Parallel to the fast uptake of renewable energy sources (RESs) connected to the grid, the electric power industry has experienced a number of issues related to system strength and inertia. Battery energy storage systems (BESSs) have been proved effective in mitigating numerous stability problems related to the high penetration of renewable energy sources. This paper investigates the role of BESSs in mitigating the voltage and frequency stability issues in weak grids. We utilize a binary grey wolf optimization approach to define the locations and sizes of BESSs to improve voltage and frequency stability in a weak grid. Simulation results show that compared to existing solutions, significant improvements in terms of voltage and frequency stability can be achieved by implementing our proposed solution.
Background The genotoxic and cancerogenic impacts of population-wide cannabinoid exposure remains an open but highly salient question. The present report examines these issues from a continuous bivariate perspective with subsequent reports continuing categorical and detailed analyses. Methods Age-standardized state census incidence of 28 cancer types (including “All (non-skin) Cancer”) was sourced using SEER*Stat software from Centres for Disease Control and National Cancer Institute across US states 2001–2017. It was joined with drug exposure data from the nationally representative National Survey of Drug Use and Health conducted annually by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration 2003–2017, response rate 74.1%. Cannabinoid data was from Federal seizure data. Income and ethnicity data sourced from the US Census Bureau. Data was processed in R. Results Nineteen thousand eight hundred seventy-seven age-standardized cancer rates were returned. Based on these rates and state populations this equated to 51,623,922 cancer cases over an aggregated population 2003–2017 of 124,896,418,350. Regression lines were charted for cancer-substance exposures for cigarettes, alcohol use disorder (AUD), cannabis, THC, cannabidiol, cannabichromene, cannabinol and cannabigerol. In this substance series positive trends were found for 14, 9, 6, 9, 12, 6, 9 and 7 cancers; with largest minimum E-Values (mEV) of 1.76 × 10 ⁹ , 4.67 × 10 ⁸ , 2.74 × 10 ⁴ , 4.72, 2.34 × 10 ¹⁸ , 2.74 × 10 ¹⁷ , 1.90 × 10 ⁷ , 5.05 × 10 ⁹ ; and total sum of exponents of mEV of 34, 32, 13, 0, 103, 58, 25, 31 indicating that cannabidiol followed by cannabichromene are the most strongly implicated in environmental carcinogenesis. Breast cancer was associated with tobacco and all cannabinoids (from mEV = 3.53 × 10 ⁹ ); “All Cancer” (non-skin) linked with cannabidiol (mEV = 1.43 × 10 ¹¹ ); pediatric AML linked with cannabis (mEV = 19.61); testicular cancer linked with THC (mEV = 1.33). Cancers demonstrating elevated mEV in association with THC were: thyroid, liver, pancreas, AML, breast, oropharynx, CML, testis and kidney. Cancers demonstrating elevated mEV in relation to cannabidiol: prostate, bladder, ovary, all cancers, colorectum, Hodgkins, brain, Non-Hodgkins lymphoma, esophagus, breast and stomach. Conclusion Data suggest that cannabinoids including THC and cannabidiol are important community carcinogens exceeding the effects of tobacco or alcohol. Testicular, (prostatic) and ovarian tumours indicate mutagenic corruption of the germline in both sexes; pediatric tumourigenesis confirms transgenerational oncogenesis; quantitative criteria implying causality are fulfilled.
Background As the cannabis-cancer relationship remains an important open question epidemiological investigation is warranted to calculate key metrics including Rate Ratios (RR), Attributable Fractions in the Exposed (AFE) and Population Attributable Risks (PAR) to directly compare the implicated case burden between emerging cannabinoids and the established carcinogen tobacco. Methods SEER*Stat software from Centres for Disease Control was used to access age-standardized state census incidence of 28 cancer types (including “All (non-skin) Cancer”) from National Cancer Institute in US states 2001–2017. Drug exposures taken from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health 2003–2017, response rate 74.1%. Federal seizure data provided cannabinoid exposure. US Census Bureau furnished income and ethnicity. Exposure dichotomized as highest v. lowest exposure quintiles. Data processed in R. Results Nineteen thousand eight hundred seventy-seven age-standardized cancer rates were returned. Based on these rates and state populations this equated to 51,623,922 cancer cases over an aggregated population 2003–2017 of 124,896,418,350. Fifteen cancers displayed elevated E-Values in the highest compared to the lowest quintiles of cannabidiol exposure, namely (in order): prostate, melanoma, Kaposi sarcoma, ovarian, bladder, colorectal, stomach, Hodgkins, esophagus, Non-Hodgkins lymphoma, All cancer, brain, lung, CLL and breast. Eleven cancers were elevated in the highest THC exposure quintile: melanoma, thyroid, liver, AML, ALL, pancreas, myeloma, CML, breast, oropharynx and stomach. Twelve cancers were elevated in the highest tobacco quintile confirming extant knowledge and study methodology. For cannabidiol RR declined from 1.397 (95%C.I. 1.392, 1.402), AFE declined from 28.40% (28.14, 28.66%), PAR declined from 15.3% (15.1, 15.5%) and minimum E-Values declined from 2.13. For THC RR declined from 2.166 (95%C.I. 2.153, 2.180), AFE declined from 53.8% (53.5, 54.1%); PAR declined from 36.1% (35.9, 36.4%) and minimum E-Values declined from 3.72. For tobacco, THC and cannabidiol based on AFE this implies an excess of 93,860, 91,677 and 48,510 cases; based on PAR data imply an excess of 36,450, 55,780 and 14,819 cases. Conclusion Data implicate 23/28 cancers as being linked with THC or cannabidiol exposure with epidemiologically-causal relationships comparable to those for tobacco. AFE-attributable cases for cannabinoids (91,677 and 48,510) compare with PAR-attributable cases for tobacco (36,450). Cannabinoids constitute an important multivalent community carcinogen.
Geotemporospatial and causal inferential epidemiological overview and survey of USA cannabis, cannabidiol and cannabinoid genotoxicity expressed in cancer incidence 2003–2017: part 3 – spatiotemporal, multivariable and causal inferential pathfinding and exploratory analyses of prostate and ovarian cancers
Background The epidemiology of cannabinoid-related cancerogenesis has not been studied with cutting edge epidemiological techniques. Building on earlier bivariate papers in this series we aimed to conduct pathfinding studies to address this gap in two tumours of the reproductive tract, prostate and ovarian cancer. Methods Age-standardized cancer incidence data for 28 tumour types (including “All (non-skin) Cancer”) was sourced from Centres for Disease Control and National Cancer Institute using SEER*Stat software across US states 2001–2017. Drug exposure was sourced from the nationally representative household survey National Survey of Drug Use and Health conducted annually by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration 2003–2017 with response rate 74.1%. Federal seizure data provided cannabinoid concentration data. US Census Bureau provided income and ethnicity data. Inverse probability weighted mixed effects, robust and panel regression together with geospatiotemporal regression analyses were conducted in R. E-Values were also calculated. Results 19,877 age-standardized cancer rates were returned. Based on these rates and state populations this equated to 51,623,922 cancer cases over an aggregated population 2003–2017 of 124,896,418,350. Inverse probability weighted regressions for prostate and ovarian cancers confirmed causal associations robust to adjustment. Cannabidiol alone was significantly associated with prostate cancer (β-estimate = 1.61, (95%C.I. 0.99, 2.23), P = 3.75 × 10 − 7 ). In a fully adjusted geospatiotemporal model at one spatial and two temporal years lags cannabidiol was significantly independently associated with prostate cancer (β-estimate = 2.08, (1.19, 2.98), P = 5.20 × 10 − 6 ). Cannabidiol alone was positively associated with ovarian cancer incidence in a geospatiotemporal model (β-estimate = 0.36, (0.30, 0.42), P < 2.20 × 10 − 16 ). The cigarette: THC: cannabidiol interaction was significant in a fully adjusted geospatiotemporal model at six years of temporal lag (β-estimate = 1.93, (1.07, 2.78), P = 9.96 × 10 − 6 ). Minimal modelled polynomial E-Values for prostate and ovarian cancer ranged up to 5.59 × 10 ⁵⁹ and 1.92 × 10 ¹²⁵ . Geotemporospatial modelling of these tumours showed that the cannabidiol-carcinogenesis relationship was supra-linear and highly sigmoidal ( P = 1.25 × 10 − 45 and 12.82 × 10 − 52 for linear v. polynomial models). Conclusion Cannabinoids including THC and cannabidiol are therefore important community carcinogens additive to the effects of tobacco and greatly exceeding those of alcohol. Reproductive tract carcinogenesis necessarily implies genotoxicity and epigenotoxicity of the germ line with transgenerational potential. Pseudoexponential and causal dose-response power functions are demonstrated.
Prostate cancer is a complex disease affecting millions of men globally. Radiotherapy (RT) is a common treatment modality although treatment efficacy is dependent upon several features within the tumour microenvironment (TME), especially hypoxia. A hypoxic TME heightens radioresistance and thus disease recurrence and treatment failure continues to pose important challenges. However, the TME evolves under the influence of factors in systemic circulation and cellular crosstalk, underscoring its potential to be acutely and therapeutically modified. Early preclinical evidence suggests exercise may affect tumour growth and some of the benefits drawn, could act to radiosensitise tumours to treatment. Intracellular perturbations in skeletal muscle reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulate the production of numerous factors that can exert autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine effects on the prostate. However, findings supporting this notion are limited and the associated mechanisms are poorly understood. In light of this preclinical evidence, we propose systemic changes in redox signalling with exercise activate redox-sensitive factors within the TME and improve tumour hypoxia and treatment outcomes, when combined with RT. To this end, we suggest a connection between exercise, ROS and tumour growth kinetics, highlighting the potential of exercise to sensitise tumour cells to RT, and improve treatment efficacy.
This article addresses several key issues that have been raised related to subjective training load (TL) monitoring. These key issues include how TL is calculated if subjective TL can be used to model sports performance and where subjective TL monitoring fits into an overall decision-making framework for practitioners. Regarding how TL is calculated, there is conjecture over the most appropriate (1) acute and chronic period lengths, (2) smoothing methods for TL data and (3) change in TL measures (e.g., training stress balance (TSB), differential load, acute-to-chronic workload ratio). Variable selection procedures with measures of model-fit, like the Akaike Information Criterion, are suggested as a potential answer to these calculation issues with examples provided using datasets from two different groups of elite athletes prior to and during competition at the 2016 Olympic Games. Regarding using subjective TL to model sports performance, further examples using linear mixed models and the previously mentioned datasets are provided to illustrate possible practical interpretations of model results for coaches (e.g., ensuring TSB increases during a taper for improved performance). An overall decision-making framework for determining training interventions is also provided with context given to where subjective TL measures may fit within this framework and the determination if subjective measures are needed with TL monitoring for different sporting situations. Lastly, relevant practical recommendations (e.g., using validated scales and training coaches and athletes in their use) are provided to ensure subjective TL monitoring is used as effectively as possible along with recommendations for future research.
Background: Malnutrition is considered a major public health challenge and is associated with a range of health issues, including childhood stunting. Stunting is a reliable and well-recognized indicator of chronic childhood malnutrition. The objective of this study is to determine the risk factors associated with stunting among 17,490 children below five years of age in Bangladesh. Methods: Correlates of child stunting were examined using data generated by a cross-sectional cluster survey conducted in Bangladesh in 2019. The data includes a total of 17,490 children (aged < 5 years) from 64,400 households. Multiple logistic regressions were used to determine the risk factors associated with child stunting and severe stunting. Results: The prevalence of stunting and severe stunting for children was 25.96% and 7.97%, respectively. Children aged 24 to < 36 months [Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.65, 95% CI: 2.30, 3.05] and aged 36 to < 48 months [OR = 2.33, 95% CI: 2.02, 2.69] had more risk of stunting compared to the children aged < 6 months. Children from Sylhet division had the greatest risk of stunting of all the eight divisions [OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.46]. Children of secondary complete or higher educated mothers were less likely to develop stunting [OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.56, 0.79] compared with children of mothers having no education at all. Similarly, children of secondary complete or higher educated father [OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.63, 0.87] were found to have lower risk of stunting compared with children whose father hadn't any education. Substantially lower risk of stunting was observed among children whose mother and father both completed secondary education or above [OR = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.69]. Children from the richest households [OR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.41, 0.58] had 51% lower odds of stunting compared to children from the poorest households. Conclusions: After controlling for socioeconomic and demographic factors, parental education and household position in the wealth index were found to be the most important determinants of child stunting in Bangladesh.
Background The extramuscular connective tissue (ECT) has been shown to play a significant role in mechanical force transmission between musculoskeletal structures. Due to this and owing to its tight connection with the underlying muscle, the ECT may be vulnerable to excessive loading. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of eccentric elbow flexor exercise on the morphology of the biceps brachii ECT. In view of the high nociceptive capacity of the ECT, an additional objective was to elucidate the potential relationship between ECT damage and the occurrence of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Methods Eleven healthy participants (♂ = 7; 24 ± 2 years) performed fatiguing dumbbell elbow flexor eccentric exercise (EE) for one arm and concentric exercise (CE) for the other arm in random order and with random arm allocation. Before, immediately after and 24–96 h post-exercise, maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque of the elbow flexors (dynamometer), pressure pain (algometer), palpation pain (100 mm visual analog scale), biceps brachii ECT thickness and ECT/muscle mobility during passive movement (both high-resolution ultrasound) were examined. Results Palpation pain, suggestive of DOMS, was greater after EE than CE, and maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque decreased greater after EE than CE (p < .05). Relative to CE, EE increased ECT thickness at 48 (+ 17%), 72 (+ 14%) and 96 (+ 15%) hours post-exercise (p < .05). At 96 h post-EE, the increase in ECT thickness correlated with palpation pain (r = .68; p < .05). ECT mobility was not different between conditions, but compared to CE, muscle displacement increased at 24 (+ 31%), 72 (+ 31%) and 96 (+ 41%) hours post-EE (p < .05). Conclusion Collectively, these results suggest an involvement of the ECT changes in delayed onset muscle soreness.
Movement variability is defined as the normal variations in motor performance across multiple repetitions of a task. However, the term “movement variability” can mean different things depending on context, and when used by itself does not capture the specifics of what has been investigated. Within sport, complex movements are performed repeatedly under a variety of different constraints (e.g. different situations, presence of defenders, time pressure). Movement variability has implications for sport performance and injury risk management. Given the importance of movement variability, it is important to understand the terms used to measure and describe it. This broad term of “movement variability” does not specify the different types of movement variability that are currently being assessed in the sporting literature. We conducted a scoping review (1) to assess the current terms and definitions used to describe movement variability within sporting tasks and (2) to utilise the results of the review for a proposed framework that distinguishes and defines the different types of movement variability within sporting tasks. To be considered eligible, sources must have assessed a sporting movement or skill and had at least one quantifiable measure of movement variability. A total of 43 peer-reviewed journal article sources were included in the scoping review. A total of 280 terms relating to movement variability terminology were extracted using a data-charting form jointly developed by two reviewers. One source out of 43 (2%) supplied definitions for all types of movement variability discussed. Moreover, 169 of 280 terms (60%) were undefined in the source material. Our proposed theoretical framework explains three types of movement variability: strategic, execution, and outcome. Strategic variability describes the different approaches or methods of movement used to complete a task. Execution variability describes the intentional and unintentional adjustments of the body between repetitions within the same strategy. Outcome variability describes the differences in the result or product of a movement. These types emerged from broader frameworks in motor control and were adapted to fit the movement variability needs in sports literature. By providing specific terms with explicit definitions, our proposed framework can ensure like-to-like comparisons of previous terms used in the literature. The practical goal of this framework is to aid athletes, coaches, and support staff to gain a better understanding of how the different types of movement variability within sporting tasks contribute to performance. The framework may allow training methods to be tailored to optimise the specific aspects of movement variability that contribute to success. This review was retrospectively registered using the Open Science Framework (OSF) Registries (https://osf.io/q73fd).
Hydraulic fracturing of tight formations and placing proppants within induced fractures are commonly performed in unconventional shale reservoirs all over the world, especially in North America. However, the overall recovery of these oil and gas resources is very low and hence, production enhancement is inevitable. This study investigated the acidizing of propped fractures as a recovery enhancement method in Eagle Ford shale samples. Experiments were designed using sample slabs having proppants between them. Differing parameters were examined to optimize the fracture conductivity through acidizing. For a range of confining pressures, the fracture conductivity was maximized by minimizing the proppant embedment. A higher acid injection rate was achieved with a 5 % HCl concentration. Proppant concentration and proppant size were found to affect fracture conductivity inversely. However, this trend was not observed to be monotonic. In terms of production parameters, the skin factor determined the optimized conditions at a constant confining pressure. Overall, the optimum conditions for acidizing in the propped fractures were determined while having 5 % HCl concentration, 1 lb/ft² (4.88 kg/m²) proppant concentration, 600–710 μm of proppant size and 8 ml/min acid injection rate. These findings confirmed the applicability of the method for hydraulic fracturing optimization in Eagle Ford shale samples. It can also be regarded as a primary enhancement method due to its low cost and the process simplicity in comparison to hydraulic fracturing operations. The experimental results of this study would correspondingly enlighten their potential field applications through facilitating appropriate modification with regards to specific operational conditions.
Rock wettability is influenced by several conditions, and one such factor is the potential at the rock/fluid interface. While most studies have reported zeta potential in this context, very few investigations have carried out streaming potential measurements. Further to this, most previous studies have only evaluated zeta potential/streaming potential for NaCl brine-clean sandstone systems, while it is clear that organic matter exists in subsurface rock. However, the effect of these forms of organic matter on streaming potential has not yet been probed. Accordingly, in this study streaming potential measurements were firstly conducted on pristine San Saba sandstone samples with 0.3 mol.dm3 NaCl brine-saturated at (6.895 MPa overburden and 3.447 MPa back-pressure). Secondly, the streaming potential of the aged samples was measured under identical conditions (the cores were saturated with aqueous HA solutions of different concentration; 1–100 mg/L) in 0.3 mol.dm⁻³ NaCl. Thirdly, a comparative analysis of zeta potentials was conducted via electrophoretic and streaming potential. Lastly, the T2 spectrum for the initial water saturation of pristine and aged cores, along with the T2 spectrum of residual water saturation after CO2 flooding for pristine and aged cores, were measured with NMR core flooding measurements. Accordingly, this work analyses the effects of organic acids on wettability alteration in sandstone formation in accordance with these procedures. A strong correlation exists between surface adsorption of organic acid and streaming potential coefficient, where the amount of residual water saturation decreases in humic-acid aged cores – suggesting the presence of organic acid that changes wettability towards CO2 wet in pores, where the CO2 displaces more brine in aged cores compared to pristine cores.
Characterization of fluid–rock interactions is essential for a broad range of subsurface applications such as understanding fluid flow in porous medium and enhanced oil recovery predictions. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) is crucial in oil and gas production operations, it entails injecting fluids into the reservoir to enhance productivity. When fluids are injected, interactions occur between the injected fluids and the reservoir rock/fluids; and the outcomes of fluid–rock interactions critically impact the fluid flow in porous medium and the associated oil recovery. Furthermore, the associated changes in reservoir properties (porosity, permeability etc.) and flow behavior (i.e. wettability alteration and relative permeability changes) demonstrate variability at a range of scales. Thus, it is of great importance to understand these interactions at multiple scales and their ensuing implications on EOR. This study therefore provides a comprehensive review of the types of fluid–rock interactions in both carbonate and sandstone reservoirs. Fluid–rock interactions quantification methods, their applicability and principle of measurements were summarized. The implications of fluid–rock interactions were extensively discussed. Finally, we identified and highlighted some research gaps and provided recommendations for future research directions. The findings of this review show that despite numerous studies on fluid–rock interactions such as adsorption, dissolution/precipitation, clay swelling/fines migration and wetting characteristics in porous media involving EOR fluids, the exact mechanism of action of these fluids during EOR applications in rock/oil/brine system, is still not fully understood. The extent and implications of these fluid–rock interactions on EOR depends on several factors/parameters. Such factors include the injected fluid type and chemical composition, rock type and mineralogical composition, brine pH, salinity and composition. Moreover, the review shows that all the fluid–rock interactions quantification techniques have some limitations either in their applicability, measurement range, or uncertainty level. Therefore, the incorporation of various imaging and characterization tools would be required for improved understanding the fluid–rock interactions. The review, therefore, provides critical insights in the area of fluid–rock interactions and its implications on EOR. Thus, the findings of this review are expected to enhance our knowledge and provide better understanding of fluid–rock interactions and thereby reduce the uncertainties associated with laboratory-scale predictions, reservoir management and enhanced recovery of oil.
Post-stroke lateropulsion is prevalent. The global inconsistency in terminology used to describe the condition presents obstacles in accurately comparing research results, reaching consensus on use of measurement tools, agreeing upon a consistent approach to rehabilitation, and translating research to clinical practice. Commencing in 2021, 20 international experts undertook a Delphi Process that aimed to compile clinical practice recommendations for the rehabilitation of lateropulsion. As a part of the process, the panel agreed to aim to reach consensus regarding terminology used to describe the condition. Improved understanding of the condition could lead to improved management, which will enhance patient outcomes after stroke and increase efficiency of healthcare resource utilisation. While consensus was not reached, the panel achieved some agreement that ‘lateropulsion’ is the preferred term to describe the phenomenon of ‘active pushing of the body across the midline toward the more affected side, and / or actively resisting weight shift toward the less affected side’. This group recommends that ‘lateropulsion' is used in future research and in clinical practice.
No research in tourism or medicine has addressed the potential relationship between travel and the medical treatment of dementia. Given tourism's increasingly important role in society, a cross-disciplinary team of tourism and dementia experts provide insight into the potential benefits of tourism for individuals with dementia. This conceptual effort critically reviews the tourism and dementia literature and addresses pertinent knowledge gaps. Tourism is presented as a possible way to improve dementia patients' well-being as an adjunct to non-pharmacological interventions. Accordingly, a conceptual framework is proposed to highlight the nexus between tourism experiences and dementia interventions. Future interdisciplinary research directions are also described.
Bioethanol is a promising candidate for acetaldehyde production. In this study, we controllably unzipped multi-walled carbon nanotubes into open-edged nanotube/nanoribbon hybrids via a nano-cutting strategy for metal-free oxidative dehydrogenation of ethanol to acetaldehyde and unravelled the catalytic role of edge defects in the reaction. The edge-rich structure of the 1D-nanotube/2D-nanoribbon hybrid can accelerate the catalytic reaction more efficiently than pristine carbon sample. Moreover, edges can further accommodate nitrogen defects to preferentially form edge-doped nitrogen. Through engineering the concentration and speciation of defects, the structure-performance relationship between the defective structure and ethanol conversion rate is intensively investigated. Theoretical calculations unveil that the nitrogen doped at edge sites other than in basal planes can effectively facilitate O2 dissociation and formation of oxygen-containing active centers. Temperature-programmed ethanol desorption and kinetic measurements further supplement the catalytic interplay of edge and nitrogen defects on ethanol adsorption and reaction kinetics. The synergistic edge and nitrogen defects of the engineered hybrid produced a steady ethanol conversion of 47.9% and acetaldehyde selectivity of 90.2% at the gas hourly space velocity of 48,000 mL gcat⁻¹h⁻¹ on stream of 48 h. This work offers more insights to intrinsic properties and mechanism of enriched defective structures for development of effective carbocatalysts in catalytic applications.
Artificial intelligence (AI) is gaining increasing attention from business leaders today. As a primary AI tool, chatbots have seen increasing use by companies to support customer service. An understanding of how chatbots are used is essential for improving customer service. Based on the relevant literature, this study examined the impacts of chatbot-enabled agility (namely, internal and external chatbot agility) on customer service performance and explored the antecedents from the perspective of information technology use (both routine and innovative use). We collected data from 294 U.S. marketing employees from various industries, using a survey for the assessment of our research model. The results showed that both routine and innovative use of chatbots were positively related to internal and external agility. In particular, the innovative use of chatbots plays an important role in creating business agility. Moreover, internal and external agility are positively related to customer service performance. Through a close look at chatbots and their use, our study provides insight into the role of AI in creating business agility. Practically speaking, this study suggests that both the routine and the innovative use of chatbots should be encouraged to create agility and develop business sustainability.
Information on fish species diversity is important to monitor changes and maintain sustainability in multispecies fisheries. However, examination of species diversity often ignores spatial patterns, yet it is influenced by spatially structured ecological processes. Such information is important for identifying areas of high conservation value for individual species, taxonomic groups or the entire ecosystem. In this study, the spatial distribution of West Coast demersal scalefish diversity in Western Australia was characterized based on recreational fishing data collected through two off-site phone-diary surveys. Using multivariate indicator cokriging, the effect of fishing effort and measurement uncertainty was considered in the characterisation. The study found that teleost species from Families Epinephelidae, Glaucosomatidae and Sparidae were the most common, with the relative contribution of 77% and 71% to the total catch in 2011/12 and 2013/14, respectively. In addition, maps of diversity indices showed that high diversity was located at the south-central parts of the study area and increased near the coast with some patchiness at the southern part. Spatial maps can be helpful when site-specific management is aimed at maintaining a certain level of species diversity caught by recreational fishers.
The continuous increase of demand for lithium (Li) chemicals in industrial applications calls for exploring affordable Li production and sustainable options beyond land mining. Thus, aqueous resources, such as geothermal brine, salt lake brine, and seawater, play an essential role in continuous Li supply due to abundant storage and low cost. Adsorption technology is promising in Li recovery with the advantages of attaining high selectivity for Li over other major ions present in aqueous resources at low cost and low energy demand with facile synthesis processes that enable practical large-scale production. Metal-based adsorbents are conspicuous among various adsorbents for presenting the visible prospect closest to industrial applications. This review presents a comprehensive summary and critical analysis of the synthesis methods for metal-based adsorbents, the mechanisms for Li selective recovery, and the performance of Li adsorption. The advantages and challenges are discussed for different adsorbents and preparation methods. A specific focused case study on an industrial application of Al-based adsorbent production and Li recovery processes and operations on an engineering and economic scale is discussed in detail to provide a comprehensive overview of the practical industrial application of metal-based adsorbent.
Solar desalination is one of the crucial methods to convert brackish water to freshwater. The major issue of solar desalination is the low water production rate, and for this reason, several studies have been performed on increasing the productivity of solar desalination with active methods, including heat pipe (thermosyphon, pulsating), energy storage material, photovoltaic/thermal, etc. The operating fluid into the heat pipe/pulsating heat pipe evaporates as the temperature increases in the evaporation area and flows to the condensation area. After transferring the heat to the outside, working fluid recycles from the heat pipe walls into the evaporation zone. A heat pipe is a practical and easy-to-use device for transferring heat from a high-temperature energy application to water in solar desalination and to enhance the evaporation rate. This study aims to review the performance of solar desalination systems with heat pipes and pulsating heat pipes. Also, a comprehensive effort has been dedicated to comparing the working fluids of the heat pipe/pulsating heat pipe in different configurations of solar desalination. Moreover, a brief economic analysis of previous studies has been presented for a cost-effective design of solar desalination using thermosyphon heat pipes and pulsating heat pipes. The results indicated that the optimum filling ration of water as a working fluid in pulsating heat pipe was about 40 %. Also, the lowest CPL was achieved in solar desalination with heat pipe evacuated tube, which was about 0.0092 $/L. In addition, the highest improve in productivity was occurred in solar desalination with THP and external condenser, which was 2.13 times more than conventional ones.
An increasing amount of spent coffee grounds (SCG) has resulted in a huge burden on landfills; thus, alternative viable technologies are needed. The hydrothermal carbonization of SCG was studied to determine to produce high-quality hydrochar. The influence of three independent variables (temperature, reaction duration, and solid to liquid ratio) on the yield of hydrochar and conversion was investigated through 15 experimental runs using central composite design (CCD). The most optimized conversion and hydrochar yield results were 89.8 % and 10.1 %, respectively. Higher heating value (HHV) progressed considerably from 19.1 MJ/kg of SCG to 21.2 MJ/kg of hydrochar. The ultimate analysis results for hydrochar revealed that the quantity of carbon (C) upgraded from 50.1 to 55.9 %, whereas; oxygen (O) content decreased from 40.5 to 38.7 %, hence improving the energy and combustion properties. The Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis portrayed the alteration in the structure of SCG and improved porosity after hydrothermal processing, which was further investigated via Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. BET surface area improved from 4.4 m²/g (for SCG) to 16.5 m²/g (for hydrochar). The thermal stability of hydrochar was upgraded from 330 °C for SCG to 375 °C for hydrochar.
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