The implementation of people monitoring system is an evolving research theme. This paper introduces an elderly monitoring system that recognizes human posture from overlapping cameras for people fall detection in a smart home environment. In these environments, the zone of movement is limited. Our approach used this characteristic to recognize human posture fastly by proposing a region-wise modeling approach. It classifies person’s pose in four groups: standing, crouching, sitting and lying on the floor. These postures are obtained by calculating an estimation of the human bounding volume. This volume is estimated by obtaining the height of the person and its surface that is in contact with the ground according to the foreground information of each camera. Using them, we distinguish each postures and differentiate lying on floor posture, which can be considered as the falling posture from other postures. The global multiview information of the scene is obtaining by using homographic projection We test our proposed algorithm on multiple cameras based fall detection public dataset and the results prove the efficiency of our method.
Résumé Les auteurs examinent la relation entre les gains, le capital humain et les tâches. Ils reprennent le modèle théorique d'Autor et Handel (2013), tout en élargissant l'analyse empirique à 21 pays, grâce aux données de l'enquête de l'OCDE sur les compétences des adultes (PIAAC). Celles‐ci permettent en outre de caractériser plus précisément le capital humain des travailleurs, en fournissant une mesure directe des compétences cognitives. L'analyse empirique confirme l'influence du contenu en tâches de l'emploi sur les écarts de salaire, à la fois entre les catégories professionnelles et en leur sein. Les prédictions du modèle se vérifient dans la grande majorité des pays.
Ubiquitous in commercials and tourism brochures, the term authenticity is used in a wide array of meanings ranging from objective to subjective. In an attempt to overcome this deficiency, this article aims to identify how tourists define the authenticity of a travel experience. For this, it engages in a semantic analysis of reviews posted in TripAdvisor by travelers to Marrakech and its surroundings. The platform was chosen among others due to its currently predominant role in assisting tourists and helping them share their experiences. A total of 361 reviews were collected from 160 tourism establishments—40 each of four types of establishments, being the riad guest house, hotel, restaurant, and rural guest house—selected from the ranking of the best tourism establishments proposed by TripAdvisor. The three dimensions of authenticity found in the literature—originality, singularity and identity—were then associated with the four types of tourist accommodations. The “originality” dimension proved to be strongly associated with riad guest houses, the “singularity” dimension with hotels and restaurants, and the “identity” dimension with rural guest houses.
Water resource system planners make decisions that guide water management policy. The fundamental tools for assessing management and infrastructure strategies are combined hydro-economic models of river basins (RBHE models). These models have improved the economic efficiency of water use in situations of competition for scarce water resources. In RBHE models, a groundwater model is coupled with surface water models of the various water resources. Today, the groundwater models used in an RBHE model can be of two types: cell models or numerical models. Cell models are easy to use, but they are too simple to realistically describe the geology and hydrology of the area under investigation. Numerical models, in contrast, are closer to the physical behavior of the aquifer. However, the vast quantity of data to be analyzed makes them impractical for many management scenarios. Moreover, the calibrations of these high-resolution models are generally difficult and sensitive to the variation of parameters, especially when boundary conditions are dynamic. This is the case when dynamic river data or dynamic surface lake data are present. In this work, a compartmental cell model is built on the hydrogeology of the aquifer. In this approach, the hydrogeology of the aquifer and the dynamic boundary conditions are treated with separate models. A general mathematical formulation is presented where the calibration stage, the validation stage, and the prediction stage are formulated as a series of sub-model calibrations and solved using a general least squares routine. With this approach, it becomes possible to treat both the water level and the pumping rate in each cell as variables to be predicted. In most of the models, the pumping rates are known and the goals of the computation are to estimate the groundwater level. However, when for political or technical reasons access to some of the wells is difficult, the pumping rates are only partially known. Then, both groundwater levels and pumping rates are variables to be predicted by the groundwater model. A computer program was developed using MATLAB, with a Visual Basic graphical user interface using COM technology to access the advanced mathematical libraries. The approach was implemented with a real case study of the Yarkon–Taninim aquifer in Israel. The results indicate that the method is more stable than the classical approach.
Purpose – In light of the core role of product involvement as a variable in consumer behavior, the current study seeks to examine which variables influence product involvement among young people. This paper aims to explore five variables: age, subjective product knowledge, influence of parents, influence of peers, and product category. Design/methodology/approach – The research was founded on a quantitative field study, whose sample was comprised of 252 young people, ages 4‐15. Findings – The findings among the entire sample imply that young people's product involvement is explained by all of the variables that were examined. Interesting findings came to light for each one of the age groups: Young children's product‐involvement level was influenced by parents and peers. The product‐involvement level for children was influenced by peers and product category. Adolescents' product‐involvement relies on subjective product knowledge and product category. Originality/value – These findings expand the existing knowledge about young consumers' behavior patterns and show that the existing models provide a partial picture. In addition, the product‐involvement variable must be seen as a basis for market segmentation of the younger populations. The recommendation is to carefully create segments that examine the different product‐involvement levels among each age group.
Daily rhythms of arousal explain a broad range of variations in biological, behavioral, and cognitive patterns among humans. In this paper, we consider the effects of individual variations in optimal time-of-day on the stability of consumer responses. Specifically, we explore the effects of gathering questionnaire responses at times of day that match (versus mismatch) consumers' temporal preferences on data reliability. Two studies were conducted using two different scales. Our findings confirm a synchrony effect between participants' testing time and test–retest reliability results. Specifically, we found greater (lower) stability in test–retest scores for surveys administered during times-of-day matching (mismatching) consumers' temporal preferences. We discuss theoretical and practical implications and opportunities for future research.
The purpose of this study is to determine whether customers' diurnal preferences, tested at different times of the day, affect their responses and behavior. Three studies explore whether synchrony between the peak circadian arousal period and the time of participant testing influenced participants' temporal perception and behavior. Overall, the results imply a robust synchrony and time-of-day effects on the dependent variables. The authors discuss the theoretical significance of their findings and the managerial implications for consumer research and practice.
Cet article s’intéresse à l’influence des caractéristiques des dirigeants de 135 sociétés françaises cotées sur la performance économique à long terme. Plus précisément, il cherche à vérifier si les élites, c’est-à-dire les dirigeants issus de grandes écoles d’ingénieur (notamment de l'Ecole Polytechnique) ou de commerce (notamment d'HEC), gèrent mieux les entreprises que les autres dirigeants. Nos résultats mettent en évidence que la performance, mesurée sur une période de 10 ans (1999-2008), ne diffère pas significativement pour les entreprises dirigées par les élites comparativement à celle enregistrée par les autres dirigeants, mais que des différences existent selon les profils des dirigeants issus des grandes écoles. En particulier, il semble que les rentabilités économiques moyennes soient plus faibles à long terme pour les entreprises dont les dirigeants sont issus de grandes écoles d’ingénieur. En revanche, le risque économique semble significativement moindre pour les entreprises ayant à leur tête des dirigeants issus de grandes écoles de commerce.
The methods England took to restructure its public debt during the British Financial Revolution consisted of improving liquidity. Accordingly, the State sought to reestablish its solvability by basing its debt on tax revenues as well as to homogenize it, reduce its cost and improve the operation of the primary and secondary markets of the debt. Finally, it favored the creation of new institutions, i.e., the establishment of companies with stocks whose commercial and/or financial activities would be connected to its debt. The Bank of England and the South Sea Company, created in July 1694 and September 1711 respectively, are two prime examples of this. In this article, we highlight the role of these two financial institutions in the process of the creation of liquidity through the restructuring of the national debt. We establish the fundamental differences between the financial experiments led by these two establishments. Indeed, if the project of converting the titles of national debt into shares of the South Sea Company led to the creation of the South Sea Bubble, the circulation of short-term government bonds (exchequer bonds) by the Bank of England after 1907 constituted an unrivaled financial success. Finally, we discuss the diverging commentaries of Hume (1752), Steuart (1767) and Smith (1776) on these financial experiments.
The benefits of Diversity are frequently mentioned but rarely spellt out. This edited book highlights specific ways in which organisations can profit from Diversity, and a discussion of some of the obstacles that can stand in the way of doing this.
The purpose of this study was to examine the implications of a gendered website production and preference aesthetic for the teaching of computer studies. Thirty male and thirty female personal websites produced by students at a UK university were rated against 23 factors. The home pages of sites that were deemed to be typical of their gender were then used in preference tests conducted amongst 67 students. Statistically significant differences emerged on 13 of the 23 factors against which the 60 websites were rated. These results were suggestive of a website aesthetic continuum with male and female production aesthetic tendencies at either end. The preference tests revealed a tendency for preferences to be in tune with production aesthetics such that men had a statistically significant tendency to prefer home pages produced by men, and women to prefer home pages produced by women. The tendency for the latter was even higher than the male tendency to prefer male-produced sites. The finding of gendered differences in website production and preference aesthetics has important implications for teaching and assessment. Teachers selecting or assessing websites, whether commercial or produced by pupils and students, need be mindful of the aesthetics employed in those websites. When selecting websites for educational purposes, a match should ideally be made between the website and the likely preferences of the end-user. Assessment of students' work should ideally be mindful of the potential for positive bias on the part of the assessor in the direction of work displaying their own favoured aesthetic.
We compute closed forms for two multiparameter families of definite integrals, thus obtaining combinatorial formulas. As a consequence, a surprising formula is derived between a definite integral and an improper integral for the same parametric function.
Pairs trading is a popular quantitative speculation strategy. This article proposes a general and flexible framework for pairs selection. The method uses multiple return forecasts based on bivariate information sets and multi-criteria decision techniques. Our approach can be seen as a sort of forecast combination but the output of the method is a ranking. It helps to detect potentially under- and overvalued stocks. A first application with S&P 100 index stocks provides promising results in terms of excess return and directional forecasting.
The exploration and development of an oil field faces many un-certainties related with yields and costs throughout the project life cycle. For example, potential reserves, investments (Capex), operat-ing costs (Opex), production rate, oil and gas price, geological success rate, and the train of spending, particularly for sub-sea wells are often uncertain. Therefore, it is difficult to forecast profits and cash flow prospects even for the simplest. Different methods are available to help decision makers to assess the uncertainties, and reduce the risk of investment opportunities in upstream oil. In the early 60s, the sim-ulation has been recognized as a tool for risk analysis and decision making in evaluation of investment projects in upstream oil. Today, the majority of the oil companies have incorporated the simulation in their studies projects. In this article, we attempt to explain the evaluation and risk analy-sis criteria of investment projects in upstream oil based on cash flows, showing how the Monte Carlo simulation can be useful in this context.
The history of science shows that the development and growth of disciplines is a matter of developing and testing theories that best represent the elements that define the discipline and make it unique. The main methodological issue in construction theories in marketing communications is the complexities of the domain and the difficulties to define variables and state their interactions. This paper provides an overview of facet theory (FT), a systematic approach to facilitate theory construction, research design, and data analysis for complex disciplines, that is appropriate for developing marketing communications theories and particularly advertising. The use of facet theory and conceptual tools like ‘Mapping Sentence’ and ‘Universe of Content’, is shown to provide new insights into existing advertising data; it allows for the diagnosis and discrimination of marketing communications constructs and makes the generalizability and replication of findings easier.
Two important characteristics of petroleum exploration and pro-duction investment are the high financial amounts and uncertainties. For these reasons, the risk analysis should be implemented in the projects evaluation and the selection process. Depending on their available resources, petroleum companies choose a number of projects on the basis of some criteria: the net present value, internal rate of return, profitability index However, these criteria appear to be in-sufficient if we consider, on the one hand, the absence of risk idea which is an essential element of the petroleum industry, on the other hand the omission of the correlations and interactions between differ-ent projects. In this paper, in order to make up for the lacks of the traditional approach, we apply a variant of Markowitzs method to de-termine the efficient portfolio exploration and production projects that insure the best compromise minimum risk-maximum return under the different constraints faced by the company. A practical application of this method about selection of petroleum exploration projects in the North Sea is presented. This practical case illustrates the influence of the crude price in the choice of the portfolio.
This paper introduces a complete simulation model of a direct power injection (DPI) setup, used to measure the immunity of integrated circuits to conducted continuous-wave interference. This model encompasses the whole measurement setup itself as well as the integrated circuit under test and its environment (printed circuit board, power supply). Furthermore, power losses are theoretically computed, and the most significant ones are included in the model. Therefore, the injected power level causing a malfunction of an integrated circuit, according to a given criterion, can be identified and predicted at any frequency up to 1 GHz. In addition to that, the relationship between immunity and impedance is illustrated. Simulation results obtained from the model are compared with measurement results, and these demonstrate the validity of this approach.
This paper explores the theoretical and practical implications of the mirroring principle to an understanding of how best to identify and sustain service brands' values. It does this through a focus on the web design aesthetics used in the web sites of small to large companies, and a comparison of these aesthetics with the preferences of target users. Web design contributes to services branding and a finding of a tendency of the majority of websites to employ what may be termed a 'male design aesthetic', and for men and women to have a differential preference as between the male and female design aesthetic, leads to a discussion of the appropriateness of previous service branding models. These earlier models discuss the role of internal staff in developing service branding values but neglect to consider the dissonance that may exist between the values of internal staff and the values of external customers. The article argues that only where the values of internal staff are congruent with those of external customers is it appropriate to model brand values around the preferences of internal staff. In those other cases where the brand values of internal staff do not span the complete range of aesthetic choices available, questions need to be asked about how best these external values can be reflected in the marketing and design of services targeted at customers. There are implications here for recruitment, promotion and training that are not currently reflected in existing services branding models, and which therefore, serve as an important addition to the services branding model.
We inhabit a global village in which international marketers are encouraged to think and act with both global and local interests in mind. The enlargement of the European Union (EU) in January 2007 has created a 27 member state EU with a population of nearly half a billion. The purpose of this article is therefore to examine the nature of these differences in so far as they impact on the segmentation decisions made by international marketers. This article examines the literature on culture, identity, and self-concept and presents empirical results showing the diversity of these concepts within three countries that are now full EU members - the Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland.
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