Adolescents and youths are a key part of the population that needs to be protected against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This is because they are more likely to spread the virus to vulnerable individuals. In view of these concerns, this study investigated the uptake of COVID-19 vaccines and associated factors among adolescents and youths attending secondary schools in Zambia. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1500 school-going adolescents in Lusaka from September 2022 to November 2022. Overall , 1409 participants took part giving a response rate of 94%. Only 29.2% (n = 411) of the participants were vaccinated against COVID-19 at the time of the study. Compared to their unvaccinated counterparts, vaccinated adolescents and youths scored higher for knowledge (66.2% vs 57.8%) and attitudes (76.7% vs 39.4%) regarding COVID-19 vaccines. Healthcare workers, family/friends and social media were key sources of information regarding the vaccine. Factors associated with increased vaccine uptake were positive attitudes (AOR = 33.62, 95% CI: 19.92-56.73), indicating it was stressful to follow COVID-19 preventive measures (AOR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.09-1.99), participants in Grade 12 (AOR = 3.39, 95% CI: 1.94-5.91), Grade 11 (AOR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.94-5.91), Grade 10 (AOR = 3.48, 95% CI: 1.98–6.11) and Grade 9 (AOR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.74–5.32) compared to Grade 8. This study found a relatively low uptake of COVID-19 vaccines among adolescents and youths in Zambia. There is a need to provide adequate strategies to address knowledge and attitude gaps regarding COVID-19 vaccines to improve uptake and reduce future morbidity and mortality.
Towards the drive for environmental sustainability and sustainable urban development, geospatial technology has been deployed to study land use/land cover (LULC) dynamics in Abeokuta and environs, Southwestern Nigeria. The natural, human and social-economic interventions on the landscape have assumed prominent dimensions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the trend, rate and magnitude of changes, within the framework for effective planning and sustainable growth. Three sets of land satellite imageries (30 m × 30 m resolution) of 2001, 2008 and 2015 were harnessed for the study. Contrast enhancement and considerations were made to minimize radiometric effect due to seasonal changes. A supervised classification was conducted using maximum likelihood algorithm while a Markovian transition estimator (MTE) was applied for the prediction of future land cover change. Urban areas increased sharply from 938.82 km2 (19.18%) in 2001 to 1423.58 km2 (29.08%) in 2015. The area under shrubs cover increased at a rate of 1.08 km2 (0.07%) per annum. Forested wetland and farmland declined from 871.67 km2 (17.80%) to 795.43 km2 (16.25%) and 1445.77 km2 (29.53%) to 1022.13 km2 (20.88%) in 2001 and 2015, respectively. The net decrease indicated the anthropogenic interference into surrounding natural landscape. Effective policy planning and sustainable growth require proactive and holistic monitoring of LULC dynamics. This will facilitate informed decisions on land resources, environmental sustainability and sustainable urban development in the region.
Abstract Background: Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) during gravidity are among the most preponderant contagion globally and can culminate in fetal and maternal mortality. Lack of awareness and poor preventive practices can exacerbate this outcome. This study assessed the knowledge and preventive practices of antenatal mothers’ towards UTIs in pregnancy. Design: This was a cross-sectional descriptive survey involving antenatal mothers in selected health care facilities in Ekiti State. Methods: A pre-tested adapted questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square at p<0.05. Results: The mean respondents’ age was 24.6±2.1years and barely less than half (43.8%) were multigravida. The findings of the study revealed that 64.0% of the respondents had good knowledge of UTIs. Overall, majority (78.9%) of the respondents exhibit good preventive practices toward UTIs in pregnancy, although the prevalence of UTIs among the studied subjects was found to be high (54.1%), with nearly half (48.7%) of the respondents reported been tested once for UTIs in the current pregnancy. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant relationship between educational level and respondents’ knowledge on the prevention of UTIs in pregnancy (p=0.00; p<0.05). Conclusions: Respondents had good knowledge and good preventive practices toward UTIs. However, the high prevalence of UTIs reported among respondents justifies the need for implementation of knowledge enhancement program, routine testing and prompt treatment of UTIs among antenatal mothers.
Background Healthcare workers (HCWs) play a vital role in delivering care and are frequently exposed to the risk of acquiring infections within the hospital setting. Around 15% of hospitalized patients suffer from these infections globally. However, the role and awareness of HCWs in the transmission of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) or nosocomial infections is still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) toward high-risk microbial infections among HCWs on a global scale to identify measures to address this problem. Method A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between 2022 and 2023, with HCWs selected as the study population. Data concerning KAP were collected through a self-administered online survey questionnaire, using a nonprobability convenience sampling method. Descriptive statistics and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results A total of 743 HCWs from various countries participated in the study, with the majority of respondents being doctors (64.9%). Data were mainly obtained from Saudi Arabia (26.78%), Iraq (25.84%), India (15.7%), the United States of America (15.2%), and Africa (Sudan, Nigeria) (13.98%). The frequency of good KAP scores among physicians (KAP: 82.5, 80.66, and 70.5), nurses (KAP: 74.1, 73.07, and 88.7), medical practitioners (KAP: 87.2, 77.58, and 75.1), and technicians (KAP: 76.1, 74.38, and 89.6) were obtained as mentioned. With respect to experience, HCWs showed good KAP scores in 1–5 years (KAP: 82.4, 83.3, and 74.1), 5–10 years (KAP: 80.6, 74.54, 83), 10–20 years (KAP: 74.7, 79.1, and 82.7), and >20 years (KAP: 84.6, 78.8, and 82.8) categories. Conclusion This study suggests that HCWs have good KAP regarding infection prevention, but there is still room for improvement. Educational seminars and awareness programs can provide better adherence to barrier protection measures such as hand washing, use of gloves, and hand disinfection.
Background Human milk bank is a sustainable source of donor human milk (DHM) which is an acceptable alternative to the mother’s milk and it is not routinely available in Nigeria, a multi-ethnically diverse country. The study aimed to assess the willingness to donate or accept human milk among pregnant women and mothers attending the antenatal, immunization, outpatient, under-five, and neonatal follow-up clinics in selected health facilities in Ekiti State, Southwest Nigeria. Study Design and Methods A descriptive cross-sectional, mixed methods study design was used to collect data in selected health facilities in Ekiti State. Questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to collect quantitative and qualitative data respectively while data analysis was done using the IBM® Statistical Package for Social Science SPSS version 26® and thematic analysis respectively. Results Of the 798 respondents, 529 (66.3%) and 626 (78.4%) did not know about wet nursing or human milk banking (HMB) respectively and 139 (17.4%) were willing to donate their breastmilk for a stipend. In the focus group discussion, 50% had heard about wet nursing but none heard about HMB. Maternal educational level had a significant impact on their willingness to donate or accept DHM ( p < 0.00). Wholesomeness, cultural, and religious biases were major reasons affecting HMB acceptability. Conclusions Awareness and perception of HMB are poor. Appropriate information, education, and counselling on HMB are needed to drive the adoption and establishment of HMB in Nigeria.
Drug trafficking and money laundering are nation destroyers which need rapid solution to the mayhem because the menace has ruined livelihoods and fostered vices.For this reason, the manuscript presents a novel co-dynamics fractional order system of drug trafficking and money laundering that includes susceptible individuals associated with drug trafficking only and individuals associated with both criminal acts. The paper shows that the proposed compartment system solution exists and are unique using fixed point theorems. The stability frame work of the system which is as a result of slight disturbance in the initial condition was investigated and was shown to be stable if necessary condition are satisfied. The paper also established the criminal acts free equlibrium point which is asymptotically and globally stable with the aid of basic reproduction number while criminal acts endemic equilibrium points is globally asymptotically stable using the first derivative of Lyapunov function. Furthermore, the second derivative of the Lyapunov function was used to detect the criminal acts waves. Finally, the numerical simulations are carried out to show that the proposed fractional co-dynamics model of drug trafficking and money laundering is very relevant to understanding the behaviour of these criminal acts within the society.
Analysis of biomarkers in geological materials such as shales is very crucial because they can provide useful information on the depositional conditions and environments, organic matter input, thermal maturity as well as the geological age of shales in some cases. The paleoenvironment, and its impact on organic matter enrichment of the shales, plays a vital role in the exploration and development of the resource. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction can be conducted using elemental, isotopic, maceral, and biomarker proxies. However, the literature on the biomarkers for paleoenvironment reconstruction to reveal the organic matter enrichment of shales in many petroleum systems throughout the world is still insufficient. Hence, this paper seeks to critically review the application of biomarkers during paleoenvironmental reconstruction in shales. The uses of biomarkers as indicators of modern and ancient marine and brackish/saline lacustrine depositional environments are considered. This review shows that biomarkers could be used to establish the sedimentary depositional environments, redox conditions, and organic matter enrichments of shales that are critical to deep energy exploitation. Nevertheless, despite the fact that biomarkers are significant indicators of depositional conditions, secondary processes such as source facies, thermal maturity, migration, and reservoir alteration can greatly influence their uses as paleoenvironmental condition indicators in source rocks and oils. Hence, for a reliable paleoenvironmental evaluation, there is a need to combine isotopic, elemental and maceral proxies with biomarkers.
Geophysical investigations involving very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and vertical electrical sounding (VES) techniques were deployed to study the pavement failure along a major road in a typical basement complex terrain of southwestern Nigeria. This study was designed to assess the failure and provide a basis for ultimate engineering design. The study delineated a 3- to 4-layer geoelectric sequence: a topsoil of thickness varying from 0.4 to 1.2 m, a spectrum of clayey materials of thickness varying from 1.9 to 14.5 m and a weathered/fractured basement occurring at depths of between 3.6 and 15.0 m. The shallow basement indicated low bearing capacity, with resistivity values ranging from 62.1 to 377.9 Ωm. The presence of clay/clayey materials, linear features and the effect of rising water table within the influence zone underlined the pavement failure. This information will facilitate appropriate designing, soil improvements and selection of materials for road construction that can stand the test of time.
This study investigated the effects of virgin coconut oil-supplemented diet (VCO) on acrylamide (AA)-induced neurotoxicity in Wistar rats. Twenty (20) Wistar rats (18-250g) were grouped into four (I-IV) (n = 5): I: control, received the recommended feed and water daily, II: received oral doses of AA (10 mg/kg body weight (b.w)) alone, III: received oral doses of AA (10 mg/kg b.w) and 5% VCO, IV: received oral doses of AA (10 mg/kg b.w) and 10% VCO, for 56 days. On the 55th day, the rats were subjected to behavioral tests using an elevated plus maze and Y-maze. The rats were then euthanized to obtain samples of blood for the investigation of biochemical parameters (catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and interleukin-1B (IL-1B)) using standard methods, while the brain tissues were used for gene expressions (brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), nuclear factor-erythroid factor 2-related factor 2 (NRF-2), and nuclear factor kappa-B (NFKB)). Histoarchitecture of the hippocampus to show the morphology and cell distribution of dentate gyrus was also carried out. The result revealed a significant increase in anxiety-like behaviour and memory impairment in the group that were exposed to AA only. However, administration of VCO (especially 5%) cause a significant reduction in anxiety-like behaviour and the memory impairment (p < 0.05). Similarly, AA exposure caused a significant reduction in the serum SOD and CAT (p < 0.05), increase in the serum level of MDA and IL-B. AA exposure also caused down-regulation in the gene expression levels of brain NRF-2 and BDNF, up-regulation in the gene expression level of brain NFK-B and significant decrease in the dentate gyrus cells. VCO’s administration (especially 5%) resulted in a significant increase in the serum SOD and CAT (p < 0.05), reduction in the serum level of MDA and IL-B, up-regulation in the expression of gene levels of the brain NRF-2 and BDNF, down-regulation in the gene expression level of the brain NFK-B and significant increase in the dentate gyrus cells of the hippocampus. This study concludes that VCO ameliorated AA-induced neurotoxicity via reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation.
Aluminum (Al) is known to be a nephrotoxic metal that can cause renal toxicity in both humans and animals. The use of functional foods has been reported to have significance in managing the toxic effects associated with such metals. This study aimed to assess the potential protective effects of caffeine, vanillin, and their combination in mitigating AlCl3-induced renal toxicity in adult male Wistar rats. A total of thirty (30) adult male Wistar rats weighing between 150 and 200 g were randomly divided into five groups, each consisting of six rats (n = 6). Group 1 served as the control, while the remaining treatment groups received a daily oral dose of 100 mg/kg AlCl3 for a duration of 21 days. In addition, groups 3–5 were coadministered 50 mg/kg body weight (bw) of caffeine, vanillin, and a combination (50/50 mg/kg bw) of both substances, respectively. In the results, AlCl3-treated showed a significant ( p < 0.05) increase in serum biomarkers such as ALT, ALP, urea, and creatinine, and a significant ( p < 0.05) decrease in serum total proteins (TPs). The renal tissue’s antioxidant system, including SOD, CAT, GPx, and GSH, exhibited a significant ( p < 0.05) reduction, accompanied by an elevated MDA level. However, the administration of caffeine, vanillin, and their combination resulted in a significant ( p < 0.05) decrease in serum ALT, ALP, urea, and creatinine, and a significant ( p < 0.05) increase in serum TP. Furthermore, following the treatment, there was a significant ( p < 0.05) increase in renal SOD, CAT, GPx, and GSH levels, along with a reduction in the MDA level. In addition, the treatment for 21 days caused a significant ( p < 0.05) reversal to the altered histomorphological architecture. These findings suggest that caffeine, vanillin, and their combination could potentially be an effective regimen in managing AlCl3-induced renal toxicity.
Background More than half of patients with hypertension in sub-Saharan African do not achieve blood pressure control. This study determined the effect of mobile health technology on systolic blood pressure reduction and blood pressure (BP) control among patients with hypertension in Nigeria and Ghana. Methods A randomised control trial of 225 adults with hypertension attending two General/Medical Outpatient Clinics each in Nigeria and Ghana was randomized into intervention (n = 116) and control (n = 109) arm respectively. Patients in the intervention arm received messages twice weekly from a mobile app for six months in addition to the usual care while the control arm received usual care only. The study outcomes were systolic blood pressure (SBP) reduction and blood pressure control at six months, while the secondary outcome was medication adherence at six months. Data were collected at 0 and 6 months, it was analysed using SPSS-21 software at a significance level of p < 0.05. Binary logistic regression was used to generate the predictors of good blood pressure control. Results The mean age for the control and intervention were 60.2 ± 13.5 and 62.6 ± 10.8 years respectively; p-value = 0.300. The intervention group had greater reductions in SBP (-18.7mmHg vs -3.9mmHg; p < 0.001) and greater BP control rate (44.3% vs 24.8%; p-value 0.002). Conclusions The mobile health intervention resulted in significant SBP reduction rate and improvement in BP control rate in the 6th month. However, improvement in adherence level in the 3rd month and was not sustained in the 6th month. The addition of mobile health technology may be extended for use in the national hypertension control plan. Female gender, formal education and being in the intervention arm were predictors of blood pressure control.
Excessive fertilizer application, majorly nitrogen- and phosphorus-based fertilizers, in farmland has intensified environmental pollution of rivers, lakes, and other surface water bodies worldwide by agricultural non-point sources, especially the highly-mobile nitrogen. To solve nitrogen pollution in sugarcane areas, exploring the nitrogen output characteristics of agricultural watersheds in crop fields becomes necessary. Therefore, the objective of the study was to evaluate the characteristics of nitrogen output during typical rainfall events in different sugarcane growth stages in a southern tropical watershed in China. Dynamic monitoring of runoff and nitrogen concentration was carried out for four rainfall events and compared among four sugarcane growth stages (Establishment; Vegetative growth; Grand growth; Ripening) during the growing season of 2018 in the Nala watershed, Kelan Reservoir, Guangxi, China. The results showed that the total dissolved nitrogen flux of the 4 rainfall events ranged from 0.08 to 9.88 kg·hm−2 for the different growth stages. Nitrate nitrogen was the main component of the total flux, accounting between 75.7 and 92.1% of the total dissolved nitrogen while ammonium nitrogen accounted between 1.80 and 5.26% of the total flux for the 4 rainfall events. Total dissolved nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen were significantly and negatively correlated with runoff (p < 0.05), while total dissolved nitrogen concentration did not correlate with runoff. The incipient scouring effect of total dissolved nitrogen and nitrate-nitrogen was not noticeable. The concentration of total dissolved nitrogen in the Nala watershed was inferior to class V water quality standard, indicating water eutrophication danger. The study showed that nitrogen nutrient inflow into the river was promoted by N-fertilization time and rainfall. Therefore, reasonably reducing N-fertilization dose and post-rain fertilization could effectively reduce nitrogen inflow into rivers and avoid the intensification of eutrophication in sugarcane areas. We recommend multiple years of studies to verify the possible impacts of differences in weather conditions.
The uptake of COVID-19 vaccines is critical to address the severe consequences of the disease. Previous studies have suggested that many healthcare workers (HCWs) are hesitant to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, further enhancing hesitancy rates within countries. COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy levels are currently unknown among HCWs in Zambia, which is a concern given the burden of infectious diseases in the country. Consequently, this study assessed COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy among HCWs in Lusaka, Zambia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 240 HCWs between August and September 2022, using a semi-structured questionnaire. Multivariable analysis was used to determine the key factors associated with vaccine hesitancy among HCWs. Of the 240 HCWs who participated, 54.2% were females. A total of 72.1% of the HCWs would accept being vaccinated, while 27.9% were hesitant. Moreover, 93.3% of HCWs had positive attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines, with medical doctors having the highest mean attitude score (82%). Encouragingly, HCWs with positive attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines had reduced odds of being hesitant (AOR = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.01-0.11, p < 0.001). Overall, acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine among HCWs in Lusaka, Zambia, was high, especially by those with positive attitudes. However, the current hesitancy among some HCWs is a concern. Consequently, there is a need to address this and encourage HCWs to fully promote vaccination programs going forward.
Background: An increase in correct usage of modern contraception is vital in reducing the maternal mortality ratio and Under-5 mortality, leading towards the achievement of Sustainable Development Goal 3. Our study examined the trends and factors affecting non-utilization of modern contraceptives over a 10-year period in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Methodology: This study used data from three consecutive National Demographic Health Surveys (NDHS) - 2008, 2013, and 2018 - with a weighted sample size of 1,357 women of reproductive age (15-49 years). Data on contraceptive use on these women, provided by the NDHS, were extracted and analysed using IBM SPSS version 25. The sample was weighted to adjust for disproportionate sampling and non-response. Pearson's chi-square and binary logistic regression were used to assess the factors associated with non-utilization of modern contraceptives. Results and findings: The mean age of the women was 30 years. Modern contraceptive use increased from 13.1% in 2008 to 23.0% in 2018, while unmet need for modern contraceptives decreased from 84.8% in 2008 to 75.4% in 2018. Identified predictors of non-utilization of modern contraceptive were age 20-24 years [aOR=0.33, 95%CI=0.19-0.59], 25-29 years [aOR=0.34, 95%CI=0.18-0.64], 30-34 years [aOR=0.46, 95%CI=0.22-0.94], 35-39 years [aOR=0.29, 95%CI=0.14-0.61] and 40-44 years [aOR=0.37, 95%CI=0.17-0.80] compared to age 15-19 years; living in urban areas [aOR=0.72, 95%CI=0.53-0.98] compared to in rural areas; higher level of education [aOR=0.46, 95%CI=0.21-0.98] compared to no education; and desire for more children [aOR=0.48, 95%CI=0.32-0.73] compared to not wanting more children. Conclusion: Although contraceptive usage increased over time, the factors associated with non-utilization were being an adolescent, living in a rural area, lower level of education, and desire for more children.
PURPOSE: Liberian refugees have lived in Nigeria since the 1990s experiencing unemployment, discrimination, stigmatization, and emotional and psychological challenges. Perceived social support (PSS) is a crucial cognitive factor that mediates the relationship between the experience of shame and psychological distress. However, there is a paucity of literature on the mediating effects of PSS and shame on psychological distress and their domain-specificities among Liberian refugees. In closing these knowledge gaps, this study aimed to examine the mediating effect of PSS and shame on psychological distress and their domain-specificities among Liberian refugees in Nigeria. METHODS: Using a quantitative research approach, we collected data through questionnaires from 520 participants, including 334 males and 186 females, in the refugee camp in Nigeria. RESULTS: Our findings revealed partial mediation between shame and psychological distress. The dimension of PSS was negatively associated with the dimensions of psychological distress and shame, while the dimension of shame was positively related to the dimension of psychological distress. In addition, behavior shame was positively related to the dimensions of PSS. However, family support failed to associate with anxiety and bodily shame. CONCLUSIONS: shame is a pathological social emotion that increases psychological distress without the presence of PSS. However, PSS has a potential influence in decreasing psychological distress and shame. This study's finding aligns with the IFS theory that culminated in the need for connected relationships with Family, friends, and significant others to manage the shameful parts and psychological distress.
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