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ABSTRACT: FPGAs are a ubiquitous electronic component utilised in a wide range of electronic systems across many industries. Almost all modern FPGAs employ SRAM based configuration memory elements which are susceptible to radiation induced soft errors. In high altitude and space applications, as well as in the nuclear and defence industries, such circuits must operate reliably in radiation-rich environments. A range of soft error mitigation techniques have been proposed but testing and qualification of new fault tolerant circuits can be an expensive and time consuming process. A novel method for simulating radiation-induced soft errors is presented that operates entirely within a laboratory environment and requires no hazardous exposure to radiation or expensive airborne test rigs. A system utilising modular redundancy is then implemented and tested under the new method. The test system is further demonstrated in conjunction with a software flight simulator to test single electronic modules in the context of active service on board a passenger aircraft and the effects of failure under radiation induced soft errors are observed. Our research proposes a test regime in which design strategies for self-healing circuits can be compared and demonstrated to work.
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ABSTRACT: We construct Q-operators for the open spin-1/2 XXX Heisenberg spin chain with diagonal boundary matrices. The Q-operators are defined as traces over an infinite-dimensional auxiliary space involving novel types of reflection operators derived from the boundary Yang-Baxter equation. We argue that the Q-operators defined in this way are polynomials in the spectral parameter and show that they commute with transfer matrix. Finally, we prove that the Q-operators satisfy Baxter's TQ-equation and derive the explicit form of their eigenvalues in terms of the Bethe roots.
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ABSTRACT: Cell phones present new forms of sociality and new possibilities of encounter for young people across the globe. Nowhere is this more evident than in sub-Saharan Africa where the scale of usage, even among the very poor, is remarkable. In this paper we reflect on the inter-generational encounters which are embedded in young people’s cell phone interactions, and consider the wider societal implications, not least the potential for associated shifts in the generational balance of power. An intriguing feature of this changing generational nexus is that while many young people’s phone-based interactions, from their mid-teens onwards, are shifting away from the older generation towards friendship networks in their own age cohort, at the same time they are repositioning themselves – or becoming repositioned – as family information hubs, as a consequence of their phone expertise. The paper draws on mixed-methods research with young people aged c. 9–25 years and in-depth interviews with older age-groups in 24 sites (ranging from high density poor urban to remote rural) across Ghana, Malawi and South Africa.
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