Ecole d'ingénierie et d'innovation textile
Recent publications
In the fashion industry, garment sizing is a challenging issue and involves different problems resulting in lost profits. The design of a sizing system is a complex task involving both anthropometric data and subjective data, such as comfort or fit. With the emergence of big data, companies can collect valuable information about their consumers and, thus, enhance their sizing systems. Although several methods have been proposed in the literature, they do not integrate consumer comfort and fit. The method proposed in this article aims to design a suitable sizing system, while taking into account both morphological features and consumer preferences. Consumer preferences are extracted from a satisfaction survey, and are then integrated into an optimization process. The main contribution of the proposed model is twofold: a comprehensive evaluation of sizing systems that are based on consumer preferences is proposed and an optimization algorithm is developed to perfectly fit the problem. The proposed system is implemented and evaluated on the measurement database of the CAESAR project and a satisfaction survey conducted by a French fashion retailer. A comparison with up to date techniques and the existing sizing systems demonstrates that our model provides significant improvements for consumer fit and coverage.
In this study, polymeric/metallic yarns were fabricated by using the micrometric copper multifilament and the polymer multifilament to create electrically conductive, thin, flexible composite yarn structures. The main aim is to realize the circuit board by using fabricated conductive yarns in the needle position of the embroidery machine and to integrate electronic components on textile structures by the soldering process. In the embroidery machine, the usage of the yarn in the needle gives a chance to create a tailored design according to the specified application. Mechanical and electrical properties of fabricated yarns were investigated. Meanwhile, a benchmark test has been done by using other commercial conductive yarns. Their embroidery performances were tested by investigating the possible harms during the stitching process. Finally, several embroidered circuit boards have been realized to show the versatility of fabricated yarns for different circuit designs.
This special issue collects 9 peer-reviewed papers. The main topics deal with smart wearable device development (4 papers) and intelligent signal processing algorithms integrated into wearable devices (5 papers). These papers are based on specific applications on online monitoring or tracking of human physical activity (5 papers) and medical indices (EEG, ECG, PPG and blood glucose) (4 papers) but can also be extended to processing of more generalized scenarios.
Textile metamaterials produced by a weaving of metallic and dielectric yarns are considered for filtering operations in the submillimeter band. A woven metamaterial was designed by parametric simulations aimed at producing a high-pass filter with a cutoff frequency at around 500 GHz above a high reflective band and a strong rejection. The woven metamaterial is analyzed by means of an equivalent circuit formed by two resonant impedances which are responsible of the rejection and high-pass features. A textile metamaterial was produced by an automatic weaving loom in a semi-industrial environment and it was electromagnetically characterized in free space. Experimental results are in good agreement compared with simulation and a phase-advance in transmission is evidenced. The phase of the reflection coefficient is also experimentally investigated thanks to a de-embedding process using a double sided reflective mirror as a reference. Finally, the equivalent circuit of the fabricated textile is computed from the complex experimental reflection and transmission coefficients.
The purpose of this paper is to study some properties of solutions to one dimensional as well as multidimensional stochastic differential equations (SDEs in short) with super-linear growth conditions on the coefficients. Taking inspiration from \cite{BEHP, KBahlali, Bahlali}, we introduce a new {\it{local condition}} which ensures the pathwise uniqueness, as well as the non-contact property. We moreover show that the solution produces a stochastic flow of continuous maps and satisfies a large deviations principle of Freidlin-Wentzell type. Our conditions on the coefficients go beyond the existing ones in the literature. For instance, the coefficients are not assumed uniformly continuous and therefore can not satisfy the classical Osgood condition. The drift coefficient could not be locally monotone and the diffusion is neither locally Lipschitz nor uniformly elliptic. Our conditions on the coefficients are, in some sense, near the best possible. Our results are sharp and mainly based on Gronwall lemma and the localization of the time parameter in concatenated intervals
The quality of fibrous reinforcements used in composite materials can be monitored during the weaving process. Fibrous sensors previously developed in our laboratory, based on PEDOT:PSS, have been adapted so as to directly measure the mechanical stress on fabrics under static or dynamic conditions. The objective of our research has been to develop new sensor yarns, with the ability to locally detect mechanical stresses all along the warp or weft yarn. This local detection is undertaken inside the weaving loom in real time during the weaving process. Suitable electronic devices have been designed in order to record in situ measurements delivered by this new fibrous sensor yarn.
Dyeing of polyester fabric with curcumin was studied at 90 and 130 °C without and with a prior surface activation of polyester fabric using two different ecotechnologies: air atmospheric plasma treatment and ultraviolet excimer lamp at 172 nm. Without surface activation, dyeing with curcumin followed classical disperse dye behaviour, with higher dye uptake at 130 °C than at 90 °C, and saturation was readily reached at 2% dye owf at 130 °C with a colour yield of 22. Surface‐sorbed curcumin molecules extracted with ethanol seemed to increase the colour yield values at 90 °C dyeing, while at 130 °C they decreased the colour yield values. When dyeing was carried out after a prior surface activation of the polyester fabrics, increased colour yield was observed at both dyeing temperatures for the ultraviolet excimer lamp only (with colour yield increasing from 2 to 10 at 90 °C and from 22 to 28 at 130 °C for a 2% dye owf). Indeed, both surface activation methods yielded hydrophilic species at the polyester fabric fibre surface, which were confirmed by water contact angle, X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements and atomic force microscopy. However, the surface of the polyester fabric activated using plasma lost all of its hydrophilic species, reaching the water contact angle of untreated polyester when subjected to the dyeing conditions. The excimer treatment yields hydrophilic species that are more resistant to high temperature and pressure dyeing.
This article describes further development of a novel Non Destructive Evaluation (NDE) approach described in one of our previous papers. Here these sensors have been used for the first time as a Piecewise Continuous System (PCS), which means that they are not only capable of following the deformation pattern but can also detect distinctive fracture events. In order to characterize the simultaneous compression and traction response of these sensors, multilayer glass laminate composite samples were prepared for 3-point bending tests. The laminate sample consisted of five layers of plain woven glass fabrics placed one over another. The sensors were placed at two strategic locations during the lay-up process so as to follow traction and compression separately. The reinforcements were then impregnated in epoxy resin and later subjected to 3-point bending tests. An appropriate data treatment and recording device has also been developed and used for simultaneous data acquisition from the two sensors. The results obtained, under standard testing conditions have shown that our textile fibrous sensors can not only be used for simultaneous detection of compression and traction in composite parts for on-line structural health monitoring but their sensitivity and carefully chosen location inside the composite ensures that each fracture event is indicated in real time by the output signal of the sensor.
This article deals with an alternative method for bio-separation of surfactin produced by Bacillus subtilis using sorption method on nonwoven PET (polyethylene terephthalate) fibrous membranes functionalized with chitosan. In the first part of the study, surface functionalization of the PET nonwoven fibrous membranes is carried out with aqueous 65% deacetylated chitosan solution with or without a prior surface activation using air-atmospheric plasma treatment. Very small modification of the PET fibrous nonwoven air-permeability confirms the functionalization of PET fibre surface with little reduction of membrane porosity. The functionalized membranes are then characterized by physico-chemical methods: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Wettability and zeta potential. Chitosan increases drastically the zeta potential of PET at all pH values though a prior plasma treatment of the PET membrane reduces slightly the increase in zeta potential values. Sorption of surfactin quantified by HPLC shows that the extent of surfactin sorption on PET nonwovens depends on the surface functionalization method. Surface functionalization with chitosan results in immediate sorption of the entire quantity of surfactin. A prior surface activation by air atmospheric plasma treatment of the PET membranes before chitosan application retards the sorption of entire surfactin which takes place after 1.5h, only. Increased zeta potential and increased hydrophobic behavior in the presence of chitosan without plasma activation would explain the interesting surfactin sorption results.
The chemical composition and some biological properties of four algae (Ulva rigida, Codium bursa, Cystoseira barbata, and Ceramium diaphanum) collected from the Gabes Gulf area (Tunisia) were examined. Ash (11.35–29.08% weight/dry weight [w/dw]) and total sugar (13.20–18.70% w/dw) were the most abundant contents in these algae. Protein contents were moderate (5.03–14.00% w/dw), with the red alga (C. diaphanum) having the highest value. Lipid contents were within the range mentioned for seaweeds (<3% w/dw). Saturated fatty acids occurring at the highest proportions were C16:0 (24.53–41.37%) and C12:0 (10.37–24.44%). The most abundant monounsaturated fatty acid was C18:1n-9 (21.74–54.22%), whereas the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid was C18:2n-6 (9.57–11.71%). Variations in chemical composition can be attributed to both environmental and genetic differences among species. All algal extracts displayed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus simulans (inhibition diameter: 10–25 mm), antioxidant activity (radical scavenging activity: 0.8–23%), and anti-inflammatory activity (48–61% inhibition of the phospholipase A2 activity); therefore, the marine algae examined can be considered abundant resources of bioactive molecules.
Polypropylene (PP)-knitted fabrics were finished with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and crosslinked with citric acid (CTR). The polyCTR–β-CD polymer-coated fibers were wash resistant. We report that the rate of immobilized CD was controlled by temperature and curing time. The weight increase of the fabrics after modification with native β-CD and CTR reached 30 %wt. The treated PP supports were dyed using disperse, acid and reactive dyes. Standard tests of wash fastness (shade change and staining) were conducted and showed that all dyes were fixed, because of inclusion complexation with immobilized cavities on the one hand and sorbed hydrogen and ionic bonds that occurred between the polyCTR–β-CD coating and the tested dyestuffs on the other.
This paper evaluates and analyzes a number of fabric products. This evaluation has been carried out in both the space of basic technical parameters and the space of fashion oriented consumer requirements. Fuzzy measures have been used to characterize dissimilarity and inclusion between any of two different fashion themes as well as relevancy of technical parameters of fabric products related to fashion oriented consumer requirements. Finally, the paper applies a classical parametric identification method to determine fashion composition for each collection of products from product sales performance in order to select relevant products and compare between collections. This analysis can also be extended to other fashion oriented products.
The weight gain method is employed to study the vertical capillary flow of wetting liquids in polyester nonwoven fabrics with different basis weights. The quantity of liquid absorbed by capillarity in the nonwoven is recorded as a function of time, until saturation. The liquid retention capacity of the nonwovens has been studied from their “saturation level”, i.e. the fraction of pore volume effectively filled with liquid. It is found that this saturation level varies greatly with the type of nonwoven, and generally decreases with nonwoven thickness. Moreover, the expected 100% value is rarely attained even when the sample height is smaller than the Jurin equilibrium height. These observations are attributed to the more heterogeneous pore sizes in very thin nonwovens, where the interconnection of large and small pores inhibits the continued capillary rise of liquid front. The other part of the study concerns the kinetics of liquid capillary flow which has been analyzed by taking into account the contribution of the meniscus in filling the pores. By subtracting this contribution from the mass of liquid absorbed, the new absorption mass is found to vary linearly with the square root of time, in agreement with the Washburn theory. For the thinnest nonwovens, the very small and unrealistic values of Washburn radii deduced from the experimental results do not correspond to the real physical pore sizes, but reflect slow capillary kinetics. This phenomenon is, however, less important when the thickness of the sample increases.
Polypropylene clay fibres loaded with different alkylammonium-modified montmorillonite were prepared using a melt spinning technique and relationships between the structure and properties of the nanopolypropylene fibres are discussed. Experiments carried out using transmission electron microscopy showed that the chemical structure of the organic modifier and the interlayer spacing of the clay induced different dispersions of the clay, thus improving accessibility of the nano fibre. It is known that nanoclays are effective and efficient sorbents for dyes. Therefore, the dyeing behaviour of the nano polypropylene fibres with two distinct acid dyes and a disperse dye was studied and the build-up of dyes, measured as colour yield, reported. The best results were obtained when the clay was well dispersed in nanopolypropylene fibres; that is, when maleated polypropylene was added as a compatibiliser and when disperse dye was used. Good wash fastness was then obtained.
The aim of this work is to develop a smart flexible sensor adapted to textile structures, able to measure their strain deformations. The sensors are "smart" because of their capacity to adapt to the specific mechanical properties of textile structures that are lightweight, highly flexible, stretchable, elastic, etc. Because of these properties, textile structures are continuously in movement and easily deformed, even under very low stresses. It is therefore important that the integration of a sensor does not modify their general behavior. The material used for the sensor is based on a thermoplastic elastomer (Evoprene)/carbon black nanoparticle composite, and presents general mechanical properties strongly compatible with the textile substrate. Two preparation techniques are investigated: the conventional melt-mixing process, and the solvent process which is found to be more adapted for this particular application. The preparation procedure is fully described, namely the optimization of the process in terms of filler concentration in which the percolation theory aspects have to be considered. The sensor is then integrated on a thin, lightweight Nylon fabric, and the electromechanical characterization is performed to demonstrate the adaptability and the correct functioning of the sensor as a strain gauge on the fabric. A normalized relative resistance is defined in order to characterize the electrical response of the sensor. Finally, the influence of environmental factors, such as temperature and atmospheric humidity, on the sensor performance is investigated. The results show that the sensor's electrical resistance is particularly affected by humidity. This behavior is discussed in terms of the sensitivity of the carbon black filler particles to the presence of water.
Sliding mode control is popular method for achieving robust tracking of nonlinear systems. The state is forced onto a manifold in state space by discontinuous control. This manifold is so that staying on it implies convergence to the state space origin. In this paper, the nonlinear sliding mode speed and flux control (SMC) based on field orientation for an induction motor drive is proposed, based on the transformed state coordinate representing the speed and flux magnitude dynamic. With the proposed control of speed and flux amplitude, the controlled induction motor drive possesses the advantages of robustness to parametric uncertainties and disturbances. Finally, some simulation results are given to validate the proposed controllers.
This paper presents a fuzzy logic based method for analyzing the data provided by different individuals in sensory evaluation of industrial products. In order to process the uncertainty existing in these sensory data, we first transform all sensory data into fuzzy sets on a unified scale using the 2-tuple fuzzy linguistic model. Based on these normalized data sets, we compute the dissimilarities or distances between different individuals and between different evaluation terms used by them, defined according to the degree of consistency of data variation. The obtained distances are then transformed into fuzzy numbers for physical interpretation. These fuzzy distances permit to characterize the evaluation behavior of each individual and the quality of the evaluation terms used. Also, based on these fuzzy distances, a data aggregation approach can be further developed for finding a compromise between all individuals. This method has been applied to the fabric hand evaluation for a number of samples of knitted cotton in order to identify consumers' preference of different populations.
This paper is the second one dealing with the mathematical modelling of the diffusion during a dyeing process. In the first paper [1], a mathematical model describing the diffusion coefficient evolution as a function of time, initial dye concentration, and dyebath nature was proposed. This model applies to the dyeing of polyester fibres with disperse dyes. The influence of temperature variations on the diffusion coefficient is the main subject of this second paper. First, a more accurate method for the diffusion coefficient computation is developed, leading to improvements of the previous model. Then, this model is reconsidered (completed), including the temperature variations influence and finally, it is tested and validated with a dyeing experiment having an imposed temperature profile.
The effects of fillers (talc and calcium carbonate) were investigated on polypropylene /ammonium polyphosphate/polyamide-6 (PP/APP/PA-6) intumescent system by using mechanical testing, LOI method, cone calorimetry and thermoanalytical techniques. Calcium carbonate and talc affect the fire protective properties of PP/APP/PA-6 system in different ways. It is shown that talc induces an increase in the Young's modulus and a decrease in the elongation at break. Calcium carbonate leads to a decrease in the elongation at break, but there is no improvement in the Young's modulus. Talc increases fire protective performance due to forming a ceramic like protective shield at the surface, whereas calcium carbonate decreases it because of a reaction with APP. Effects of talc and calcium carbonate were furthermore investigated on PP/APP/PA-6 system by measuring Rate of Heat Release (RHR), Total Heat Emitted (THE), CO/CO2 evolution and residual mass. Results are interpreted by means of decomposition, chemical reaction between components and formation of a protective shield at the surface at ignition.
The disperse dyeing process for polyester fibres is complex. It is characterised by the diffusion-controlled sorption of dyes and depends on dye concentration, dyebath temperature, dye liquor flow rate and fibre count. Moreover, the dyeing properties of super-microfibres are also quite different from those of microfibres or conventional polyester fibres. In this paper the influence of dyebath temperature, initial dye concentration and fibre count on the diffusion coefficient and the sorption isotherms has been studied. The analysis of kinetic properties has been restricted to infinite dyebath conditions. All experimental results have been compared terms of fibre count and dyebath temperature.
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Xianyi Zeng
  • Le GEMTEX
Aurélie Cayla
  • Multifonctional textile and process
Eric Devaux
  • Le GEMTEX
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