Background COVID-19 has led to restrictions on movements and lockdown measures, which have resulted to higher utilization of over-the-counter drugs compared to prescription-only drugs. This study determined the prevalence, pattern and predictors of self-medication for COVID-19 prevention and treatment. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted between October and November 2021 among the residents of Umuahia, Abia State. The respondents were selected using a snowball sampling technique, and a self-administered semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data on the variables via Google forms. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analyses were done using IBM SPSS version 26. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results A total of 469 respondents participated in the survey. The overall prevalence of self-medication for COVID-19 prevention and treatment was 30.3% (95%CI: 26.7–34.1). The most commonly used medication was herbal products (43.7%). This was mainly self-prepared (41.5%). The major source of information for self-medication was from family members (39.4%). The majority of the respondents reported fear of isolation (76.3%), followed by fear of stigmatization (75.7%) as the triggers of self-medication. Older age (aOR = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.11–3.13), lower educational status [No formal education (aOR = 3.78, 95% CI: 1.28–11.19)], [Primary education (aOR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.17–3.097)] and perception to cost (aOR = 2.29; 95CI: I.24–4.24) were the predictors of self-medication. Conclusion Every one in three residents of Umuahia, Abia State, practiced self-medication for COVID-19 prevention and treatment. Some economic and socio-demographic factors were significantly associated with self-medication. We recommend intensifying public awareness campaigns on the risk of self-medication.
Background Sexual and reproductive health choices and behaviors of adolescents are shaped by gender norms and ideologies which are grounded in cultural beliefs. This study examined the perspectives of adolescents about the influence of gender norms and ideologies on sexuality. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken in three urban and three rural communities in south-eastern Nigeria using quantitative and qualitative research methods. A modified cluster sampling procedure was used to select respondents. Data were collected from 1,057 adolescents and twelve focus group discussions with unmarried adolescents aged 13 to 18 years. For the quantitative data, univariate, bivariate and probit regression analyses were performed using Stata while the thematic framework approach was used to analyze qualitative data. Results The dominant beliefs among adolescents are that: it is wrong for unmarried adolescents to have sex (86.4%); unmarried adolescents should abstain from sex (89.3%); consent should be obtained before sexual intercourse (89.1%); it is a girl's responsibility to ensure she does not get pregnant (66.5%), and sex should be initiated by boys (69.6%). Gender (boy or girl) was a predictor of belief in premarital abstinence ( t -value = −3.88), belief that premarital sexual intercourse is acceptable provided contraceptive is used ( t -value = 3.49, CI 1.14–0.49), belief that premarital sexual intercourse is wrong ( t -value = −2.24) and, belief that sex should be initiated by boys only ( t -value = −4.37). Adolescent boys were less likely to believe in pre-marital abstinence and less likely to believe that pre-marital sex among adolescents is wrong compared to girls. They were also more likely to believe adolescents can have sex provided contraceptive is used compared to girls. Qualitative findings revealed adolescents' beliefs that girls feel shy initiating sex and that boys experience more urge for sex hence, boys were perceived to be responsible for initiating sex. Both boys and girls experience pressure to have sex however, boys were described to experience more pressure from peers to have sex. Peer-to-peer communication, quest for material possessions and low socioeconomic conditions contribute to peer pressure to engage in sex. Conclusion Adolescents' beliefs about sexuality underline the need to contextualize interventions to address these norms and ideologies.
Background: Upsurge in cardiopulmonary dysfunctions in Enugu, Nigeria, involved mainly cement workers, automobile spray painters, woodworkers, and Cleaners and was worsened in the dry season, suggesting the need for an occupation-specific characterization of the disease features and seasonal evaluation of air quality for prevention and management. Methods: We conducted a randomized cross-sectional study of eighty consenting participants (in Achara Layout, Enugu), comprising 20 cement workers (39.50 ± 14.95 years), 20 automobile spray painters (40.75 ± 9.85 years), 20 woodworkers (52.20 ± 9.77 years), and 20 cleaners (42.30 ± 9.06 years). The air quality, some haematological (fibrinogen-Fc, and C-reactive protein-CRP), and cardiopulmonary parameters were measured and analyzed using ANCOVA, at p < 0.05. Results: The dry season particulate matter (PM) in ambient air exceeded the WHO standards in the New layout [PM10 = 541.17 ± 258.72 µg/m3; PM2.5 = 72.92 ± 25.81 µg/m3] and the University campus [PM10 = 244 ± 74.79 µg/m3; PM2.5 = 30.33 ± 16.10 µg/m3], but the former was twice higher. The PM differed significantly (p < 0.05) across the sites. Forced expiratory volume at the first second (FEV1) (F = 6.128; p = 0.001), and Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) (F = 5.523; p = 0.002), differed significantly across the groups. FEV1/FVC% was < 70% in cement workers (55.33%) and woodworkers (61.79%), unlike, automobile spray painters (72.22%) and cleaners (70.66%). FEV1 and work duration were significantly and negatively related in cement workers (r = -0.46; r2 = 0.2116; p = 0.041 one-tailed). CRP (normal range ≤ 3.0 mg/L) and Fc (normal range-1.5-3.0 g/L) varied in cement workers (3.32 ± 0.93 mg/L versus 3.01 ± 0.85 g/L), automobile spray painters (2.90 ± 1.19 mg/L versus 2.54 ± 0.99 mg/L), woodworkers (2.79 ± 1.10 mg/L versus 2.37 ± 0.92 g/L) and cleaners (3.06 ± 0.82 mg/L versus 2.54 ± 0.70 g/L). Conclusion(s): Poor air quality was evident at the study sites, especially in the dry season. Cement workers and automobile spray painters showed significant risks of obstructive pulmonary diseases while woodworkers had restrictive lung diseases. Cement workers and cleaners recorded the highest risk of coronary heart disease (CRP ≥ 3.0 mg/L). The similarity in Fc and CRP trends suggests a role for the inflammation-sensitive proteins in the determination of cardiovascular risk in cement workers and cleaners. Therefore, there are occupation-specific disease endpoints of public health concern that likewise warrant specific preventive and management approaches among the workers.
The antimalarial activity of different parts (leaf, fruit, stem, and root) of Phyllanthus amarus and their associated impact on surrogate markers of insulin sensitivity in experimental mice, having ascertained their toxicity (LD50) index were documented. Results showed that the plant parts were nontoxic (LD50 > 5,000 mg kg⁻¹) and were antimalarial in a dose-dependent manner, with the ethanol leaf extract having the highest parasite suppression followed by the fruit, root, and stem extracts. However, the root extract had the most profound impact on insulin sensitivity compared to other parts, although all showed improvement, with insulin sensitivity/resistance indices, with QUICKI vs. HOMA-IR showing a strong positive correlation (r = 0.993), but QUICKI vs. HOMA-IR and HOMA-IR vs. 1/HOMA = IR having strong negative correlation (r = −0.963 and −0.927, respectively). So, QUICKI and 1/HOMA-IR are surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity and HOMA-IR and TyG index, insulin resistance surrogate markers.
Lay Description What is already known about this topic? Enrolment of females in electronics technology education has been lower than that of males. Academic achievement of females in electronics technology education was lower than their male counterparts. Virtual reality has been used to improve teaching and learning in some educational fields, but it was not effective in some other fields. Some researchers used virtual reality to augment inadequate learning facilities. The evaluation of educational virtual reality applications might have primarily focused on the usability of the apps instead of learning outcomes. Gender gaps in human capital development are well‐documented, but it seems more evidence is required on how best to close those gaps. What this paper adds? Suggest a potential learning environment for reducing the gender disparity in the achievement and interest of electronics technology students. Further contributions to the area of a learning environment in the teaching and learning process. This may be a piece of additional research‐based evidence on how best to close gender disparity in technology education. A virtual reality learning environment might bring female students up to the same levels of academic achievement as men, but the conventional classroom setting cannot. There could be a significant interaction effect between gender and the learning environment in the teaching and learning of electronic technology education. Implications for practice and/or policy Curriculum planners might consider piloting virtual reality for reducing gender imbalance and enhancing gender‐fair technology education, as it shows initial promise in the teaching of electronic technology education. Virtual reality may be adopted to augment learning facilities in electronic technology education in universities, especially in laboratory practices. Budgets for funding universities could include resources for virtual reality equipment. The use of virtual reality for teaching and learning can be a part of postgraduate studies in universities, especially in academic fields where virtual reality has been found effective and competence in VR should be considered for the employment of technology education lecturers and support staff in higher institutions. This study may guide other studies and add to the available literature.
The study evaluated human health risks associated with the consumption of pumpkin and spinach cultivated around non-mining areas of the Asu River Group. Eighteen samples were collected and analyzed for As, Pb, and Cd, obtaining fifty-four results. The samples were washed with deionized water, air-dried and oven dries at 105°C for 48 hours and analyzed using Varian (USA) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The concentration of Pb, As, and Cd in the vegetable trend follows; Ebonyi south (ES) < Ebonyi central (EC) < Ebonyi north (EN); EN < ES < EC and ES < EC < EN respectively both for Pumpkin and Spinach vegetables. The Cd, As and Pb, content was below WHO/FAO, (2007) and EU, (2006) specific limits. The daily intake of metals, health risk index, and targeted health quotient were computed. The DIM of Pb, As and Cd were below their respective oral reference dose (RfD) of 0.004, 0.003, and 0.001mg/kg/day. Pb, As, and Cd HRI values for adults, teenagers, and children are in the following order Adult < Teenagers < Children for all samples across the study area. The Pb abundance follows ES < EN < EC in both pumpkin and spinach, and Cd follows EN < EC < EN and EN < ES < EC for pumpkin and spinach respectively. Arsenic HRI in order of EN < EC < EN and EN < ES < EC for pumpkin and spinach respectively. On average, HRI of Pb, As and Cd ranges from 0.00312 to 0.0663, 0.00411 to 0.238 and 0.009 to 0.331 mg/kg/bw/day for the vegetables. The HRI and THQ for adults and teenagers were all < 1 for As, and Pb while Cd THQ > 1 in pumpkin from ES.
Pineapple pulp fiber is highly palatable but is usually wasted during the processing of pineapple juice resulting in a loss in the pineapple value chain. It is known to contain both soluble and insoluble dietary fiber, antioxidants, vitamins, bromelain, and many important minerals. Changing lifestyles associated with most western diets characterized by excess intake of calories has led to increased incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Africa. Moreover, hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus is linked to increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to oxidative stress. ROS are known to damage cellular macromolecules including oxidation of lipids and nucleic acids. The need to formulate dietary formulas to achieve both reductions of calories with enhanced antioxidant potential inspired us to design a wheat flour-based formula enriched with pineapple pulp fiber of up to 10% of its weight. Pineapple pulp fiber-enriched wheat flour positively impacts the pineapple value chain. This study aimed at determining the antioxidant potential of the pineple pulp fibre enriched wheat flour. Pineapple pulp fiber-enriched wheat flour was prepared by mixing 10 g of dry and milled pineapple pulp with 90g of all-purpose wheat flour. The total polyphenolic content, total flavonoid content, and ferric reducing antioxidant power of the enriched and non-enriched wheat flour were determined using spectrophotometric method. The results were statistically analysedusing t-tests at a p < 0.05 level of significance. Enrichment of wheat flour with pineapple pulp fiber significantly increased the total polyphenolic content ( p = 0.001 ), total flavonoids content ( p = 0.002 ), and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) ( p = 0.001 ) of the flour. These results indicate that pineapple pulp fiber has a potential to enhancing the nutritional quality of wheat flour through added antioxidant properties.
This study investigated the causal linkage between information and communication technologies (ICT) and sustainable development (environmental—CO2, economic—RGDP, and social—HDI) in the ECOWAS subregion categorized into low‐income and lower‐middle‐income countries for the period 1995–2020. Cointegrating regression and causality methods were employed to estimate the dynamic linkage among variables in panel fully modified ordinary least squares (PFMOLS) and Dumitrescu–Hurlin causality models. The results of the study support the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for low‐income countries while it rejects EKC for lower‐middle‐income countries. The study recommends policy formulations targeted at incentivizing the use of environmentally friendly technologies that minimizes positive impact on the environment and enhance sustainable development.
We aimed to assess the relationship between cardiorepiratory fitness (CRF) and cardiometabolic parameters among young Nigerian adults. 100 young adults (50 males, 50 females) aged 20-30 years, selected from College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nigeria, participated in the study. Subjects’ demographic data and medical information were obtained through the use of structured pre-exercise health and lifestyle screening questionnaire, physical examination and morphometric measurements. Exercise test was carried out using a mechanically braked magnetic ergometer bicycle at an incremental workload of 30 W every 2 min until the subject reached a volitional exhaustion. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured at rest, during exercise and at post-exercise periods. Data indicated a significantly (Ρ<0.05) lower resting HR and rate pressure product (RPP), but higher targeted HR reserve, %RPP increase, peak oxygen pulse, cardiac output, exercise duration and work rate compared with the intermediate and unfit groups in both sexes. Age and BMI adjusted correlation test also indicated significant associations between peak oxygen consumption (VO 2 ) and resting HR, resting RPP, targeted HR reserve, oxygen pulse, cardiac output, % RPP increase, actual HR reserve, exercise duration, and work rate. In contrast, resting BP, resting pulse pressure, peak systolic blood pressure (SBP), peak HR, percentage maximum HR, SBP recovery and HR recovery did not correlate with peak VO 2 . The present findings suggest that a multiple approach involving both metabolic and cardiovascular interventions might be appropriate when implementing strategies to enhance CRF and improve general well-being.
Transposable elements (TEs) constitute ~80% of the complex bread wheat genome and contribute significantly to wheat evolution and environmental adaptation. We studied 52 TE insertion polymorphism markers to ascertain their efficiency as a robust DNA marker system for genetic studies in wheat and related species. Significant variation was found in miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) insertions in relation to ploidy with the highest number of “full site” insertions occurring in the hexaploids (32.6 ± 3.8), while the tetraploid and diploid progenitors had 22.3 ± 0.6 and 15.0 ± 3.5 “full sites,” respectively, which suggested a recent rapid activation of these transposons after the formation of wheat. Constructed phylogenetic trees were consistent with the evolutionary history of these species which clustered mainly according to ploidy and genome types (SS, AA, DD, AABB, and AABBDD). The synthetic hexaploids sub-clustered near the tetraploid species from which they were re-synthesized. Preliminary genotyping in 104 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) showed predominantly 1:1 segregation for simplex markers, with four of these markers already integrated into our current DArT-and SNP-based linkage map. The MITE insertions also showed stability with no single excision observed. The MITE insertion site polymorphisms uncovered in this study are very promising as high-potential evolutionary markers for genomic studies in wheat.
To determine the antibiotypes and frequency of toxin genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), 281 nasal swab samples were collected from dogs and dog guardians in Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was determined by disc diffusion technique while detection of toxin genes was carried out by PCR. Exactly 41 (28.7%) and 6 (4.3%) MRSP were obtained from dogs and dog guardians respectively. Isolates exhibited resistance (100% - 16.7%) to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, and carbapenems. Seccanine, lukD, siet, and exi toxin genes were harboured by 42 (89.4%), 47 (100%), 37 (78.7%), and 2 (4.3%) MRSP isolates respectively. This study has shown that dogs and dog guardians in Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria are colonized by multiple drug-resistant MRSP which harbour toxin genes. This represents a significant public health problem in veterinary and human medicine.
Aquaculture contributes remarkably to the global economy and food security through seafood production, an important part of the global food supply chain. The success of this industry depends heavily on aquafeeds, and the nutritional composition of the feed is an important factor for the quality, productivity, and profitability of aquaculture species. The sustainability of the aquaculture industry depends on the accessibility of quality feed ingredients, such as fishmeal and fish oil. These traditional feedstuffs are under increasing significant pressure due to the rapid expansion of aquaculture for human consumption and the decline of natural fish harvest. In this review, we evaluated the development of microalgal molecules in aquaculture and expanded the use of these high-value compounds in the production of aquaculture diets. Microalgae-derived functional ingredients emerged as one of the promising alternatives for aquafeed production with positive health benefits. Several compounds found in microalgae, including carotenoids (lutein, astaxanthin, and β-carotene), essential amino acids (leucine, valine, and threonine), β-1-3-glucan, essential oils (docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid), minerals, and vitamins, are of high nutritional value to aquaculture.
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common mental health challenge in resource-constrained sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Characterizing its correlates will aid prediction, early detection, and pre-emptive interventions. This review aimed to systematically synthesize and stratify PPD correlates in sub-Saharan Africa. The review was structured as per the Preferred Reporting Item for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. We included studies that reported the correlates of PPD in SSA. We searched PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, Academic Search Complete, and PsycINFO for relevant peer-reviewed literature. The correlates of PPD constituted the primary outcome. A random effect model was fitted to estimate the pooled correlation coefficient per correlate. The clinical relevance of correlates was stratified based on strength of correlation (r) and recurrence (f). The mean age of the participants was 27.0 ± 6.0 years, and 68.6% of participants had completed at least secondary education. The correlates of PPD in SSA were intimate partner violence (IPV) ((risk weight (rw) = 2.8; r = 0.212 (confidence interval (CI): 0.11–0.31), poor social support (PSS) (rw = 1.9; r = 0.250 (0.133–0.361)), unwanted pregnancy (UP) (rw = 1.6; r = 0.279 (CI: 0.14–0.41); I ² = 95.89), and maternal age (MA) (rw = 0.96; r = 0.27 (CI: 0.154–0.37)), among others. A cumulative risk weight of ⩾0.95 was predictive of PPD and marks the critical point at which preemptive interventions should be instituted. The stratification of risk PPD factors and computation of risk stability index are useful in identifying the clinical significant risk factors. The provision of critical risk point will simplify early detection thus facilitating cost-effectiveness. Of the correlates of PPD in SSA, IPV, PSS, UP, and MA are the most important. Targeted screening and pre-emptive interventions for women with high risk weight may be a reasonable strategy both in the short and long term.
Assessment of groundwater quality around Ezzangbo–Ngbo area, southeastern part of Nigeria was carried out using hydrochemical and statistical approach with the sole aim of determining its suitability for drinking and irrigation uses. 20 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed in Water Science Laboratory, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USA, for physicochemical parameters, such as pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolve solid (TDS), total hardness (TH), sodium ion (Na+), magnesium ion (Mg2+), potassium ion (K+), chloride ion (Cl−), sulphate ion (SO42−), and nitrite ion (NO3−) using the atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS), Dionex ICX-90 and potentiometric titration methods. Result of hydrochemical analysis indicated that pH ranges from 6.46 to 7.25; further deductions from pH suggested that base except samples locations BH2, BH4, BH5, HDW1, BH6, BH7, HDW2, BH9, BH10, HDW4, HDW5, BH13, and BH14 which were considered acidic. Total dissolved solid (TDS) for this study ranges from 184 to 447 mg/L, indicating groundwater is considered to be freshwater. Further findings from TH value revealed that TH ranges from 62.11 to 489.03 mg/L, classifying the groundwater as ‘soft’ to ‘very hard’ water. Ca2+> Na+> Mg2+> K+ is the order of main cation concentrations, with mean value of 97.20 mg/L, 75.01 mg/L, 10.17 mg/L, and 1.24 mg/L, respectively, while HCO3−> Cl−> SO42−> NO3 − sis the order of main anions concentrations, with mean value of 388.05 mg/L, 14.09 mg/L, 12.04 mg/L, and 0.162 mg/L, respectively. Results from assessment of groundwater for drinking indicates that groundwater fell into the category “excellent” and “good” for drinking use based on WQI and “excellent to unsuitable” for irrigation use based on %Na and SAR.Ca2+–Mg2+–HCO3− and Na2+−HCO3−hydrochemical facies were identified. Reverse ion exchange, weathering of silicate minerals, and rock–water interactions were identified as the major mechanisms influencing ionic components of groundwater in the area.
Indigenous crops play a critical role in the socioeconomic growth of developing nations where there have been calls for exploitation of these staple crops. This study investigated the yield and heavy metal uptake of cocoyam and changes in soil physical properties in relation to different tillage practices and the application of burnt rice husk dust (BRHD). The experiment was arranged as a split plot in a randomised complete block design (RCBD) with six treatments and three replications. The treatments were: mound tillage (no BRHD); ridge tillage (no BRHD); mound + 10 t ha⁻¹ BRHD; mound + 20 t ha⁻¹ BRHD; ridge + 10 t ha⁻¹ BRHD and ridge + 20 t ha⁻¹ BRHD. The results showed that soil bulk density (at 45 days after planting, DAP) was lower when the tillage practices were combined with the amendment of burnt rice husk dust, while total porosity (at 45 DAP) and aggregate stability were higher. The yields of cocoyam corms were also higher for tillage practices combined with amendment with burnt rice husk dust. The concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn) in the cocoyam corms were higher for plants grown in soil amended with BRHD, but the levels were still below the levels considered harmful in food crops. Burnt rice husk dust could be recommended for use as a soil amendment in the study area to improve soil properties and increase the production of cocoyam, without increasing the concentration of heavy metals in the corms to harmful levels.
Background and Aim: Raw milk can be a source of food-borne disease transmission and a medium for spreading antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are bacteria that have the pathogenic ability to attack host cells and are capable of harboring antibiotic-resistant genes. This study estimated the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus and E. coli isolated from raw milk in East Java, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty raw milk samples were collected from five dairy farms in East Java. S. aureus and E. coli were isolated using their respective selective media, whereas antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method. The methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was confirmed using the oxacillin resistance screen agar test, and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli was determined using the double-disk synergy test. The presence of mecA and blaTEM genes were screened by the polymerase chain reaction method. Results: Results indicated that the prevalence of S. aureus was 138 (55.2%) and that E. coli was 176 (70.4%). Of the 138 S. aureus isolated, 27 (19.6%) were MRSA, and among the 176 E. coli isolates identified, 3 (1.7%) were ESBL producers. The mecA gene was observed in 2 (7.4%) MRSA and all 3 (100%) ESBL-producing E. coli isolated harbored blaTEM genes. Conclusion: The presence of MRSA and ESBL-producing E. coli in raw milk is a serious public health threat, and public awareness should be raised about the dangers posed by these pathogenic organisms.
In Warri, Delta State, Nigeria, 17 groundwater samples were collected and examined using the American Public Health Association (APHA) method. to evaluate the hydrochemical characteristics and health risks connected with using them as drinking water. For the assessment of the impact of heavy metal contamination in groundwater resources within the region, statistical index analysis using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Pearson correlation, heavy metal index such as Contamination Index (CI), Contamination Factor (Cf), Pollution Load Index (PLI), Metal Pollution Index (MPI), Quantification of Contamination (QoC), Potential Ecological Risk Index (ERI), and Pollution Index of Groundwater (PIG) were successfully applied. Additional findings from Pearson correlation and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) suggested that there is an interaction within the groundwater aquifer system and that there are weak to moderate relationships between parameters. PCA also suggests that loadings within the groundwater system may have resulted from anthropogenic activities in the area that are affecting the water chemistry. Results from hydrogeochemical facies showed that in the cation area, Na+K > Mg > Ca > Cl > SO4 > HCO3 with a tendency of 35.3 percent SO4 > 5.9 percent HCO3 > 41.2 percent Cl > 17.6 percent no dominant ionic specie. Findings from heavy metals indexes like Cf and PLI suggested that there is no connection between them and the groundwater that is readily available. Additional MPI results showed that the research area's groundwater is regarded as clean, whereas QoC and ERI findings showed that geological processes promote the transport of heavy metals, the possible ecological danger associated with groundwater. The HI for all indicators was higher in children than in adults, according to health risk data. This increasing HI in the studied area may be primarily due to anthropogenic sources. According to the findings, ongoing groundwater assessment is necessary to warn against a decline in groundwater quality in the research region.
The drinking water quality of Akure, in the Ondo State area of southwestern Nigeria, was assessed. 21 groundwater samples were collected and tested for physicochemical characteristics such as pH, main ions, and heavy metals from motorized boreholes and hand-dug wells. From the hydrogeochemical modeling, it shows 77.3% of the samples are of the geochemical zone of 4 (strong acids exceed weak acids) while 22.7% of the samples are of the geochemical zone of 3 (weak acids exceed strong acids) with a hydrogeochemical trend of Mg > Na + K > HCO 3 > Cl > SO4 > Ca. WQI results revealed that groundwater needs proper treatment before it can be fit for different purposes. Contamination Factor results showed minimal contamination, Metal Pollution Index revealed that 80.6 percent of the samples had values more than 6, suggesting that they were severely contaminated. Pollution Load Index values in the area were less than 1 showing there isn't any pollution. Geoaccumulation Index results showed that 47.6% of the samples are respectable contamination while 47.6% of the samples are modestly dirty. Principal Component Analysis results indicated loadings of variables within the PCI, PC2, and PC3 while the Correlation Matrix results indicated that there exists weak correlation amongst elements and the majority of the elements. From statistical approach of health risk assessment, it was observed that traceable absorption of poisonous heavy metals have resulted to diarrhea, typhoid fever, cholera, hepatits A and dysentery commonly found in children and youths in the study area. The results of the Hazard index showed that children were more prone to heavy metal hazards. Regular monitoring of the groundwater sources is highly recommended.
We build upon the social cognitive career theory model of career self-management (SCCT-CSM) to test the effects of psychological capital constructs (hope, self-efficacy, optimism and resilience) on preparatory and active job search behaviours, mediated by job search goals in a multi-group study of university graduates who undertook work placement learning before graduation and those who did not. Using a two-wave data from 473 university fresh graduates in the one-year national youth service corps ( N = 209 who undertook work placement learning before graduation) and ( N = 264 who did not undertake work placement learning) in Nigeria, we test an SCCT-CSM-driven model employing structural equation modelling for the multi-group study. The findings revealed positive effects of self-efficacy and optimism on the preparatory and active job search behaviours across both samples but higher effects in the graduates who undertook work placement learning before graduation. Job search goals mediated the effects of self-efficacy and optimism on their preparatory and active job search behaviours in both samples. The serial mediation results show that self-efficacy and optimism indirectly affect the active job search behaviours via job search goals and preparatory job search behaviours. The implications of these results are discussed.
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