Throughout history, cities have evolved to meet changing needs. A city transforms, as do living organisms, as their needs and requirements change. Changes to urban waterfronts also affect the city’s attractive, vital, and essential elements. As part of this debate, urban waterfronts will be in the discussion, which refers to the specificity of the city. Urban planning seeks to provide a better way of life and to design cities for everyday use. Aside from solving specific problems, urban development may also serve as a general policy to improve cities’ physical, functional, social, environmental, and cultural aspects. Depending on the specific circumstances of a particular city, some problems are similar, and some are different in every city. The planning, implementing, and managing of urban waterfront development projects can be complex, and their ability to motivate creativity can be problematic. This article focuses on the principles of waterfront development as a creative environment. Waterfronts initially discussed their primary problems, characteristics, and related issues. Afterward, the authors describe urban waterfront development as a creative environment and the principles involved. In the final section, the authors describe an urban waterfront development framework to reduce social segregation and incorporate the experiences and opinions of citizens and stakeholders—a comparative and exploratory approach to gathering primary and secondary sources for this study.
Thiosemicarbazide derivatives have been the focus of scientists owing to their broad biological activities such as anticancer, antimicrobial, and anti‐inflammatory. Herein, we designed and synthesized a new thiosemicarbazide derivative ( TS‐1 ) and evaluated its antiproliferative potential against the human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HEPG2) and human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (ECV‐304). Also, it was aimed to investigate the necroptotic and apoptotic cell death effects of TS‐1 in HEPG2 cells, and these effects were supported by molecular docking. The new synthesized compound structure was characterized using various spectroscopic methods such as FT‐IR, ¹ H‐NMR, ¹³ C‐NMR, and elemental analysis. The cytotoxic activity of the tested compound was measured by the MTT assay. Apoptotic and necroptotic properties of the TS‐1 were evaluated by indirect immunoperoxidase method using antibodies against Ki‐67, Bax, Bcl‐2, caspase‐3, caspase‐8, caspase‐9, RIP3, and RIPK1. Apoptotic and necroptotic effects of TS‐1 were supported by molecular docking. Compound TS‐1 was synthesized as a pure compound with a high yield. The effective value of TS‐1 was 10 μM in HEPG2 cells. TS‐1 did not show any cytotoxic effect on ECV‐304. Caspase‐3 and RIPK1 immunoreactivities were significantly increased in HEPG2 cells after being treated with TS‐1 . As the results of the molecular docking studies, the molecular docking showed that the TS‐1 exhibits H‐bond interaction with various significant amino acid residues in the active site of both RIPK1. It could be concluded that TS‐1 could be a promising novel therapeutic agent by inducing apoptosis rather than necroptosis in HEPG2 cells.
The whole of society has been passing through difficult times due to the effects of COVID‐19. Such a lengthy period has greatly impacted lifestyles and living standards. Accordingly, this paper aimed to examine the role of Jordanian children in purchasing decision‐making within the framework of parental mediation during COVID‐19. A quantitative methodology was applied, and a questionnaire targeted 287 children aged 8–12. Findings demonstrated a correlation between the influence of COVID‐19. They changed the purchasing behaviour of children, as their daily habits have changed to increased periods of stay at home, leading to a long preoccupation with watching the Internet/commercials.
As adivided capital city, Nicosia and its Buffer Zone have attracted attention across political, social, cultural, and academic spheres since the 1974 division of Cyprus. The Buffer Zone's physical and symbolic presence reflects the ongoing struggle for reunification and the challenges of tension in a confined space. The crossing points in the Buffer Zone serve as bridges, facilitating movement and interaction between the communities. Thus, contested spaces require comprehensive, context-sensitive approaches that foster inclusive dialogues, and seek innovative spatial arrangements to promote sustainable peace and shared understanding. The paper proposes a placemaking process approach that serves as a transformative tool to tackle the difficulties associated with contested spaces and strive towards their comprehensive revitalisation. 126 different NGOs participated as stakeholders in the Ledra Street Crossing Point and answered the Likert scale survey after the reliability check. The aim of this paper is to identify a successful placemaking process diagram for contested spaces as an analytical framework. The diagram establishes important criteria and their correlations for the placemaking process. It identifies sociability alongside uses and activities as key imperatives for successful placemaking process in contested contexts: social networks, sharing space use, multifunctionality, and public space usage.
The 2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were adopted by the United Nations (UN) in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet, and ensure that by 2030 all people enjoy peace and prosperity. Since its announcement, the SDGs have attracted significant interest from various disciplines and sectors globally. Partnerships from the private and public sectors have been established to play a role in this challenging and ambitious plan. However, organizational institutions in architectural practice and education in Turkey have not yet been sufficiently interested in the SDGs. This gap in architectural education in Turkey constitutes the study’s primary motivation and defines this paper’s main problem area. In order to close this gap in literature and architecture education, the paper aims to present a projection of how the Turkish architectural education system can be integrated with the SDGs. Accordingly, the main research question that the paper intends to answer is: If and how schools of architecture in Turkey deal with SDGs within their curriculum and educational system? The study process included in-depth interviews with the administrators/chairpersons of schools of architecture having been granted accreditation by MIAK (the national accreditation board for schools of architecture in Turkey) and a thorough analysis of graduation projects submitted to Archprix Turkey. Following this, the study clarifies the situation regarding SDGs’ involvement in curricula at different levels and proposes a Turkey-specific SDG-Architecture education integration framework in light of these ideas.
This visual essay presents the urban renewal, improvement, and design project of the Nicosia Turkish Municipality bus terminal area in Nicosia Central Business District (CBD) as a new mixed-use complex and a public space. After a thorough analysis and evaluation, the project aims to transform the area into a sustainable and liveable place. The study is project-based, relatively micro-scale, ‘planned urban renewal process’ led and publicly structured and aims at environmental, spatial, social, and economic-based urban improvement and development. The project area under study, with the existing intercity bus terminal building, the Municipal Theater building, the Municipality Building, and the parking lot in front of it, is a public area that should be evaluated within the scope of urban renewal and should be improved and developed through a strategic urban planning and design approach, to provide the citizens of Nicosia, sustainable, healthy, resilient, and inclusive public spaces.
Neural network applications, as an emerging machine learning technology, are increasingly being integrated into pharmaceutical manufacturing technologies, offering significant improvement opportunities for performance, efficiency and sustainability. This review paper utilizes a systematic methodology to establish key literature trends and themes. The state-of-the-art body of knowledge in this hot research area is analyzed in descriptive (e.g. neural network technologies studied, sustainability indicators considered, manufacturing process addressed) and thematic synthesis components. Process analysis and improvement, quality control and additive manufacturing were identified as the three focal research themes, and research lines within these themes were further studied and discussed. To guide future research, potential paths and research questions are proposed against the gaps identified. The originality of this work lies in its methodology (adoption of a systematic review approach, highly limited in the current literature), its inclusion of sustainability (as an imperative concept for manufacturing technology research) and its specific focus on neural network applications in the context of pharmaceutical manufacturing technologies (a perspective, either has been missing or addressed too widely by extant contributions). Graphical abstract
This work is considered as the first comprehensive review, that covers all types of meshfree method including the traditional or developed meshless techniques that have been implemented for the purpose of investigating static analysis (bending, stability) besides dynamic analysis (free vibration, force vibration and other types of dynamic behaviors) of linear and nonlinear mechanical system. The secondary methods utilized together with the meshless methods are also highlighted such as; Hamilton’s principle, first-order shear deformation theory, high-order shear deformation theory, Monte Carlo, local/nonlocal theories and others. Also, some computational mechanics approaches are briefly addressed. The basic fundamental equations of meshfree methods and the error analysis are presented. Various types of schematics and structure size are discussed. Else, the implementation of composite material in solid mechanics are concisely highlighted. As a key finding, in each unique schematic in specific scale, various implemented parameters like boundary conditions, thickness to length ratio (t/l), as well as the aspect ratio have different impacts on the mechanical performance in both static and dynamic analysis. Additionally, as each meshfree method is considered unique by itself and has its own developed mathematical model, each method has different application and numerical problems to solve. Galerkin, reproducing kernel particle method, moving least square are the most common meshfree. Based on the literature, many studies mainly show interest in investigating the piezoelectric and diverse distribution of carbon nanotubes, and some in fictional graded material in different structures. This review is recommended for researchers interested in solid mechanics analysis at various scales using meshfree techniques.
Campylobacter is one of the most commonly reported foodborne bacteria worldwide. Although Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli have been reported to be responsible for the great majority of campylobacteriosis, the burden of infections by species other than C. jejuni and C. coli have been increasing as a result of a transition to diagnostic test methods that enable the isolation of emerging species. The aim of the present study was to recover C. jejuni, C. coli, and emerging species from the stool samples of 500 patients with gastroenteritis and 100 healthy subjects via the use of a filtration method and culture techniques using Butzler agar and mCCDA under a microaerobic or hydrogen-enriched atmosphere, identify the species by multiplex PCR methods and assess the significance of emerging species in enteric diseases. Thirty-one (6.2%) Campylobacter spp. were isolated from the stool samples of diarrheic patients but none from healthy individuals. Of 31 isolates, 21 (67.8%), nine (29%), and one (3.2%) were identified as C. jejuni, C. coli, and Campylobacter concisus by multiplex PCR, respectively. The filtration method was superior to the culture technique using mCCDA under a microaerobic atmosphere. C. concisus was evaluated as the etiology of gastroenteritis as a result of laboratory and clinical evaluations. The present study was the first to indicate that emerging Campylobacter species are rarely detected and C. concisus is linked to acute gastroenteritis in Turkey where additional studies are warranted to clarify the significance of emerging species in gastroenteritis.
Through the Ernst formalism we provide expression for a class of colliding Einstein-Maxwell (EM) metrics with cross polarization. Local isometry is imposed as a means to transform interaction region of the spacetime into stationary, charged Zipoy–Voorhees (ZV) metric in Schwarzschild coordinates. This is known as the Chandrasekhar-Xanthopoulos (CX) duality which maps the plane of double-null coordinates (with two spacelike cyclic coordinates) to the static/stationary spacetime. The ZV-metric is known to describe planetary/stellar objects with arbitrary distortion parameter. Asymptotic behaviour of the metric for practical use is provided. "The world may be seen in a grain of sand" - William Blake.
Purpose Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets) have quickly become popular machine learning techniques in recent years, particularly in the classification and segmentation of medical images. One of the most prevalent types of brain cancers is glioma, and early, accurate diagnosis is essential for both treatment and survival. In this study, MRI scans were examined utilizing deep learning techniques to examine glioma diagnosis studies. Methods In this systematic review, keywords were used to obtain English-language studies from the Arxiv, IEEE, Springer, ScienceDirect, and PubMed databases for the years 2010–2022. The material needed for review was then collected from the articles once they had been chosen based on the entry and exit criteria and in accordance with the research's goal. Results Finally, 77 different academic articles were chosen. According to a study of published articles, glioma brain tumors were discovered, categorized, and segmented utilizing a coordinated approach that included image collecting, pre-processing, model design and execution, and model output evaluation. The majority of investigations have used publicly accessible photo databases and already-trained algorithms. The bulk of studies have employed Dice's classification accuracy and similarity coefficient metrics to assess model performance. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that glioma segmentation has received more attention from researchers than glioma detection and classification. It is advised that more research be done in the areas of glioma detection and, particularly, grading in order to be included in systems that support medical diagnosis.
In this paper, we investigate a solution for an asymptotic, magnetically-charged, non-singular (AMCNS) black hole. By utilizing the Gauss–Bonnet theorems, we aim to unravel the intricate astrophysics associated with this unique black hole. The study explored various aspects including the black hole’s gravitational field, intrinsic properties, light bending, the shadow and greybody bounding of the black hole. Through rigorous calculations and simulations, we derive the weak deflection angle of the optical metric of AMCNS black hole. Additionally, we investigate the impact of the dark matter medium on the deflection angle, examined the distinctive features of the black hole’s shadow, and bound its greybody factors. Our findings not only deepen our understanding of gravitational lensing but also pave the way for future improvements in black hole theories by minimizing restrictive assumptions and incorporating a more realistic representation of these cosmic phenomena.
This study investigates the time‐varying connectedness between subsectoral clean‐energy stocks and fossil fuel energy commodities (crude oil, natural gas, and coal) over the period of December 2013–January 2023 employing the Diebold and Yilmaz approach and the dynamic conditional correlation generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model. According to the findings, oil transmits the highest volatility spillover shocks to biofuels, and the least to the fuel cell industry. Both natural gas and coal transmit the highest volatility spillover shocks to energy storage, and the least to geothermal and green information technology, respectively. The study also finds strong and time‐varying volatility connectedness among clean‐energy assets and fossil fuels, significantly affected by global extreme events, such as the COVID‐19 pandemic and the Russia–Ukraine conflict. Additionally, the study provides time‐varying and mean optimal hedge ratios with optimal portfolio weights for investors. The empirical results are robust, and important portfolio and policy implications based on empirical findings are provided.
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