École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales
Recent publications
Characterizing the spatial organization of urban systems is a challenge which points to the more general problem of describing marked point processes in spatial statistics. We propose a non-parametric method that goes beyond standard tools of point pattern analysis and which is based on a mapping between the points and a ‘dominance tree’, constructed from a recursive analysis of their Voronoi tessellation. Using toy models, we show that the height of a node in this tree encodes both its mark and the structure of its neighborhood, reflecting its importance in the system. We use historical population data in France (1876–2018) and the US (1880–2010) and show that the method highlights multiscale urban dynamics experienced by these countries. These include non-monotonous city trajectories in the US, as revealed by the evolution of their height in the tree. We show that the height of a city in the tree is less sensitive to different statistical definitions of cities than its rank in the urban hierarchy. The method also captures the attraction basins of cities at successive scales, and while in both countries these basin sizes become more homogeneous at larger scales, they are also more heterogeneous in France than in the US. Finally, we introduce a simple graphical representation – the height clock – that monitors the evolution of the role of each city in its country.
Background The unwillingness to share contacts is one of the least explored aspects of the COVID-19 pandemic. Here we report the factors associated with resistance to collaborate on contact tracing, based on the results of a nation-wide survey conducted in Italy in January-March 2021. Methods and findings The repeated cross-sectional on-line survey was conducted among 7,513 respondents (mean age 45.7, 50.4% women) selected to represent the Italian adult population 18–70 years old. Two groups were defined based on the direct question response expressing (1) unwillingness or (2) willingness to share the names of individuals with whom respondents had contact. We selected 70% of participants (training data set) to produce several multivariable binomial generalized linear models and estimated the proportion of variation explained by the model by McFadden R ² , and the model’s discriminatory ability by the index of concordance. Then, we have validated the regression models using the remaining 30% of respondents (testing data set), and identified the best performing model by removing the variables based on their impact on the Akaike information criterion and then evaluating the model predictive accuracy. We also performed a sensitivity analysis using principal component analysis. Overall, 5.5% of the respondents indicated that in case of positive SARS-CoV-2 test they would not share contacts. Of note, this percentage varied from 0.8% to 46.5% depending on the answers to other survey questions. From the 139 questions included in the multivariable analysis, the initial model proposed 20 independent factors that were reduced to the 6 factors with only modest changes in the model performance. The 6-variables model demonstrated good performance in the training (c-index 0.85 and McFadden R ² criteria 0.25) and in the testing data set (93.3% accuracy, AUC 0.78, sensitivity 30.4% and specificity 97.4%). The most influential factors related to unwillingness to share contacts were the lack of intention to perform the test in case of contact with a COVID-19 positive individual (OR 5.60, 95% CI 4.14 to 7.58, in a fully adjusted multivariable analysis), disagreement that the government should be allowed to force people into self-isolation (OR 1.79, 95% CI 1.12 to 2.84), disagreement with the national vaccination schedule (OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.86 to 3.69), not following to the preventive anti-COVID measures (OR 3.23, 95% CI 1.85 to 5.59), the absence of people in the immediate social environment who have been infected with COVID-19 (1.66, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.21), as well as difficulties in finding or understanding the information about the infection or related recommendations. A limitation of this study is the under-representation of persons not participating in internet-based surveys and some vulnerable groups like homeless people, persons with disabilities or migrants. Conclusions Our analysis revealed several groups that expressed unwillingness to collaborate on contact tracing. The identified patterns may play a principal role not only in the COVID-19 epidemic but also be important for possible future public health threats, and appropriate interventions for their correction should be developed and ready for the implementation.
The cooperation between Brazil and Mozambique to set up a state-owned generic medicines factory in Mozambique has been identified as an innovative unorthodox South-South development collaboration. Its implementation – with its translations, adaptations, gaps and contradictions – makes it an interesting object for the socio-anthropology of development and public action. One approach in this field is to focus on the resistance by target groups of development projects. Previous research highlighted the criticisms of the ‘factory project’ implementation or the discrepancies of discourse and representations of the project between Mozambican and Brazilian officials. However, during the negotiation process, key health experts from both countries voluntarily withdrew from the project design or were critics of its conception and evolution. Focusing on what could be seen as a form of resistance, we will analyse who are the experts that distanced themselves, their reasons, and interrogate how their withdrawal led to some of the gaps and translation issues in the implementation process. The present article draws on interviews in Brazil, Mozambique and Europe with health and pharmaceutical experts, diplomats and government officials. We also analysed government reports from both countries, including archives from the Brazilian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
The article considers the global historiography of Europe from two angles. First it outlines the difficulties, both historical and epistemological, that Europe poses as an object of study, especially after the historiographical transformations prompted by the events of 1989, the rise of postcolonial studies, the growing critique of Eurocentrism, and, most recently, the “global turn.” The conceptions of Europe that emerge from these currents have often been based on a rather homogenized vision of the continent, centered on the great nation-states of western Europe and their imperial policies. They also perpetuate, even as they criticize it, the legacy of a conception of modernity that positions Europe as both its historical center and the agent of its expansion on a global scale. The second part of the paper proposes to limit the blind spots inherent in this kind of vision by shifting our gaze to the eastern and Balkan margins of Europe, where the Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman, and Russian empires intersected over the “long” nineteenth century. This change of perspective displaces the history of Europe’s connection to modernity, revealing the great diversity of local actors, the importance of multicultural and pluriethnic societies, and the particular role of transnational populations such as Jews, who, while negotiating their own relationship to a European modernity, escaped the grip of national movements.
Literary festivals have become authorities in the literary field, promoting works through the charismatic persona of their author, and operating a transfer of symbolic capital from the most famous ones to the newcomers. Some of these festivals are international, and thus play a role in the making of world authorship and of world literature. Based on a quantitative and qualitative study of thirty-eight international literary festivals, this paper focuses on the way international literary festivals reflect, even as they shape, the structure of the transnational literary field. International festivals tend to mirror the unequal conditions of access to world authorship and the power relations that structure the world market for translations. However, some of them develop strategies to counter these power relations. They are also more politicized, and try to construct a more diverse and inclusive transnational public sphere, where writers act as public intellectuals.
Identity construction during adolescence constitutes a primary psychosocial developmental task. A growing body of research has addressed the importance of school education in fostering adolescents’ identity formation and the skills they need to thrive. Although several studies aimed at defining the factors contributing to a coherent, stable, and integrated identity formation, none sought to investigate this question from the adolescents’ perspective. This contribution aimed to explore new ways of fostering 21st-century skills among adolescents through action research. Five adolescents aged 13 to 15 participated in the research process, creating a survey to answer a research problem mainly focused on identity construction in adolescence. A reflexive analysis of the co-research process highlighted the interest in involving adolescents as co-researchers to foster their social and emotional skills. The deployment of the resulting survey in a sample of 1210 adolescents from the general population highlighted the importance of gender diversity for constructing various dimensions of identity.
In July 2017, local leaders interrupted their conversations after a long working day at the sight of a cloud that looked like Fidel Castro. This fleeting vision plunged them into a genuine and lasting joy, far from the hypocrisy and cynicism attributed to revolutionary elites since the crisis of the 1990s. Following the role of affects and emotions in the daily work of bureaucrats and in their interactions with farmers, I argue that affects play a pivotal role in producing what Timothy Mitchell calls the ‘state effect’ by fueling the boundary work that sustains the distinction between state and society in Cuba. I show how affects articulate registers of self-sacrifice and reciprocity which have been mediating relationships with El Estado since the beginning of the revolution.
Urban‐to‐rural migration is a rising trend across industrialized countries, the significance of which is not interpreted unanimously. The explanations tend to fall into two competing groups: (a) an alternative to capitalism or (b) perpetuation of the status quo, where, on one hand, the richer participants effect a green lifestyle choice, while the poorer participants follow a coping strategy, on the other. Instead of focusing only on the radical fringe, this article describes and analyzes the diversity of the present‐day neorural movement in France. It argues that the neorural movement is a multivocal critique of modern capitalist societies that rapidly transforms into an apolitical lifestyle choice once it is confronted with the capitalist value‐making mechanisms. It shows that the deradicalization of rural utopia has to do with social stratification and people's enormous difficulty in reappropriating their agency over their time‐use and lives at the household level. Finally, it suggests that the imagery of rural utopia could be mobilized for constructing a shared alternative, but one that would require rewriting the rules of socioeconomic interdependence.
Background The present study aimed to investigate how often and to what degree older adults living in an area of Gujarat, Western India, enact traditional and modern eating behaviors. Specifically, we aimed to determine which facets of traditional eating are enacted rarely and which facets of modern eating are enacted often. Moreover, we hypothesized that urban older adults show a higher level of modern eating behaviors than rural older adults. Furthermore, we examined which traditional eating behaviors are more prevalent in rural older adults, and which are more prevalent in urban older adults. Methods A trained research assistant administered a questionnaire in a face-to-face situation with 120 older adults in a rural and an urban area of Gujarat, Western India. Participants were asked how often and to what degree they perform 57 traditional and modern eating behaviors. Results Overall, our sample of older Gujaratis reported a high level of traditional eating behaviors and a low level of modern eating behaviors. However, we also found, for example, a low level of the traditional eating facet of men getting preferential treatment and a high level of the modern eating facet of food being readily available. Moreover, most modern eating facets were more pronounced in the urban than in the rural sample. This was also the case for half of all traditional eating facets. Conclusion Our sample of older adults living in an area of Gujarat displayed more modern eating behaviors in urban than in rural areas. At the same time, however, the urban sample showed also more traditional eating behaviors, such as eating more fruits, possibly because of better food availability. Altogether, results might hint at some signs of modernization among older adults in this area of Gujarat with regard to changing gender roles and better food availability.
This research advances our understanding of peri-urban dynamics in the Global South through an innovative comparative socio-spatial analytics approach combining geospatial and qualitative fieldwork-based methods. Drawing on three cases in China, Ghana and India, the comparison is operationalized through two pairs of conceptual lenses developed inductively. We argue that heterogeneous peri-urban morphologies in the Global South, which share several common features, notably fragmentation and bypass, albeit with differing degrees, are shaped by three key processes: (1) market-and speculation-driven property development; (2) state-led development strategies, often expressed through large-scale projects; and (3) fragmented planning and development practices.
We consider a nondurable good monopolist that collects data on its customers in order to profile them and subsequently practice price discrimination on returning customers. The monopolist’s price discrimination scheme is leaky in the sense that an endogenous fraction of consumers choose to incur a privacy cost to conceal their identity when they return in the following periods. We characterize the Markov perfect equilibrium of the game under two alternative customer profiling regimes: full information acquisition (FIA) and purchase history information (PHI). In both cases, we find that, contrary to what could be expected, the monopolist’s aggregate profit is not monotonically increasing in the level of the privacy cost, but a U-shaped function of it, leading to ambiguous profit effects: a reduction in privacy costs increases the fraction of customers who choose to be anonymous (detrimental profit effect), but it also softens the firm’s introductory price, reducing the pace at which prices targeted to new customers fall over time (positive profit effect). When comparing results under FIA and PHI, we find that market expansion is faster, and more customers conceal their identity under FIA than under PHI. Equilibrium profits are also higher in the FIA case. Although equilibrium profits are U-shaped functions of the privacy cost in both profiling regimes, they tend to be globally decreasing with the privacy cost under PHI and globally increasing under FIA. This paper was accepted by Eric Anderson, marketing.
Résumé Après la dispute soutenue à partir des années 1990 sur la question de savoir s'il y a une philosophie chinoise, plusieurs intellectuels chinois, y compris et surtout des philosophes, ont commencé, depuis une dizaine d'années, à se réunir autour d'une problématique plus concrète : « une philosophie en langue chinoise est-elle possible ? » ou « comment raisonner en chinois moderne ? » Parmi de nombreux sujets, celui des « termes transplantés » initié par Chen Jiaying (1952-) a attiré l'attention générale. Cet article compte, en s'appuyant sur son travail, introduire et approfondir ce problème en tant que défi particulier pour la pratique philosophique en chinois.
Background Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome (pSS) is a rare autoimmune disease that is difficult to diagnose due to a variety of clinical presentations, resulting in misdiagnosis and late referral to specialists. To improve early-stage disease recognition, this study aimed to develop an algorithm to identify possible pSS patients in primary care. We built a machine learning algorithm which was based on combined healthcare data as a first step towards a clinical decision support system. Method Routine healthcare data, consisting of primary care electronic health records (EHRs) data and hospital claims data (HCD), were linked on patient level and consisted of 1411 pSS and 929,179 non-pSS patients. Logistic regression (LR) and random forest (RF) models were used to classify patients using age, gender, diseases and symptoms, prescriptions and GP visits. Results The LR and RF models had an AUC of 0.82 and 0.84, respectively. Many actual pSS patients were found (sensitivity LR = 72.3%, RF = 70.1%), specificity was 74.0% (LR) and 77.9% (RF) and the negative predictive value was 99.9% for both models. However, most patients classified as pSS patients did not have a diagnosis of pSS in secondary care (positive predictive value LR = 0.4%, RF = 0.5%). Conclusion This is the first study to use machine learning to classify patients with pSS in primary care using GP EHR data. Our algorithm has the potential to support the early recognition of pSS in primary care and should be validated and optimized in clinical practice. To further enhance the algorithm in detecting pSS in primary care, we suggest it is improved by working with experienced clinicians.
Background In France, the increase in COVID-19 vaccine uptake among older adults slowed down between May and June 2021. Using the data from a national survey, we aimed to assess COVID-19 vaccine uptake among French residents aged 65 years and older, particularly at risk of severe form of the infection, and identify factors associated with non-vaccination. Methods A cross-sectional online survey collected the immunization status/intention to get the COVID-19 vaccine, reasons for vaccination/non-vaccination and factors potentially associated with vaccine uptake between May 10 and 23, 2021 among a large sample of French residents. Characteristics of participants were compared according to immunization status. Factors potentially associated with non-vaccination were computed into a multivariate logistic regression. Results Among the 1941 survey participants, 1612 (83%) reported having received at least one dose of COVID-19 vaccine. Among the 329 unvaccinated, 197 (60%) declared having the intention to get vaccinated. Younger age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05–2.14), thinking previously having COVID-19 (aOR = 4.01; 95% CI, 2.17–7.40), having suffered economic impact due to the pandemic (aOR = 2.63; 95% CI, 1.71–4.04), reporting an “unsafe” opinion about COVID-19 vaccine safety (aOR = 6.79; 95% CI, 4.50–10.26), reporting an “unsupportive” opinion about vaccination in general (aOR = 4.24; 95% CI, 2.77–6.49) were independent risk factors for non-vaccination. On the other hand, trust in COVID-19 vaccine information delivered by the doctor (aOR = 0.28; 95% CI, 0.16–0.48) and trust in the government’s actions (aOR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.34–0.74) were independent protective factors for non-vaccination. Political affiliation also remained significantly associated with vaccine uptake. Conclusions Despite high overall COVID-19 vaccine uptake among the study participants, differences in vaccine uptake according to the level of concerns regarding COVID-19 vaccine safety, socioeconomic profile and trust in the government were observed. Our results reinforce the importance of “reaching out” vaccination strategy that specifically targets the most vulnerable fringe of older adult population.
Aim and Object Purpose of the Study In March 2020, the WHO declared a pandemic (COVID-19) due to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. In France, school closures and lockdowns were implemented. In this unprecedented context for French adolescents and children, the CONFEADO study surveyed children aged 9 to 18 years to assess their mental health, psychological distress, and resilience during and after the lockdown in relation to their living and housing conditions. To assess psychological distress, a psychometric tool (Children and Adolescent Psychological Distress Scale-CAPDS-10) was specifically designed for the research. This article presents the psychometric validity of the CAPDS-10. Methods This cross-sectional study collected data from June 9 to September 14, 2020, from children and adolescents (9 to 18 years of age) via an online questionnaire after sending it to a large network of partners. Psychological distress, resilience, and trait anxiety were assessed using the CAPDS-10, the Child and Youth Resilience Measure (CYRM), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC). The CAPDS-10 measured perceived psychological distress in the most recent 2 weeks (primary endpoint). The predictive power of the CAPDS-10 was determined by statistical analysis. We proceeded to a confirmatory factor analysis to validate the scale at a clinical level. We carried out a psychometric validation with a step to verify the uni-dimensionality of the scale (PCA analysis) and the calculation of convergent and divergent validity, correlation coefficient between items and subscales, Cronbach's alpha for reliability, determination of a cut-off score for the AUROC index. Results Three thousand and forty eight children and adolescents completed the CAPDS-10. Analysis confirmed a three-factor model (anxiety, depression, and aggressive behavior) (RMSEA = 0.072 [0.067; 0.077], CFI = 0.954), with a correlation coefficient between items >0.4. PCA analysis concluded that the scale is unidimensional. Reliability was satisfactory with Cronbach's alpha coefficients >0.7 (0.86). In addition, prediction was good with an AUROC index equal to 0.73 and a threshold score for severe distress greater than or equal to 19. Conclusion The CAPDS-10 measures psychological distress over the most recent 2-week period with good psychometric qualities. It could be used in crisis or prevention contexts in the general population or in clinical settings.
Resumo A historiografia recente sobre as práticas administrativas na América portuguesa tem-se consagrado às instituições e aos agentes responsáveis pela aplicação da justiça nas diversas regiões e capitanias, sem, entretanto, ter abordado um território conquistado pelos portugueses no início do século XIX. A proposta deste artigo é a análise da administração da justiça na Guiana Francesa entre os anos de 1809 e 1817, época em que o território esteve sob ocupação portuguesa. Considerada por Dom João VI como parte de seus “Estados”, a Guiana foi governada por dois agentes portugueses sob dependência da capitania do Grão-Pará. A partir da comparação entre as estruturas jurídicas coloniais francesa e portuguesa, buscou-se analisar as adaptações empreendidas pelos portugueses para o bom governo da justiça na Guiana, pois, como ficou estipulado pela capitulação, o Código Civil francês continuou em vigor na colônia. O artigo evidencia, ainda, o papel desempenhado por João Severiano Maciel da Costa como intendente da Guiana. O estudo utiliza documentos conservados no Arquivo Nacional do Rio de Janeiro (AN), na Biblioteca Nacional (BN), no Arquivo Histórico do Itamaraty (AHI), no Arquivo Ultramarino Francês (ANOM) e no Arquivo Departamental da Guiana (ADG).
New technologies are the source of uncertainties about the applicability of moral and morally connotated concepts. These uncertainties sometimes call for conceptual engineering, but it is not often recognized when this is the case. We take this to be a missed opportunity, as a recognition that different researchers are working on the same kind of project can help solve methodological questions that one is likely to encounter. In this paper, we present three case studies where philosophers of technology implicitly engage in conceptual engineering (without naming it as such). We subsequently reflect on the case studies to find out how these illustrate conceptual engineering as an appropriate method to deal with pressing concerns in the philosophy of technology. We have two main goals. We first want to contribute to the literature on conceptual engineering by presenting concrete examples of conceptual engineering in the philosophy of technology. This is especially relevant, because the technologies that are designed based on the conceptual work done by philosophers of technology potentially have crucial moral and social implications. Secondly, we want to make explicit what choices are made when doing this conceptual work. Making explicit that some of the implicit assumptions are, in fact, debated in the literature allows for reflection on these questions. Ultimately, our hope is that conscious reflection leads to an improvement of the conceptual work done.
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Christophe Prochasson (2019)
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