Data-art inquiry is an arts-integrated approach to data literacy learning that reflects the multidisciplinary nature of data literacy not often taught in school contexts. By layering critical reflection over conventional data inquiry processes, and by supporting creative expression about data, data-art inquiry can support students' informal inference-making by revealing the role of context in shaping the meaning of data, and encouraging consideration of the personal and social relevance of data. Data-art inquiry additionally creates alternative entry points into data literacy by building on learners' non-STEM interests. Supported by technology, it can provide accessible tools for students to reflect on and communicate about data in ways that can impact broader audiences. However, data-art inquiry instruction faces many barriers to classroom implementation, particularly given the tendency for schools to structure learning with disciplinary silos, and to unequally prioritize mathematics and the arts. To explore the potential of data-art inquiry in classroom contexts, we partnered with arts and mathematics teachers to co-design and implement data-art inquiry units. We implemented the units in four school contexts that differed in terms of the student population served, their curriculum priorities, and their technology infrastructure. We reflect on participant interviews, written reflections, and classroom data, to identify synergies and tensions between data literacy, technology, and the arts. Our findings highlight how contexts of implementation shape the possibilities and limitations for data-art inquiry learning. To take full advantage of the potential for data-art inquiry, curriculum design should account for and build on the opportunities and constraints of classroom contexts.
Background: Despite the effectiveness of innovations to improve the care of persons with dementia, there has been limited diffusion of these into widespread clinical practice. We aimed to identify common barriers and address them directly in the initial phase of dissemination of a successful dementia care program. Methods: Description of and early experience with a dissemination strategy of the UCLA Alzheimer's and Dementia Care Program to health care systems nationwide. We measured site-identified goals for the program and indicators of success, number of adopting sites, and participants in their programs. Results: From January 2019 to December 2021, 80 sites expressed interest in adopting the program, 14 (18%) sites adopted it, and 10 of these sites have begun caring for patients. Another 4 sites have implemented the program as part of a randomized clinical trial. To date, over 1690 persons living with dementia and their caregivers have received Alzheimer's and Dementia Care (ADC) care at 14 adopting sites. Key lessons from the early dissemination efforts include the importance of identifying a strong product champion at the adopting site, creating a business case for adoption, training of clinical staff and adapting the model to fit local cultures and workflow, as well as recognizing the likely long length of time needed for the decision to adopt and implementation process. Conclusions: Despite many obstacles to dissemination, with local champions and technical assistance, successful innovations in dementia care can be implemented in diverse health systems. The ability to adopt sites to bring the program to full scale and achieve comparable outcomes to the original program remains to be determined.
This article addresses the nature of student-generated representations that support students’ early algebraic reasoning in the realm of generalized arithmetic. We analyzed representations created by students for the following qualities: representations that distinguish the behavior of one operation from another, that support an explanation of a specific case of a generalization, and that support justification of a generalization. One key finding is that representations in the form of pictures, diagrams, arrangements of manipulatives, or story contexts that embody the meaning of the operation(s) allow students to distinguish between operations. Such representations can be used by young students to illustrate relationships conveyed in specific instances of a general claim. Further, extending these representations to class of numbers is a mechanism for proving a general claim.
Objective This study investigated the application of the Children’s Safety Network (CSN) Framework for Quality Improvement and Innovation in Child Safety through the Child Safety Learning Collaborative (CSLC). Methods The CSN Framework was used by 26 state/jurisdiction teams that participated in cohort 1 of the CSLC, from November 2018 to April 2020. The aim was to strengthen child safety systems and the workforce to spread child safety evidence-based and evidence-informed strategies and programmes for children and adolescents ages <1–19 years. Procedures Participating teams’ child safety system development, workforce development, engagement in the CSLC, challenges encountered and overall satisfaction with the CSLC were assessed through ongoing CSLC participation records and an end-of-cohort survey (survey response rate: 73.1%). Results Teams showed an average change of 2.4-fold increase in the spread of evidence-based and evidence-informed child safety strategies and programmes, indicating improvement in child safety systems. Knowledge development on CSLC tools and strategies was reported by 77.8% of teams, with 55.5% reporting CSLC tools and strategies contributed to workforce development. Over two-thirds (70.6%) reported being satisfied or very satisfied with the CSLC, but identified some challenges, including staff turnover and the need to strengthen partnerships. All teams demonstrated engagement in the CSLC, based on participation in a virtual meeting, learning session or a monthly report submission. Conclusions Despite challenges, teams continued to participate in the CSLC, recognising the importance of collaborative learning. The CSN Framework is helpful for state/jurisdiction teams to improve child safety systems and develop their workforce.
Many schools and communities conduct regular surveillance surveys to monitor student mental health risk. These surveys rarely ask about use of mental health services, despite the potential importance of this information to support service planning and resource allocation. The current study developed and tested the Adolescent Mental Health Support Scale (AMHSS), a brief self-report measure that can be added to student surveillance surveys to evaluate adolescent mental health service use. The AMHSS includes questions assessing desire to use mental health services, use of mental health services, and barriers to accessing school mental health services. The development process included: (1) a search of the literature for existing questions to include in a question bank for use or adaptation for the new measure; (2) focus groups with adolescents to learn about their conceptualization of mental health services and obtain feedback on candidate survey items; (3) expert review and validation by school-based mental health service providers and research experts; and (4) survey administration and evaluation of psychometric properties. The AMHSS was administered as part of the fall 2018 MetroWest Adolescent Health Survey to students in 27 communities in the MetroWest region of Boston, Massachusetts. Analysis of survey results from 12,924 middle and 26,318 high school students indicated that response patterns were consistent with well-established demographic patterns in help-seeking and mental health service use. Results provide initial support for the AMHSS as a brief measure of mental health service use that could be administered in surveillance surveys to adolescents, with the goal of improving services access.
This study investigated Bhutanese science teachers' conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The study recruited 225 Bhutanese science teachers based on convenient and snowball sampling techniques. The data was collected using the Myths of Science Questionnaire (MOSQ). The MOSQ was designed on Google Forms and administered through the online survey mode. The data was analysed using descriptive statistics in terms of the measure of frequency supported by science teachers' open-ended written responses, Independent Sample t-test, and One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Findings from descriptive statistics showed that Bhutanese science teachers considerably lacked clear understanding of the NOS in terms of scientific knowledge, scientific method, scientists' work, and scientific enterprise. The Independent Sample t-test showed that there was no statistically significant difference between Bhutanese male and female science teachers' perceptions of the NOS with p > .05. The One-way ANOVA test revealed statistically significant differences amongst Bhutanese science teachers' perceptions of the NOS based on their academic qualifications with p < .05. The Tukey Post-hoc test, however, revealed that Bhutanese science teachers' perceptions of the NOS based on academic qualifications was significant only between teachers with postgraduate diploma and doctor of philosophy.
Life skills programming in the field of international workforce development operates within a professional community of practice that is shaped by dynamics of power, influence, and resources, as well as by specific local contexts and actors. This chapter gives detailed insight into three case studies of youth workforce life skills programming developed by the organizations World Learning, Education Development Center, and 10ThousandWindows in different national settings and with distinct youth populations, highlighting how these organizations have interacted with the larger field and learned from one another to address issues of contextualization, pedagogy, sustainability, and scale. Through descriptions of programming in Rwanda, Algeria, and the Philippines, the chapter offers insight into the complexities of life skills curriculum development and contextualization processes and highlights issues that remain difficult to resolve, as well as new frontiers for programming in rapidly changing economies.
The purpose of the article is to substantiate the structure of the professional readiness of future lawyers to work in law enforcement agencies, as well as to substantiate the conditions for its formation in the educational environment of the university: the social and personal significance of legal education and its relevance; students' awareness of legal education as a necessary component of their professional competency; integration, unity and complementarity of state and regional interests in the content and structure of legal education; educational and methodological support of the educational process in relation to the spheres of professional activity of subjects of legal practice; monitoring, which allows diagnosing the formation of general cultural and professional competencies of students, modelling and predicting the pedagogic process, making managerial decisions on its correction based on the obtained objective information. The structure of professional readiness of future lawyers is presented as a multifunctional system education, which includes motivational and value, cognitive, operational-activity, evaluative-reflexive components. Our research complements research on this issue, defines the essence of professional readiness and its structure. The study expands the range of ideas about the professional training of students at university as a whole; complements the theoretical understanding of training of future lawyers for law enforcement.
Elder mistreatment is an urgent and under recognized public health concern with devastating consequences for older adults, families, and health systems. Risk for elder mistreatment has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, further highlighting the urgency to address it. Prehospital emergency medical service (EMS) practitioners have unique opportunities to recognize signs of elder mistreatment but often lack the training and tools required to facilitate consistent identification and intervention. To address this gap, Education Development Center collaborated with a team of expert advisors and EMS practitioners to develop and pilot test Recognizing and Responding to Elder Mistreatment: An Online Training for EMS Practitioners with funding from the RRF Foundation for Aging. This training aims to prepare EMS practitioners to recognize potential mistreatment and report suspected elder mistreatment in line with state laws and their professional code of ethics. In this presentation, we will describe the iterative development process, present results from a pilot test conducted with EMS practitioners in Massachusetts and share strategies and progress for disseminating the training nationally. The pilot study utilized a pre-post design to assess changes in knowledge, attitudes, and practices at baseline, immediately after and two months following participation in the training. Results indicate statistically significant improvements in knowledge related to elder mistreatment identification and response from pre- to post-training and maintenance of these improvements two months later. Participants reported feeling more prepared to address elder mistreatment in their work as EMS practitioners and applying their new knowledge and skills during the two months following the training.
While multiple sectors—cities and communities, education, employment, health, and public health—have identified and implemented strategies to promote age-friendly systems, their efforts have mainly advanced in siloes. Each sector has met goals specific to its constituents, however, the major transformations required to realize systemic inclusivity and well-being among diverse groups of older adults remains indefinable. To begin to address this gap, we have engaged age-friendly sectors in a process of coordinated planning to define and operationalize an age-friendly ecosystem (AFE) that advances cross-sector and age-friendly solutions to meet the needs of all older adults. Our process borrows from Kania and Kramer (2011) who describe conditions to achieve substantial collective impact when coordinating efforts across sectors: a common agenda, shared measurement systems, mutually reinforcing activities, and continuous communication. In this presentation, we describe our stepwise process to set a common agenda, by engaging older adults and working with experts across sectors, to agree on a series of characteristics that define an AFE. Specifically, we surveyed older adults about their perceptions of an age-friendly ecosystem as well as conducted a review and analysis of relevant activities (i.e., policies, programs, and practices) associated with five age-friendly sectors. Next, activities were organized by common and defining characteristics. We then convened more than 40 international experts representing diverse age-friendly sectors to review and revise the AFE characteristics. Through structured and facilitated group processes, we worked with experts to identify and define six critical AFE characteristics as well as examples of corresponding activities.
Abuse, neglect, and exploitation of older adults are prevalent and underreported in the United States. Pathways to identifying and resolving cases of abuse against older adults depend on mandated and non-mandated reporters bringing attention to these cases through reports to Adult Protective Services (APS). However, existing research points to several barriers to reporting. One significant barrier is a lack of communication from APS to reporters about reports they have made (e.g., whether the report is appropriate for APS, the investigation outcome, and services provided by APS). This lack of reciprocal communication likely serves as a disincentive for future reporting. This study aims to promote improved communication between APS and reporters by examining the legal, ethical, and practical barriers and facilitators to communication at key points in the reporting and response pathways. In this first phase of the project, we conducted an environmental scan of policies and practices related to reporting, investigation, and feedback. Early results from the environmental scan suggest most APS agencies (81%) do not currently provide feedback to reporters. Among those providing feedback, 20% provide feedback only to mandated reporters, and 50% provide only procedural feedback, which focuses on the process of receiving and screening reports for investigation and not on the outcome of the investigation. In the next phase of this study, we will supplement these findings through interviews with APS leaders across the U.S. These early results will begin to fill an important gap in the understanding of feedback loops between APS and reporters.
School connectedness is consistently associated with adolescent mental health and well-being. We investigated whether student perceptions of school connectedness were associated with anxiety and depressive symptoms, even during remote learning due to COVID-19. In June of 2020, after 13 weeks of remote learning, 320 middle and high school students in one Massachusetts school district completed an online survey that included questions about their perceptions of school connectedness, social connectedness, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Students were approximately evenly distributed across grades, with 37% in middle school (grades 6–8) and 63% in high school (grades 9–12). School connectedness had a significant negative association with symptoms of anxiety and depression. This association persisted in models controlling for demographic factors and social connectedness. Findings indicate that school connectedness is associated with student mental health, even in the context of remote learning due to COVID-19. Schools engaged in remote learning should consider how to foster school connectedness as a means of supporting youth mental health, particularly given expected increases in the mental health needs of adolescents.
Date Presented Accepted for AOTA INSPIRE 2021 but unable to be presented due to online event limitations. This study evaluated an inclusive extracurricular science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) program for middle-school students on the spectrum cocreated by OTs, educators, and program developers. The program demonstrated positive outcomes on student engagement, executive functioning, social participation, and interests in STEM. The presentation will discuss the collaboration model for the program and strategies used to support the engagement of students on the spectrum. Primary Author and Speaker: Yu-Lun Chen Additional Authors and Speakers: Kavitha Murthi, Kristie Patten Contributing Authors: Wendy Martin, Regan Vidiksis, and Ariana Riccio
Online course taking is widespread in K–12 education and even more so as schools have turned to virtual learning during the global health crisis. Educators across the country are actively seeking evidence-based guidance, only to discover that there is limited rigorous research related to online learning. The need to understand how to prepare students to learn in an online environment has become more urgent. Orientations are cited as a best practice; however, there is no causal evidence to support that recommendation. In a randomized controlled trial, we found no significant differences in online course outcomes between high school students who were assigned an orientation and those in the business-as-usual group, though the timing of enrollment acts as a moderator.
A teacher uses formative assessment interviews to uncover evidence of students’ understandings and to plan targeted instruction in a mathematics intervention class. We present an example of a student interview, a discussion of the benefits and challenges of conducting interviews, and actionable suggestions for implementing them.
Natural language helps express mathematical thinking and contexts. Conventional mathematical notation (CMN) best suits expressions and equations. Each is essential; each also has limitations, especially for learners. Our research studies how programming can be a advantageous third language that can also help restore mathematical connections that are hidden by topic‐centred curricula. Restoring opportunities for surprise and delight reclaims mathematics' creative nature. Studies of children's use of language in mathematics and their programming behaviours guide our iterative design/redesign of mathematical microworlds in which students, ages 7–11, use programming in their regular school lessons as a language for learning mathematics. Though driven by mathematics, not coding, the microworlds develop the programming over time so that it continues to support children's developing mathematical ideas. This paper briefly describes microworlds EDC has tested with well over 400 7‐to‐8‐year‐olds in school, and others tested (or about to be tested) with over 200 8‐to‐11‐year‐olds. Our challenge was to satisfy schools' topical orientation and fit easily within regular classroom study but use and foreshadow other mathematical learning to remove the siloes. The design/redesign research and evaluation is exploratory, without formal methodology. We are also more formally studying effects on children's learning. That ongoing study is not reported here. Practitioner notes What is already known Active learning—doing—supports learning. Collaborative learning—doing together—supports learning. Classroom discourse—focused, relevant discussion, not just listening—supports learning. Clear articulation of one's thinking, even just to oneself, helps develop that thinking. What this paper adds The common languages we use for classroom mathematics—natural language for conveying the meaning and context of mathematical situations and for explaining our reasoning; and the formal (written) language of conventional mathematical notation, the symbols we use in mathematical expressions and equations—are both essential but each presents hurdles that necessitate the other. Yet, even together, they are insufficient especially for young learners. Programming, appropriately designed and used, can be the third language that both reduces barriers and provides the missing expressive and creative capabilities children need. Appropriate design for use in regular mathematics classrooms requires making key mathematical content obvious, strong and the ‘driver’ of the activities, and requires reducing tech ‘overhead’ to near zero. Continued usefulness across the grades requires developing children's sophistication and knowledge with the language; the powerful ways that children rapidly acquire facility with (natural) language provides guidance for ways they can learn a formal language as well. Implications for policy and/or practice Mathematics teaching can take advantage of the ways children learn through experimentation and attention to the results, and of the ways children use their language brain even for mathematics. In particular, programming—in microworlds driven by the mathematical content, designed to minimise distraction and overhead, open to exploration and discovery en route to focused aims, and in which children self‐evaluate—can allow clear articulation of thought, experimentation with immediate feedback. As it aids the mathematics, it also builds computational thinking and satisfies schools' increasing concerns to broaden access to ideas of computer science. What is already known Active learning—doing—supports learning. Collaborative learning—doing together—supports learning. Classroom discourse—focused, relevant discussion, not just listening—supports learning. Clear articulation of one's thinking, even just to oneself, helps develop that thinking. What this paper adds The common languages we use for classroom mathematics—natural language for conveying the meaning and context of mathematical situations and for explaining our reasoning; and the formal (written) language of conventional mathematical notation, the symbols we use in mathematical expressions and equations—are both essential but each presents hurdles that necessitate the other. Yet, even together, they are insufficient especially for young learners. Programming, appropriately designed and used, can be the third language that both reduces barriers and provides the missing expressive and creative capabilities children need. Appropriate design for use in regular mathematics classrooms requires making key mathematical content obvious, strong and the ‘driver’ of the activities, and requires reducing tech ‘overhead’ to near zero. Continued usefulness across the grades requires developing children's sophistication and knowledge with the language; the powerful ways that children rapidly acquire facility with (natural) language provides guidance for ways they can learn a formal language as well. Implications for policy and/or practice Mathematics teaching can take advantage of the ways children learn through experimentation and attention to the results, and of the ways children use their language brain even for mathematics. In particular, programming—in microworlds driven by the mathematical content, designed to minimise distraction and overhead, open to exploration and discovery en route to focused aims, and in which children self‐evaluate—can allow clear articulation of thought, experimentation with immediate feedback. As it aids the mathematics, it also builds computational thinking and satisfies schools' increasing concerns to broaden access to ideas of computer science.
The U.S. National Strategy for Suicide Prevention calls for states to identify supportive structures that encourage efficient, effective, and sustainable suicide prevention programming at the state, territorial, tribal, and local levels (HHS & Action Alliance, 2012). To meet this objective, the Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC) completed a literature review and environmental scan, convened an advisory panel of suicide prevention experts, and conducted interviews with suicide prevention and policy experts to identify six essential state‐level infrastructure elements: - Authorize—Designate a lead organization for suicide prevention in the state and give it the resources to put a state plan into practice. - Lead—Maintain a dedicated leadership and core staff positions in order to enact the plan. Create collaboration within state government. - Partner—Ensure a state‐level public‐private partnership with a shared vision for suicide prevention. - Examine—Encourage the collection and analysis of high‐quality suicide data. - Build—Support a multifaceted lifespan approach to suicide prevention across the state. - Guide—Build state and local capacity for prevention. In this commentary, we recommend a framework for organizing an emerging evidence base on the infrastructure and systems that are needed to support an effective, sustainable, public health approach to suicide prevention.
This chapter argues for fidelity to mathematics in the preparation of elementary teachers by immersing them in doing mathematics—at their knowledge level, of course—by giving them experiences that are true to its investigative, logical, problem-solving, and system-building, curiosity-inspiring nature. Learning to think like a mathematician is very different from learning the facts and procedures that result from that thinking. Mathematics includes both. Doing mathematics—knowing what mathematics is—requires knowledge, but it is not about that knowledge; it is about what you can figure out using that knowledge. Courses for teachers that focus on explaining facts and procedures and how they work miss the heart of mathematics, the thinking. Teachers will naturally perpetuate that message. By contrast, doing mathematics, centered in the discipline of elementary teaching and its contents, cannot help but also include its key facts, affording a more faithful view of the discipline.
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