Most modern seismic design codes build upon the concept of performance-based earthquake engineering that allows structures to sustain repairable damage during moderate and large earthquakes. Therefore, accurate and quantitative post-earthquake damage evaluation of real-world structures is crucial for safe operation of buildings. Structural-health monitoring provides sensor-based information regarding the structural state and informs post-earthquake building assessment. With the utilization of monitoring data, which is recorded during earthquake excitation, damage-sensitive features (DSFs) can be extracted in both purely data-driven or hybrid forms; with the latter term referring to damage indicators (DIs) that fuse data with dynamic models. In this paper, data-driven and hybrid damage identification methods are introduced and compared with respect to their performance and robustness in detecting and quantifying structural damage. The damage localization and quantification performance are discussed for varying number of building floors. Moreover, numerical models are used to enable the comparison of DSFs with metrics of nonlinearity, such as maximum drift, and with response metrics that are traditionally used to quantify damage, such as maximum inter-story drifts. Finally, uncertainties in DSFs and their sensitivity to sensor noise, prior knowledge of mass and the spectral content of earthquake excitation are assessed to explore the robustness of the hybrid DI.
This chapter presents a hierarchical Bayesian framework for the system parameter identification of vibrating systems using spatially incomplete and noisy output-only response measurements. The parameters to be identified are treated as random variables, whose distributions are approximated by a finite number of evolving particles. For each realization of the parameters, an output-only Bayesian filter is employed for the unknown input and state estimation, creating thus a bank of filters that are recursively weighted, upon assimilation of the measurement information, and subsequently updated in order to narrow down the range of system parameters and converge to the target values.
ShakeAlert, the earthquake early warning (EEW) system for the West Coast of the United States, attempts to provides crucial warnings before strong shaking occurs. However, because the alerts are triggered only when an earthquake is already in progress, and the alert latencies and delivery times are platform dependent, the time between these warnings and the arrival of shaking is variable. The ShakeAlert system uses, among other public alerting platforms like a mobile phone operating system, smartphone apps, and the Federal Emergency Management Agency Integrated Public Alert & Warning System (IPAWS). IPAWS sends Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEAs) informing people via their smartphones and other mobile devices about various events, such as natural hazards, child abductions, or public health information about COVID-19. However, little is known about the IPAWS delivery latencies. Given that people may have only a few seconds of notice after they receive an alert to take a protective action before they feel earthquake shaking, quantifying latencies is critical to understanding whether the IPAWS system is useful for EEW. In this study, we developed new methods to test the IPAWS distribution system's performance, both with devices in a controlled environment and as well as with a 2019 community-based feedback form, in Oakland and San Diego County, California, respectively. The controlled environment test used mobile phones (including smart and non-smart phones) and associated devices to determine alert receipt times; the community research form had participants self-report their receipt times. By triangulating the data between the controlled test environment and the community research, we determined the latency statistics as well as whether the geofence (the geographic area where the alert was intended to be sent) held broadly. We found that the latencies were similar between the two tests despite the large differences in population sizes. WEA messages were received within a median time frame of 6-12 s, and the geofence held with only a few exceptions. We use this latency to assess how the system would have performed in two large earthquakes, the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta and 2019 M7.1 Ridgecrest earthquakes, which both occurred near our WEA test locations. Our analysis revealed that had IPAWS been available during those earthquakes, particularly Loma Prieta, it would have provided crucial seconds of notice that damaging shaking was imminent in some locations relatively far from the epicenter. Further, we find affordable non-smart phones can receive WEAs as fast as smartphones. Finally, our new method can be used for latency and geospatial testing going forward for IPAWS and other similar alerting systems.
The Ramsey number r(H) of a graph H is the minimum integer n such that any two-coloring of the edges of the complete graph Kn contains a monochromatic copy of H. While this definition only asks for a single monochromatic copy of H, it is often the case that every two-edge-coloring of the complete graph on r(H) vertices contains many monochromatic copies of H. The minimum number of such copies over all two-colorings of Kr(H) will be referred to as the threshold Ramsey multiplicity of H. Addressing a problem of Harary and Prins, who were the first to systematically study this quantity, we show that there is a positive constant c such that the threshold Ramsey multiplicity of a path or an even cycle on k vertices is at least (ck)k. This bound is tight up to the constant c. We prove a similar result for odd cycles in a companion paper.
α-Diimine Ni and Pd complexes are one of the most examined late-transition organometallics in the application of catalyzed ethylene (co)polymerization. These organometallic catalysts provide unique advantages and particular opportunities to tailor the architectures, composition, and topology of synthesized polymers through catalyzed polymerization. Two decades after their initial discovery, they are still drawing extensive attention in both academia and industry. More recently, researchers have studied the effect of structural modifications on the α-diimine Ni and Pd complexes and their catalytic behaviors in ethylene (co)polymerization. This review highlights the recent progress in the developments of α-diimine Ni and Pd complexes achieved in the last decade. The chain-walking mechanism as a unique catalytic behavior of α-diimine Ni and Pd complexes is also addressed. The versatile synthesis of ligands and complexes enables researchers to tailor the catalytic performance and the microstructures of polyethylene. Correlations between their structural tunes and catalytic behaviors, polymer properties, and the ethylene copolymerization with polar monomers are comparatively presented and discussed. The heterogenization study of α-diimine Ni and Pd complexes on a solid support for heterogeneous catalysis is also comprehensively summarized. The review is broadly classified into four sections which includes i) the coordination-insertion chemistry in ethylene (co)polymerization, ii) the modification of ligand structure, iii) their application in the field of heterogeneous polymerization, iv) and the properties of the synthesized polymers, followed by the short summary and outlook for their potential studies and applications.
We study the interplay of non-pharmaceutical containment measures, human behavior, and the spread of COVID-19 in Switzerland. First, we collect sub-national data and construct indices that capture the stringency of containment measures at the cantonal level. Second, we use a vector autoregressive model to analyze feedback effects between our variables of interest via structural impulse responses. Our results suggest that increases in the stringency of containment measures lead to a significant reduction in weekly infections as well as debit card transactions, which serve as a proxy for behavioral changes in the population. Furthermore, analyzing different policy measures individually shows that business closures, recommendations to work from home, and restrictions on gatherings have been particularly effective in containing the spread of COVID-19 in Switzerland. Finally, our findings indicate a sizeable voluntary reduction in debit card transactions in response to a positive infection shock.
Lightweight, ultra-flexible, and robust crosslinked transition metal carbide (Ti 3 C 2 MXene) coated polyimide (PI) (C-MXene@PI) porous composites are manufactured via a scalable dip-coating followed by chemical crosslinking approach. In addition to the hydrophobicity, anti-oxidation and extreme-temperature stability, efficient utilization of the intrinsic conductivity of MXene, the interfacial polarization between MXene and PI, and the micrometer-sized pores of the composite foams are achieved. Consequently, the composites show a satisfactory X-band electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness of 22.5 to 62.5 dB at a density of 28.7 to 48.7 mg cm ⁻³ , leading to an excellent surface-specific SE of 21,317 dB cm ² g ⁻¹ . Moreover, the composite foams exhibit excellent electrothermal performance as flexible heaters in terms of a prominent, rapid reproducible, and stable electrothermal effect at low voltages and superior heat performance and more uniform heat distribution compared with the commercial heaters composed of alloy plates. Furthermore, the composite foams are well attached on a human body to check their electromechanical sensing performance, demonstrating the sensitive and reliable detection of human motions as wearable sensors. The excellent EMI shielding performance and multifunctionalities, along with the facile and easy-to-scalable manufacturing techniques, imply promising perspectives of the porous C-MXene@PI composites in next-generation flexible electronics, aerospace, and smart devices.
The chemical pollution crisis severely threatens human and environmental health globally. To tackle this challenge the establishment of an overarching international science–policy body has recently been suggested. We strongly support this initiative based on the awareness that humanity has already likely left the safe operating space within planetary boundaries for novel entities including chemical pollution. Immediate action is essential and needs to be informed by sound scientific knowledge and data compiled and critically evaluated by an overarching science–policy interface body. Major challenges for such a body are (i) to foster global knowledge production on exposure, impacts and governance going beyond data-rich regions (e.g., Europe and North America), (ii) to cover the entirety of hazardous chemicals, mixtures and wastes, (iii) to follow a one-health perspective considering the risks posed by chemicals and waste on ecosystem and human health, and (iv) to strive for solution-oriented assessments based on systems thinking. Based on multiple evidence on urgent action on a global scale, we call scientists and practitioners to mobilize their scientific networks and to intensify science–policy interaction with national governments to support the negotiations on the establishment of an intergovernmental body based on scientific knowledge explaining the anticipated benefit for human and environmental health.
Background Safe and clean drinking water is essential for human life. Persistent, mobile and toxic (PMT) substances and/or very persistent and very mobile (vPvM) substances are an important group of substances for which additional measures to protect water resources may be needed to avoid negative environmental and human health effects. PMT/vPvM substances do not sufficiently biodegrade in the environment, they can travel long distances with water and are toxic (those that are PMT substances) to the environment and/or human health. PMT/vPvM substance research and regulation is arguably in its infancy and in order to get in control of these substances the following (non-exhaustive list of) knowledge gaps should to be addressed: environmental occurrence; the suitability of currently available analytical methods; the effectiveness and availability of treatment technologies; the ability of regional governance and industrial stewardship to contribute to safe drinking water while supporting innovation; the ways in which policies and regulations can be used most effectively to govern these substances; and, the identification of safe and sustainable alternatives. Methods The work is the outcome of the third PMT workshop, held in March 2021, that brought together diverse scientists, regulators, NGOs, and representatives from the water sector and the chemical sector, all concerned with protecting the quality of our water resources. The online workshop was attended by over 700 people. The knowledge gaps above were discussed in the presentations given and the attendees were invited to provide their opinions about knowledge gaps related to PMT/vPvM substance research and regulation. Results Strategies to closing the knowledge, technical and practical gaps to get in control of PMT/vPvM substances can be rooted in the Chemicals Strategy for Sustainability Towards a Toxic Free Environment from the European Commission, as well as recent advances in the research and industrial stewardship. Key to closing these gaps are: (i) advancing remediation and removal strategies for PMT/vPvM substances that are already in the environment, however this is not an effective long-term strategy; (ii) clear and harmonized definitions of PMT/vPvM substances across diverse European and international legislations; (iii) ensuring wider availability of analytical methods and reference standards; (iv) addressing data gaps related to persistence, mobility and toxicity of chemical substances, particularly transformation products and those within complex substance mixtures; and (v) advancing monitoring and risk assessment tools for stewardship and regulatory compliance. The two most effective ways to get in control were identified to be source control through risk governance efforts, and enhancing market incentives for alternatives to PMT/vPvM substances by using safe and sustainable by design strategies.
This paper examines the incidence of firm bankruptcies and start-ups in Switzerland based on unique register data. We propose to assess the frequency of bankruptcies over time using the concept of excess mortality. During the COVID-19 crisis in 2020 and the first half of 2021, bankruptcy rates were substantially lower as compared to the pre-crisis period. This holds across most industries and regions. The Great Recession and the Swiss Franc Shock showed reverse patterns. Bankruptcies dropped more in industries and cantons, in which the share of firms who received a COVID-19 loan is comparatively high. In winter 2021, bankruptcies rebounded strongly. Since summer 2020, the number of new firm formations has been significantly higher compared to the time before the crisis. This is also in contrast to the previous crises. The strong start-up activity is driven by industries where the pandemic induced structural adjustments.
Geological surveys have a wide range of tasks for their countries: to map the geology and to assess the georesources potential for metallic ores, industrial minerals, geothermal energy, fossil fuels, aggregates and groundwater. In Europe, most countries founded geological surveys around the mid-nineteenth century in order to create an overview of the geological resources they wanted to exploit. In Switzerland, at that time, the industrial revolution triggered a tremendous demand for infrastructure and energy raw materials. However, no national georesources institution was established when the nation-forming process among the 25 cantons culminated in the foundation of the Swiss Federal State in 1848. The Swiss Geological Survey was founded 138 years later in 1986. How did Switzerland map the country, assess the resource potential and provide fundamental data for land use planning without such an organisation? This paper elaborates on the evolution of Swiss institutions mandated to study the geological resources, with a focus on the Swiss Geotechnical Commission (SGTK, 1899–2018). Given the low financial resources, no long-term nation-wide investigation programs could be implemented. The commission's study program was mainly driven by external societal and political factors. World War I for example reactivated the search for coal which was intensively exploited during those years. Before and during World War II, the focus temporarily shifted to oil and gas exploration. From 1970 onwards, SGTK was involved in several applied research projects and collaborations with various industry partners. In this paper, we revisit the key turning points in the evolution of the commission's investigation program, including related financial and organisational aspects, and discuss how Switzerland’s federalistic structure influenced the geological survey activities. The history of the SGTK represents an exemplification of how a nation managed its geological survey activities, until 1986 in the absence of a geological survey and without large hydrocarbon and metallic ore resources and a corresponding, significant mining industry. The SGTK case also shows that flexible, project-based investigations can be advantageous as they respond to current challenges at short notice. This could to some degree substitute the initial absence of a geological survey, as shown by the numerous SGTK monographs that are key references also 100 years after their publication.
Cut-and-fill sequences are the result of climatically or tectonically induced alternating aggradation and incision phases of a fluvial system. A recently established cosmogenic nuclide chronology of the Cover Gravels ( Deckenschotter in German) in the northern Alpine Foreland, which are the oldest Quaternary glaciofluvial gravels and comprise evidence of early Pleistocene glaciations, suggests a cut-and-fill build-up. This suggested cut-and-fill architecture challenges the morphostratigraphy. The Deckenschotter deposits represent a suitable archive for reconstructing drainage patterns, base level changes, and the landscape evolution of the northern Alpine Foreland during the early Pleistocene. In this study, we focused on the highest morphostratigraphic Deckenschotter sites: three at Irchel and one in the area around Lake Constance. Sediment analyses were performed to determine their provenance and depositional environments. The geochronology was established using isochron-burial dating. The results indicate that the sediments were transported from the Central and eastern Central Alps, as well as from the Molasse, to the foreland and deposited in a proximal glaciofluvial environment. Based on these findings, we propose that the Deckenschotter are cut-and-fill sequences that accumulated in three stages during the early Pleistocene at ca. 2.5 Ma, ca. 1.5 Ma, and ca. 1 Ma. The presence of a cut-and-fill system implies that the regional base level was relatively constant during the early Pleistocene. In addition, the ca. 2.5 Ma glaciofluvial gravels document the first evidence of glaciers in the northern Alpine Foreland. This timing is synchronous with the onset of Quaternary glaciation in the northern hemisphere at ca. 2.7 Ma.
Inflammatory cell infiltration is central to healing after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The relation of regional inflammation to edema, infarct size (IS), microvascular obstruction (MVO), intramyocardial hemorrhage (IMH), and regional and global LV function is not clear. Here we noninvasively characterized regional inflammation and contractile function in reperfused AMI in pigs using fluorine ( ¹⁹ F) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). Adult anesthetized pigs underwent left anterior descending coronary artery instrumentation with either 90 min occlusion ( n = 17) or without occlusion (sham, n = 5). After 3 days, in surviving animals a perfluorooctyl bromide nanoemulsion was infused intravenously to label monocytes/macrophages. At day 6, in vivo ¹ H-CMR was performed with cine, T2 and T2* weighted imaging, T2 and T1 mapping, perfusion and late gadolinium enhancement followed by ¹⁹ F-CMR. Pigs were sacrificed for subsequent ex vivo scans and histology. Edema extent was 35 ± 8% and IS was 22 ± 6% of LV mass. Six of ten surviving AMI animals displayed both MVO and IMH (3.3 ± 1.6% and 1.9 ± 0.8% of LV mass). The ¹⁹ F signal, reflecting the presence and density of monocytes/macrophages, was consistently smaller than edema volume or IS and not apparent in remote areas. The ¹⁹ F signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) > 8 in the infarct border zone was associated with impaired remote systolic wall thickening. A whole heart value of ¹⁹ F integral ( ¹⁹ F SNR × milliliter) > 200 was related to initial LV remodeling independently of edema, IS, MVO, and IMH. Thus, ¹⁹ F-CMR quantitatively characterizes regional inflammation after AMI and its relation to edema, IS, MVO, IMH and regional and global LV function and remodeling.
Mass movements constitute major natural hazards in the Alpine realm. When triggered on slopes adjacent to lakes, these mass movements can generate tsunami-like waves that may cause additional damage along the shore. For hazard assessment, knowledge about the occurrence, the trigger and the geomechanical and hydrogeological mechanisms of these mass movements is necessary. For reconstructing mass movements that occurred in or adjacent to lakes, the lakes's sedimentary record can be used as an archive. Here, we present a prehistorical mass-movement event, of which the traces were found in an alpine lake, Lake Thun, in central Switzerland. The mass movement is identified by large blocks on the bathymetric map, a chaotic to transparent facies on the reflection seismic profiles, and by a mixture of deformed lake sediments and sandy organic-rich layers in the sediment-core record. The event is dated at 2642-2407 cal year BP. With an estimated volume of ~ 20 × 106 m3 it might have generated a wave with an initial amplitude of > 30 m. In addition to this prehistorical event, two younger deposits were identified in the sedimentary record. One could be dated at 1523-1361 cal year BP and thus can be potentially related to an event in 598/599 AD documented in historical reports. The youngest deposit is dated at 304-151 cal year BP (1646-1799 AD) and is interpreted to be related to the artificial Kander river deviation into Lake Thun (1714 AD). Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s00015-022-00405-0.
Petrographic observations combined with mineral compositional analyses constrain the phase relations of prograde metamorphosed serpentinites in the Bergell contact aureole (Italy). In a 1500 m profile perpendicular to the north-eastern edge of the Bergell intrusion, seven dehydration reactions ran to completion. Three previously undocumented reactions have been identified within 70 m of the intrusive contact: olivine + anthophyllite = orthopyroxene + H 2 O, tremolite + Cr–Al-spinel = olivine + Mg-hornblende + H 2 O and chlorite = olivine + orthopyroxene + Cr-Al-spinel + H 2 O. Petrological analysis indicates that these reactions occur over a narrow range of pressure and temperature, 300 ± 30 MPa and 720 ± 10 °C respectively. Computed phase diagram sections reproduce the observed mineral parageneses with one notable exception. Due to the underestimation of aluminium and sodium contents in Ca-amphibole models, plagioclase is predicted above 700 °C instead of Mg-hornblende. In comparison with natural grains, the aluminium content of computed chlorite compositions is overestimated for low grade parageneses while it is underestimated near the upper thermal stability limit of chlorite. In the computed sections, Fe partitioning relative to Mg between olivine and other silicates, suggests a clear preference for Fe in olivine, that therefore shows lower Mg#s. In contrast, microprobe analyses of natural mineral pairs indicate that orthopyroxene, Mg-hornblende and anthophyllite have lower Mg#s than equilibrium olivine. The inferred thermal profile of the metamorphic aureole is not consistent with simple heat conduction models and indicates a contact temperature of ~ 800 °C, which is 120–230 °C higher than previously estimated. Petrography also reveals extensive retrograde overprint of the prograde parageneses within 200 m of the contact. Retrogression is related to metamorphic fluids that were released by dehydration reactions during contact metamorphism and magmatic fluids expelled from the tonalite intrusion. The thermal gradient between the intrusion and the country rocks induced hydrothermal circulation of these fluids throughout the contact aureole, which beyond peak metamorphic conditions caused retrograde overprint of the prograde parageneses. The proposed phase relations for low and high pressures, and in particular, the transition from tremolite to Mg-hornblende, provides a complete representation of hydration and dehydration processes in serpentinites in subduction zones, along deep oceanic transform faults, and at passive continental margins. The latter has new implications, specifically for subduction initiation.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is currently undertaking a feasibility study to build the next-generation particle accelerator, named the Future Circular Collider (FCC), hosted in a 90–100 km subsurface infrastructure in the Geneva Basin, extending across western Switzerland and adjacent France. This article represents a preliminary, basin-scale stratigraphic and lithotype analysis using state-of-the-art Swiss and French stratigraphic terminology, set in context with the FCC. Existing stratigraphic information, rock cores and well reports, laboratory analyses and geophysical well-logs from 661 wells representative for the construction area have been integrated to pave the way for a multidisciplinary approach across several geoscientific and engineering domains to guide the FCC’s upcoming technical design phase. Comparisons with well-log data allowed the identification of rock formations and lithotypes, as well as to formulate a preliminary assessment of potential geological hazards. Regional stratigraphic evaluation revealed the FCC’s intersection of 13 geological formations comprising 25 different lithotypes across the Geneva Basin. A lack of data remains for the western to south-western subsurface region of the FCC construction area shown by well-density coverage modelling. The main geological hazards are represented by karstic intervals in the Grand Essert Formation’s Neuchâtel Member, Vallorbe and Vuache formations, associated to fractured limestone lithotypes, and Cenozoic formations represented by the pure to clayey sandstone-bearing Transition zone and Siderolithic Formation. Potential swelling hazard is associated to the presence of anhydrite, and claystone lithotypes of the Molasse Rouge and Grès et Marnes Gris à gypse formations, yielding up to 17.2% of smectite in the Molasse Rouge formation. Hydrocarbon indices in both gaseous and bituminous forms are encountered in the majority of investigated wells, and bear a potential environmental hazard associated with the Molasse Rouge deposits and fractured limestones of the Mesozoic Jura formations.
Here we describe the structure, the high-pressure, low-temperature (HP-LT) metamorphism and tectonic evolution of the Briançonnais distal margin units from the south Western Alps. The studied area extends southwest of the Dora-Maira (U)HP basement units and east-southeast of the classical Briançonnais nappes. A new structural map accompanied by geological profiles shows the thrusting of the oceanic nappes (Monviso and Queyras units) onto the distal Briançonnais units (D1 and D2 late Eocene deformation phases) under blueschist-facies conditions. Subsequent deformation during the Early Oligocene (D3 deformation phase) took place under greenschist-facies conditions and was associated with back-folding and -thrusting in the units overlying the Dora-Maira massif and with exhumation related to normal reactivation of former thrusts within the latter massif. Two large cover units, detached from their former distal Briançonnais basement, are redefined as the Maira-Sampeyre and Val Grana Allochthons (shortly: Maira-Grana Allochthons = MGA) including, (i) the Val Maira-Sampeyre unit involving Lower and Middle Triassic formations, seemingly detached from the Dora-Maira units during the subduction process, and (ii) the Val Grana unit with Middle-Upper Triassic and Early-Middle Jurassic formations, which was probably detached from the Maira-Sampeyre unit and correlates with the “Prepiemonte units” known from the Ligurian Alps to the Swiss Prealps. Three major shear zones involving tectonic mélanges of oceanic and continental rocks at the base of the Val Grana, Maira-Sampeyre and Dronero units testify to an early phase of exhumation within the subduction channel in front of the Adria plate. We present a new metamorphic map based on published and new petrological data, including new thermometric data obtained by Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material (RSCM). The T RSCM values range from ~ 400 °C to > 500 °C, going from the most external Val Grana unit and overlying Queyras schists to the uppermost Dora-Maira unit. During the Late Triassic, the width of the Briançonnais s.l. domain can be restored at ~ 100 km, whereas it reached ~ 150 km after the Jurassic rifting. A significant, second rifting event affected the Briançonnais domain during the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene, forming the Longet-Alpet chaotic breccias, which deserve further investigations.
We reverse-engineer, test and analyse hardware and firmware of the commercial quantum-optical random number generator Quantis from ID Quantique. We show that $>99\%$ > 99 % of its output data originates in physically random processes: random timing of photon absorption in a semiconductor material, and random growth of avalanche owing to impact ionisation. Under a strong assumption that these processes correspond to a measurement of an initially pure state of the components, our analysis implies the unpredictability of the generated randomness. We have also found minor non-random contributions from imperfections in detector electronics and an internal processing algorithm, specific to this particular device. Our work shows that the design quality of a commercial quantum-optical randomness source can be verified without cooperation of the manufacturer and without access to the engineering documentation.
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