the past three decades have greatly enhanced our understanding of the epidemiology, systemic associations and clinical implications of hypertensive eye disease, particularly hypertensive retinopathy. Traditionally diagnosed via a clinical funduscopic examination, but increasingly documented on digital retinal fundus photographs, hypertensive retinopathy has long been considered a marker of systemic target organ damage (for example, kidney disease) elsewhere in the body. Epidemiological studies indicate that hypertensive retinopathy signs are commonly seen in the general adult population, are associated with subclinical measures of vascular disease and predict risk of incident clinical cardiovascular events. New technologies, including development of non-invasive optical coherence tomography angiography, artificial intelligence and mobile ocular imaging instruments, have allowed further assessment and understanding of the ocular manifestations of hypertension and increase the potential that ocular imaging could be used for hypertension management and cardiovascular risk stratification. Hypertensive eye disease (HED) refers to dieases of the eye that are associated with acute or chronic elevations in blood pressure. This Primer discusses the epidemiology, mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment of HED.
Background: While multiple cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) methods provide excellent reproducibility of global circumferential and global longitudinal strain, achieving highly reproducible segmental strain is more challenging. Previous single-center studies have demonstrated excellent reproducibility of displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) segmental circumferential strain. The present study evaluated the reproducibility of DENSE for measurement of whole-slice or global circumferential (Ecc), longitudinal (Ell) and radial (Err) strain, torsion, and segmental Ecc at multiple centers. Methods: Six centers participated and a total of 81 subjects were studied, including 60 healthy subjects and 21 patients with various types of heart disease. CMR utilized 3 T scanners, and cine DENSE images were acquired in three short-axis planes and in the four-chamber long-axis view. During one imaging session, each subject underwent two separate DENSE scans to assess inter-scan reproducibility. Each subject was taken out of the scanner and repositioned between the scans. Intra-user, inter-user-same-site, inter-user-different-site, and inter-user-Human-Deep-Learning (DL) comparisons assessed the reproducibility of different users analyzing the same data. Inter-scan comparisons assessed the reproducibility of DENSE from scan to scan. The reproducibility of whole-slice or global Ecc, Ell and Err, torsion, and segmental Ecc were quantified using Bland-Altman analysis, the coefficient of variation (CV), and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). CV was considered excellent for CV ≤ 10%, good for 10% < CV ≤ 20%, fair for 20% < CV ≤ 40%, and poor for CV > 40. ICC values were considered excellent for ICC > 0.74, good for ICC 0.6 < ICC ≤ 0.74, fair for ICC 0.4 < ICC ≤ 0.59, poor for ICC < 0.4. Results: Based on CV and ICC, segmental Ecc provided excellent intra-user, inter-user-same-site, inter-user-different-site, inter-user-Human-DL reproducibility and good-excellent inter-scan reproducibility. Whole-slice Ecc and global Ell provided excellent intra-user, inter-user-same-site, inter-user-different-site, inter-user-Human-DL and inter-scan reproducibility. The reproducibility of torsion was good-excellent for all comparisons. For whole-slice Err, CV was in the fair-good range, and ICC was in the good-excellent range. Conclusions: Multicenter data show that 3 T CMR DENSE provides highly reproducible whole-slice and segmental Ecc, global Ell, and torsion measurements in healthy subjects and heart disease patients.
Background: Despite controversy over their possible health consequences, manufacturers of e-cigarettes employ a variety of marketing media to increase their popularity among adolescents. This study analyzed the relationship between adolescent e-cigarette harm perception and five types of e-cigarette advertising exposures: social media, radio, billboard, newspaper, and television. Methods: This study used data from Wave 4.5 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (PATH). PATH collects demographic data and interview individuals about issues pertaining to tobacco use, health outcomes, attitudes, and behaviors. This study applied factor analysis to three individual PATH harm perception items to develop a composite harm perception score. Using linear regression, the study explored the relationship of harm perception and participant responses to their recalled viewing of five different types (i.e., newspaper, radio, billboard, television and social media) of advertisements within the past 30 days. A second analysis explored if adjusting for exposure to anti-tobacco messaging and environmental factors such as family approval mitigated the association of harm perception and advertisement types. Results: The study sample consisted of 12,570 (weighted N = 23,993,149) individuals aged 12 to 17 years old. Unadjusted past 30-day exposure to newspaper, radio, billboard, and social media advertising all correlated with a reduced harm perception, but only the associations for newspaper and social media were statistically significant (p<0.05). After adjusting for environmental support factors, exposure to warning labels, and anti-tobacco advertisements, the analysis yielded statistically significant associations between increased e-cigarette harm perception and exposure to radio, billboard, and television advertisements (p<0.05). Adjusting for covariates also reduced the association of marketing and harm perception for all forms of media. Conclusion: E-cigarette advertising influences adolescent perceptions of harm in e-cigarette use, particularly for social media and newspaper advertisements. This association weakens when adjusted for covariates such as environmental support and exposure to anti-tobacco marketing. These findings provide evidence for policy makers to continue anti-tobacco marketing and incorporate environmentally supportive strategies such as holistic, family-centered educational approaches to reduce e-cigarette use among adolescents.
Biomarkers predictive of drug-specific outcomes are important tools for personalized medicine. In this study, we present an integrative analysis to identify miRNAs that are predictive of drug-specific survival outcome in cancer. Using the clinical data from TCGA, we defined subsets of cancer patients who suffered from the same cancer and received the same drug treatment, which we call cancer-drug groups. We then used the miRNA expression data in TCGA to evaluate each miRNA’s ability to predict the survival outcome of patients in each cancer-drug group. As a result, the identified miRNAs are predictive of survival outcomes in a cancer-specific and drug-specific manner. Notably, most of the drug-specific miRNA survival markers and their target genes showed consistency in terms of correlations in their expression and their correlations with survival. Some of the identified miRNAs were supported by published literature in contexts of various cancers. We explored several additional breast cancer datasets that provided miRNA expression and survival data, and showed that our drug-specific miRNA survival markers for breast cancer were able to effectively stratify the prognosis of patients in those additional datasets. Together, this analysis revealed drug-specific miRNA markers for cancer survival, which can be promising tools toward personalized medicine.
Background Panic disorder (PD) is characterized by recurrent panic attacks and higher affection of women as compared to men. The lifetime prevalence of PD is about 2–3% in the general population leading to tremendous distress and disability. Etiologically, genetic and environmental factors, such as stress, contribute to the onset and relapse of PD. In the present study, we investigated epigenome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) in respond to a cumulative, stress-weighted life events score (wLE) in patients with PD and its boundary to major depressive disorder (MDD), frequently co-occurring with symptoms of PD. Methods DNAm was assessed by the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. In a meta-analytic approach, epigenome-wide DNAm changes in association with wLE were first analyzed in two PD cohorts (with a total sample size of 183 PD patients and 85 healthy controls) and lastly in 102 patients with MDD to identify possible overlapping and opposing effects of wLE on DNAm. Additionally, analysis of differentially methylated regions (DMRs) was conducted to identify regional clusters of association. Results Two CpG-sites presented with p-values below 1 × 10⁻⁰⁵ in PD: cg09738429 (p = 6.40 × 10⁻⁰⁶, located in an intergenic shore region in next proximity of PYROXD1) and cg03341655 (p = 8.14 × 10⁻⁰⁶, located in the exonic region of GFOD2). The association of DNAm at cg03341655 and wLE could be replicated in the independent MDD case sample indicating a diagnosis independent effect. Genes mapping to the top hits were significantly upregulated in brain and top hits have been implicated in the metabolic system. Additionally, two significant DMRs were identified for PD only on chromosome 10 and 18, including CpG-sites which have been reported to be associated with anxiety and other psychiatric phenotypes. Conclusion This first DNAm analysis in PD reveals first evidence of small but significant DNAm changes in PD in association with cumulative stress-weighted life events. Most of the top associated CpG-sites are located in genes implicated in metabolic processes supporting the hypothesis that environmental stress contributes to health damaging changes by affecting a broad spectrum of systems in the body.
Background The BIN1 locus contains the second-most significant genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. BIN1 undergoes alternate splicing to generate tissue- and cell-type-specific BIN1 isoforms, which regulate membrane dynamics in a range of crucial cellular processes. Whilst the expression of BIN1 in the brain has been characterized in neurons and oligodendrocytes in detail, information regarding microglial BIN1 expression is mainly limited to large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic data. Notably, BIN1 protein expression and its functional roles in microglia, a cell type most relevant to Alzheimer’s disease, have not been examined in depth. Methods Microglial BIN1 expression was analyzed by immunostaining mouse and human brain, as well as by immunoblot and RT-PCR assays of isolated microglia or human iPSC-derived microglial cells. Bin1 expression was ablated by siRNA knockdown in primary microglial cultures in vitro and Cre-lox mediated conditional deletion in adult mouse brain microglia in vivo. Regulation of neuroinflammatory microglial signatures by BIN1 in vitro and in vivo was characterized using NanoString gene panels and flow cytometry methods. The transcriptome data was explored by in silico pathway analysis and validated by complementary molecular approaches. Results Here, we characterized microglial BIN1 expression in vitro and in vivo and ascertained microglia expressed BIN1 isoforms. By silencing Bin1 expression in primary microglial cultures, we demonstrate that BIN1 regulates the activation of proinflammatory and disease-associated responses in microglia as measured by gene expression and cytokine production. Our transcriptomic profiling revealed key homeostatic and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response pathways, as well as transcription factors PU.1 and IRF1 that are regulated by BIN1. Microglia-specific Bin1 conditional knockout in vivo revealed novel roles of BIN1 in regulating the expression of disease-associated genes while counteracting CX3CR1 signaling. The consensus from in vitro and in vivo findings showed that loss of Bin1 impaired the ability of microglia to mount type 1 interferon responses to proinflammatory challenge, particularly the upregulation of a critical type 1 immune response gene, Ifitm3 . Conclusions Our convergent findings provide novel insights into microglial BIN1 function and demonstrate an essential role of microglial BIN1 in regulating brain inflammatory response and microglial phenotypic changes. Moreover, for the first time, our study shows a regulatory relationship between Bin1 and Ifitm3 , two Alzheimer’s disease-related genes in microglia. The requirement for BIN1 to regulate Ifitm3 upregulation during inflammation has important implications for inflammatory responses during the pathogenesis and progression of many neurodegenerative diseases. Graphical Abstract
Background Shared learnings from the early use of novel therapies can aid in their optimization. The recent introduction of peanut oral immunotherapy (peanut OIT; Palforzia [Peanut ( Arachis hypogaea) Allergen Powder-dnfp]) for peanut allergy addresses a significant unmet need but also highlights the requirement for consideration of several factors by both prescribers and patients. Objective To provide guidance for prescribers of licenced peanut OIT to facilitate treatment delivery and improve outcomes. Methods Clinicians with experience of licenced peanut OIT (United States n = 6, United Kingdom n = 1) participated in a series of interviews and group discussions designed to elicit tips for successful implementation. Results Clinicians identified 8 tips that were considered the most relevant, practical, and impactful for prescribers of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Allergen Powder-dnfp: (1) preparing to provide treatment, (2) assessing the medical indication for treatment and (3) shared decision making, (4) staff education, (5) establishing office processes, (6) managing patient expectations and using anticipatory guidance, (7) optimising adherence and (8) maintaining flexibility throughout the treatment process. In addition, a range of supporting materials (e.g., checklists and action plans) are provided. Conclusion The introduction of a novel therapy often requires healthcare providers to modify or adopt practices to effectively employ the treatment. The provision of guidance based upon early real-world experiences of licenced peanut OIT may help inform clinical practice and improve treatment outcomes.
Background Aminoglycosides are potent bactericidal antibiotics naturally produced by soil microorganisms and are commonly used in agriculture. Exposure to these antibiotics has the potential to cause shifts in the microorganisms that impact plant health. The systematic review described in this protocol will compile and synthesize literature on soil and plant root-associated microbiota, with special attention to aminoglycoside exposure. The systematic review should provide insight into how the soil and plant microbiota are impacted by aminoglycoside exposure with specific attention to the changes in the overall species richness and diversity (microbial composition), changes of the resistome (i.e. the changes in the quantification of resistance genes), and maintenance of plant health through suppression of pathogenic bacteria. Moreover, the proposed contribution will provide comprehensive information about data available to guide future primary research studies. This systematic review protocol is based on the question, “What is the impact of aminoglycoside exposure on the soil and plant root-associated microbiota?”. Methods A boolean search of academic databases and specific websites will be used to identify research articles, conference presentations and grey literature meeting the search criteria. All search results will be compiled and duplicates removed before title and abstract screening. Two reviewers will screen all the included titles and abstracts using a set of predefined inclusion criteria. Full-texts of all titles and abstracts meeting the eligibility criteria will be screened independently by two reviewers. Inclusion criteria will describe the eligible soil and plant root-associated microbiome populations of interest and eligible aminoglycosides constituting our exposure. Study validity will be evaluated using the CEE Critical Appraisal Tool Version 0.2 (Prototype) to evaluate the risk of bias in publications. Data from studies with a low risk of bias will be extracted and compiled into a narrative synthesis and summarized into tables and figures. If sufficient evidence is available, findings will be used to perform a meta-analysis.
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10,956 members
Philip Santangelo
  • Department of Biomedical Engineering
Patrick Sullivan
  • Department of Epidemiology
Carlo N. De Cecco
  • Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences
Abhinav Dey
  • Department of Pediatric Oncology
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Head of institution
Claire E. Sterk
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www.emory.edu
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