EM Normandie Business School
Recent publications
Due to the extensive use of highly visual social media platforms such as Instagram, body image exposure has become a common practice. Specifically, the use of idealized women’s bodies in different sectors of promotion and on social media has been subject to much criticism. The awareness of the negative outcomes of objectifying content triggered movements towards natural body exposure. However, empirical studies on the perceived effectiveness of this use are still needed. In this article, we compare how idealized versus natural women’s bodies are perceived by Instagram users by means of an experimental procedure conducted with 700 users of this platform. We apply the Mann-Whitney U test and PLS-SEM to evaluate how physical attractiveness and idealization are related to the objectifying gazes. Our results suggest that overall publishing potentially objectifying content online is an accepted behavior, especially for more active Instagram users. Besides, both extremes of attractiveness, i.e. idealized beauty and perceived lack of attractiveness are subjected to stronger objectifying, than more natural-looking models. Thus, our paper contributes theoretically and empirically to the research on objectification by extending our knowledge of the factors that drive objectification and its acceptance among social media users. The implications of the emphasis on female bodily appearance on digital presence and the practices of digital influencers are discussed.
The tourism sector has always been a target of criticism due to the adverse environmental effects of travel and activities at tourist destinations. It is thus imperative for researchers and managers to seek tourism solutions that make business sense without raising sustainability-related issues. Particularly in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, virtual reality tourism (VRT), a form of digitally-driven albeit unconventional ex-situ touristic travel, has attracted the attention of multiple stakeholders in the sector. However, consumers’ perceptions of and motivations to use VRT as a sustainable solution for touristic activities are yet not fully understood. We address this deficiency in the literature by drawing upon expectancy theory to propose goal difficulty and reduction in the environmental impact of tourism (REI) as expectancy-related motivations, accomplishment as an instrumentality-related motivation and willingness to sacrifice as a valence-related motivation; we anticipate these motivations, in turn, to drive two outcomes: low- and high-effort pro-environmental behaviours. Analysing data collected from 350 individuals residing in the United States, we found support for all positive associations except for that of goal difficulty with high-effort pro-environmental behaviours and REI with both pro-environmental behaviours. We also tested and confirmed the moderating effects of the number of children in a household and daily green behaviours on some of the proposed associations. Our findings offer useful insights for future research and practice in the area.
This study investigated possible connections between Paulus and Williams's (2002) dark triad traits and panic buying during the pandemic. The studies coincided with the Phase 2 lockdown enforced as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic in Pakistan. In the first study, consumers scoring higher on a narcissism measure reported less panic buying, whereas people scoring higher on measures of Machiavellianism and psychopathy reported more panic buying under pandemic-induced scarcity conditions. Study two explored the potential mediating influence of psychological vulnerability to account for the disparate relationships between the dark triad traits and pandemic-fueled panic buying. Study 2 found support for the role of psychological vulnerability in mediating this set of relations.
This research examines how the Big Five personality congruence between buyers and sellers influences compulsive buying in a dyadic service encounter. We gathered 904 buyer-seller data and computed personality congruence using the difference score technique. The study findings manifested that buyer-seller congruence in agreeableness and openness increases compulsive buying behavior, whereas buyer-seller congruence in neuroticism decreases this behavior. Further analysis showed that pleasure enhancement dampens the negative impact of neurotic congruence on compulsive buying. In contrast, stimulation enhancement strengthens the positive influence of open-minded congruence on compulsive buying. Conclusively, compulsive buyers exhibit varying buying behaviors based on their personality congruence (incongruence) with their corresponding sellers'. Hence, marketing managers should create similar (dissimilar) buyer-seller pairs to boost firms' sales.
Consumers' exposure to online reviews influences their online retail shopping behavior. They search for reviews while evaluating products for purchase decisions. Past studies have indicated that online reviews affect the credibility and trust of the sellers and the products they sell on online platforms. Keeping this in view, the current paper aims to develop and validate a scale to understand the impact of online reviews on consumer purchase decisions. Data were collected from 431 young online shoppers for this research. The initial exploratory factor analysis (EFA) results helped identify four factors, viz. source credibility, volume, language and comprehension, and relevance which constitute the scale. The scale was validated by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The study's findings fill the gap of having a standardized scale that online retailers can use as indicators to assist consumers in their online decision-making. The discussions and implications support consumers' susceptibility to online reviews, an essential source for product and brand information in facilitating online consumers' purchase decisions.
The Gale–Nikaido–Debreu lemma plays an important role in establishing the existence of competitive equilibrium. In this paper, we use Sperner’s lemma and basic elements of topology to prove the Gale–Nikaido–Debreu lemma.
This paper provides new evidence on how outward and inward foreign direct investment (FDI) and economic freedom influence opportunity and necessity entrepreneurship in emerging markets. Studying 38 emerging economies, the empirical results show that both types of FDI exert opposite spillover effects on opportunity and necessity entrepreneurship and that greater economic freedom increases inward FDI and reduces outward FDI, thereby enhancing entrepreneurial activities. Additional analysis shows that the influence of FDI on entrepreneurship development depends on the dimensions of economic freedom. In particular, better economic freedom allows FDI to increase opportunity-driven entrepreneurship and decreases necessity-driven entrepreneurship. Policy and practical implications are also discussed.
The prevalent use of digital labor platforms has transformed the nature of work globally. Such algorithm-based platforms have triggered many technological, legal, ethical, and human resource management challenges. Despite some benefits (i.e., flexibility), the precarious conditions and commodification of jobs are major concerns in these platform-based employment conditions. The remote-work paradigm shift during the COVID-19 pandemic has made the interplay between technology, digitalization, and precarious workers' well-being a critical issue to address. This paper focuses on microtask platforms by examining overall well-being associated with turking as a work experience. Using a sample of 401 Amazon Mechanical Turk workers during the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic, data were collected on individual conditions affecting the overall quality of workers' lives. The results from two structural equation models demonstrated the direct and mediating effects of task characteristics, excessive working, and financial pressure, mirroring the bright and dark sides of turking. Greater turking task significance and meaningfulness increase personal growth opportunities, ultimately improving workers' perceived quality of life. However, excessive work and greater financial pressure decrease self-acceptance and overall quality of life. This study examines the complicated nature of work experience on algorithm-based platforms by unpacking individual factors that affect workers' well-being.
Emerging social and environmental demands drive organisations to seek management capabilities to reach sustainability outcomes. Despite relative efforts, there is still a need for works that empirically address the main antecedents and outcomes of sustainable dynamic capabilities (SDC). Focusing on the case of Brazil, we examine the mediating effect of SDC between environmental orientation and firm performance related to green innovation, green competitive advantage and environmental adaptability and find that SDC significantly mediates the effect of environmental orientation on green innovation. However, mediation between environmental orientation and green competitive advantage only obtains partial support. SDC and environmental adaptability do not present significative correlation, opening new discussions about adaptability as a direct consequence of SDC. These results contribute to the design of green innovation and green competitive advantage strategies as positive drivers of sustainability outcomes.
Energy efficiency factors in building codes and standards are crucial components that are prescribed to buildings to augment their energy efficiency. The objective of this study was to prioritize these vital energy efficiency factors. The present study derives its motivation from energy design and execution professionals, who face the challenge of selecting certain energy factors that may result in a trade-off over other factors. A fuzzy set theory with a decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) methodology was employed to obtain the results. A ranked list of prioritized energy efficiency factors is one of the key contributions of this research. We demonstrate that energy efficiency factors can be evaluated according to the degree of their importance. Based on the results, it was concluded that outdoor and indoor climatic conditions, air conditioning systems, orientation of buildings, and ventilation are the four most significant and highest-ranked factors that affect the energy efficiency of a building.
In this article, we use Impoliteness Theory, defined as an intentional “face-threatening” deviant act, to understand consumer misbehavior in the luxury store subculture. Using a qualitative study based on Grounded Theory, we interviewed 14 luxury consumers and 18 salespeople working in luxury stores. We discovered that consumers use impoliteness in a normative exchange setting as a means of formulating their opposition to a brand’s symbolic violence. Our research on deviant consumer behavior in luxury stores brings to light a new concept: “Consumer-to-Brand Impoliteness”. Furthermore, we unveil four Consumer-to-Brand Impoliteness practices: “Being Crude”, “Interfering”, “Mastering”, and finally, “Blaspheming”. In a normative exchange context, understanding the underlying meanings of Consumer-to-Brand Impoliteness enables store managers to shape their responses according to the perceived level of such impoliteness practices.
Operationalizing social group identification as political partisanship, we examine followers’ (i.e., US residents’) affective experiences and behavioral responses during the initial COVID‐19 outbreak in the United States (March to May 2020). In Study 1, we conducted content analyses on major news outlets’ coverage of COVID‐19 (N = 4319) to examine media polarization and how it plays a role in shaping followers’ perceptions of the pandemic and leadership. News outlets trusted by Republicans portrayed US President Donald Trump as more effective, conveyed a stronger sense of certainty with less negative affective tone, and had a lower emphasis on COVID‐19 prevention compared to outlets trusted by Democrats. We then conducted a field survey study (Study 2; N = 214) and found that Republicans perceived Trump as more effective, experienced higher positive affect, and engaged in less COVID‐19 preventive behavior compared to Democrats. Using a longitudinal survey design in Study 3 (N = 251), we examined how emotional responses evolved in parallel with the pandemic and found further support for Study 2 findings. Collectively, our findings provide insight into the process of leadership from a social identity perspective during times of crisis, illustrating how social identity can inhibit mobilization of united efforts. The findings have implications for leadership of subgroup divides in different organizational and crisis contexts.
Large-scale disasters occur worldwide, with a continuing surge in the frequency and severity of disruptive events. Researchers have developed several optimization models to address the critical challenges of disaster relief supply chains (e.g., emergency material reserving and scheduling inefficiencies). However, most developed algorithms are proven to have low fault tolerance, which makes it difficult for disaster relief supply chain managers to obtain optimal solutions and meet the emergency distribution requirements within a limited time frame. Considering the uncertainty and ambiguity of disaster relief information and using Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Set (IT2TFS), this paper presents a collaborative optimization model based on an integrative emergency material supplier evaluation framework. The optimal emergency material suppliers are first selected using a multi-attribute group decision-making ranking method. Multi-objective fuzzy optimization is then run in three emergency phases: early -, mid-, and late-disaster relief stages. Focusing on a massive flash flood disaster event in Yunnan Province as a case study, a comprehensive numerical analysis tests and validates the developed model. The results revealed that the proposed optimization method can optimize emergency material planning while ensuring that reserve material safety inventory is always maintained at a reasonable level. The presented method suggests a fuzzy interval to prevent emergency materials’ safety inventory shortage and minimize continuous life/property losses in disaster-affected areas.
This paper introduces the special theme on management and political philosophy, following a call for papers in the journal Philosophy of Management. The scope of this introduction is to emphasize the importance of political philosophy as a subtheme in the discipline of philosophy of management by shedding light on a cornerstone conversation: the role of the state in fostering corporate accountability for social injustice. For doing so, we present the papers invited to this special theme and show how they contribute to this conversation. Inspired by the arguments that the articles in this special theme develop, we also provide further thoughts for the directions that future research should pursue for enriching the discussions in the political philosophy of management.
The development of Renewable Energies (RE) must be stepped up in the coming years if we are to successfully realise the ambitious energy transition challenge set by many governments across the globe. However, the energy transition is far from obvious, especially with regard to the social acceptability of RE. In this context, we used a Discrete Choice Experiment combined with a Geographical Information System to assess the willingness of individuals to switch to a more virtuous energy mix based on three energy sources (wind, photovoltaic and biogas). Our results show a dominant generational effect, indicating that young people are more likely to accept renewable energy in their neighborhoods. Furthermore, residents in areas with renewable energy with negative externalities (wind turbines and anaerobic digestion units) tend to have a lower Willingness to Pay than residents in other areas, which is what we call the principle of territorial distributive justice. There is no reason to believe that the difficulties in finding new locations for RE installations could fade away. Therefore, an increased effort of public policies to plan the location of future RE facilities in a more equitable way and always a better explanation and co-construction of new RE projects are needed.
This paper investigates the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate tax avoidance (CTA) and the impact of consumer awareness on the constructs. We show that consumer awareness has the effect of decreasing the positive relation between CSR ratings and tax avoidance levels. Our findings are robust to various measures of our constructs. Collectively, the findings of this study lend credence to the risk‐management view of CSR and demonstrate that consumer awareness acts as a behavioral intervention and governance mechanism to help mitigate corporate hypocrisy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
This study assesses whether foreign currency (FC) hedging improves firm productive efficiency. Using a unique sample of French non-financial listed firms belonging to the CAC All-Tradable index (former SBF250 index) index over the period 2004–2012, we employ a non-parametric method –data envelopment analysis (DEA)– to estimate a firm’s efficiency frontier and analyze the role of financial hedging in addressing agency conflicts in France. The empirical results show that foreign currency hedging has a significant positive effect on efficiency. This finding supports the theoretical view that hedging is a disciplinary device that can mitigate the owner-manager agency conflicts, leading to a better firm efficiency. The results are robust to a battery of sensitivity and endogeneity tests.
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643 members
Sylvaine Castellano
  • EM Normandie Business School
Agnis Stibe
  • Supply Chain Management & Decision Sciences
Sebastien Bourdin
  • Regional economics and sustainable development
Muhammad Zubair Tauni
  • Law, Finance, and Control
Caen, France