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    ABSTRACT: Sampling of various terrestrial habitats (woodland, grassland, sea edge) of Hawthorn Dene and surroundings within the Magnesian Limestone plateau of County Durham yielded 17 species of Enchytraeidae and the naidid/tubificid Rhyacodrilus falciformis. Five enchytraeid species were recorded for the first time in the British Isles: Fridericia auritoides, F. maculatiformis, F. semisetosa, F. sylvatica, and F. isseli.
    No preview · Article · Oct 2014
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    ABSTRACT: Hydrodynamics, cell wall and ion dynamics are all important properties that regulate pollen tube growth. Currently, the two main pollen tube growth models, the cell wall model and the hydrodynamic model do not appear to be reconcilable. Here we develop an integrative model for pollen tube growth and show that our model reproduces key experimental observations: (1) that the hypertonic condition leads to a much longer oscillatory period and that the hypotonic condition halves the oscillatory period; (2) that oscillations in turgor are experimentally undetectable; (3) that increasing the extracellular calcium concentration or decreasing the pH decreases the growth oscillatory amplitude; (4) that knockout of Raba4d, a member of the Rab family of small GTPase proteins, decreases pollen tube length after germination for 24 h. Using the model generated here, we reveal that (1) when cell wall extensibility is large, pollen tube may sustain growth at different volume changes and maintain relatively stable turgor; (2) turgor increases if cell wall extensibility decreases; (3) increasing turgor due to decrease in osmolarity in the media, although very small, increases volume change. However, increasing turgor due to decrease in cell wall extensibility decreases volume change. In this way regulation of pollen tube growth by turgor is context dependent. By changing the osmolarity in the media, the main regulatory points are extracellular osmolarity for water flow and turgor for the volume encompassed by the cell wall. However, if the viscosity of cell wall changes, the main regulatory points are turgor for water flow and wall extensibility for the volume encompassed by the cell wall. The novel methodology developed here reveals the underlying context-dependent regulatory principle of pollen tube growth.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Frontiers in Plant Science
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    ABSTRACT: Ubiquitin is a peptide modifier able to form polymers of varying length and linkage as part of a powerful signaling system. Perhaps the best-known aspect of this protein's function is as the driver of targeted protein degradation through the Ubiquitin Proteasome System (UPS). Through the formation of lysine 48-linked polyubiquitin chains, it is able to direct the degradation of tagged proteins by the 26S proteasome, indirectly controlling many processes within the cell. However, recent research has indicated that ubiquitin performs a multitude of other roles within the cell beyond protein degradation. It is able to form 6 other "atypical" linkages though lysine residues at positions 6, 11, 27, 29, 33, and 63. These atypical chains perform a range of diverse functions, including the regulation of iron uptake in response to perceived deficiency, repair of double stranded breaks in the DNA, and regulation of the auxin response through the non-proteasomal degradation of auxin efflux carrier protein PIN1. This review explores the role ubiquitin chain topology plays in plant cellular function. We aim to highlight the importance of these varying functions and the future challenges to be encountered within this field.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Frontiers in Plant Science
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