Dublin City University
  • Dublin, Ireland
Recent publications
Trust is widely regarded as being foundational in workplace relationships. The violation of interpersonal trust results in a range of negative affective, cognitive and behavioral consequences for the injured party. However, research has yet to isolate the specific neural areas and processes activated when different types of interpersonal trust are breached. Using electroencephalogram with 68 participants, we identified the effects of three distinct types of trust violations, ability violation, integrity violation and benevolence violations, on electrical brain activity. Our findings indicate that trust violations are processed in social cognitive related brain areas. Specifically, our results identify the significance of the default mode network (DNM), relevant to the processing of social information, in trust violation and further isolated distinct activity for ability, integrity and benevolence trust violation, with integrity violations demonstrating the greatest reaction in the DMN. Benevolence violations generated the next greatest reaction but were not significantly different from the ability violations. This potential distinction may be worth further investigation in future research. Our findings highlight the potential importance of the DMN in processing cues regarding the trustworthiness of others and the distinctiveness of the processing of violation cues of the three facets of trustworthiness.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a great “reset” and has challenged many assumptions about work and life in general. Our focus in this paper is on the future of global work in the context of multinational enterprises (MNEs). We take a phenomenon-based approach to describe the important trends and challenges affecting the where, who, how and why of global work. As we highlight implications for organizations and individuals, we offer a set of research questions to guide future research and inform IHRM practitioners.
Background Prolonged periods of sedentary behaviour, for instance, engendered by home confinement in Shenzhen city, has led to negative mental health consequences, especially in adolescents. Previous research suggests, in general, that sedentary behavior can increase negative emotions. However, the specific mechanism driving the relationship between sedentary behavior and negative emotions is still relatively unclear. Social support and sleep quality might partly explain the effect of sedentary behavior on negative emotions. Thus, the current study aimed to examine the associations between sedentary behavior and negative emotions, and to investigate if social support and sleep quality mediate such a relationship. Method During home confinement due to the COVID-19 Omicron variant outbreak, 1179 middle and high school students in Shenzhen were invited to voluntarily complete an e-questionnaire, including the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21), the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF), the Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Data from 1065 participants were included in the analysis. Results We observed significant sex-related and demografic-related differences in emotional (e.g., anxiety, stress and social support) and other outcome variables (e.g., sitting duration and PSQI score). Furthermore, sedentary behavior, social support, and sleep quality were associated with negative emotions (p < .01), even after controlling for sex, age, only-child case, body mass index, and metabolic equivalent level. In addition, social support and sleep quality partially mediated the association between sedentary behavior and negative emotions. Conclusion The findings of the current study suggest that social support and sleep quality partially mediate the relationship between sedentary behavior and negative emotions in middle and high school students during home confinement in Shenzhen city.
Vendor relationship management (VRM) is a software tool that helps to provide seamless connectivity between buyer and supplier. With the rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT) most firms have migrated to electronic VRM (EVRM) capability. Only a few studies have examined how EVRM can impact the dynamic B2B capability of firms that combine technological and social innovation in support of transitions and the achievement of business goals. There are also very few interdisciplinary studies using a range of performance matrices to explore the relationship between firms' dynamic B2B capabilities and their sustainability performance, mediated through their various sustainable growth opportunities. In this context, this study aims to develop an integrative model for B2B EVRM capability and firm sustainability. With the help of dynamic capability view (DCV) theory and related literature, a theoretical model is proposed. This model was later validated using the covariance-based structural equation modeling technique (CB-SEM), in considering 378 responses from Indian firms. The study has three main findings. First, EVRM capability significantly and positively impacts B2B dynamic relationship capability between the firm and the vendors. Second, B2B dynamic relationship management capability has a significant and positive impact on firms' sustainability performance mediated through the financial, environmental, and operational performance of the firm. And third, Environmental dynamism (ED) plays a significant role as a moderator, influencing B2B dynamic relationship management capability.
Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) was colonised for about a century by the British, French and other European countries. Therefore, we examine these forms of colonisation on accounting development in Africa. We use a description-explanatory approach to show how three forms of colonisation have driven the development of accounting in Africa during and post-colonisation era. This paper defines driving forces during the colonisation period as ex-ante driving forces, and after independence, as ex-post driving forces. We identify among the ex-ante driving forces, governance, economic policy, education and language influenced accounting systems/practices, and they are still predominant. Regarding the ex-post, we found four ex-post driving forces that impact accounting in SSA, which supports the instrumental form of accounting colonisation. These four driving forces are foreign aid, foreign trade liberalisation, membership in international associations and prevalence of foreign ownership. This paper provides insights into how accounting practices have evolved in Africa and how colonisation has driven different accounting systems across the continent. Unlike prior studies, which are limited to pre or post-colonial eras, we provide an understanding of accounting development during the colonial and post-colonial era. Therefore, we demonstrate how colonisation still influences accounting development even after independence in many African countries.
Development of scientific literacy is a crucial aim of science education across the globe and research suggests that this can be realized through student exploration of socioscientific issues. While the COVID-19 crisis, emergency school closures and restrictions to in-class teaching, had negative impacts on teaching and on student learning and wellbeing, it also presents an opportunity to explore authentic socioscientific issues. This research explores teachers’ perspectives on addressing the COVID-19 crisis as socioscientific issues in secondary science education. This qualitative study surveyed 266 Irish secondary school science teachers about their experiences during the COVID-19 crisis. Thematic analysis was used to identify the reasons why teachers did and did not address the COVID-19 crisis as SSI. These findings were triangulated with findings from follow-up interviews. The majority of teachers in this study addressed the COVID-19 crisis as SSI. The COVID-19 crisis was explored within the curriculum, through project work and research, and through classroom discussion. Teachers described four barriers to exploring the COVID-19 crisis with their students: The COVID-19 crisis was not part of the curriculum; The lack of F2F contact made judging students’ reactions challenging; There was already too much focus on the COVID-19 crisis in everyday life and concerns over student wellbeing while discussing the sensitive topic of the COVID-19 crisis. Teachers noted that addressing the COVID-19 crisis led to benefits to student learning, health, wellbeing and hygiene.
Aging is a natural process in organisms with its underlying mechanisms remaining unknown. Brain aging is accompanied by cognitive deficits and movement disorders, which signify the importance of elaborating its main mechanisms. In this study, oxidative stress biomarkers for lipid peroxidation and thiol redox state were assessed in different brain areas in male mice, categorised in respect to aging as young (three months), middle (eleven months) and elder aged (twenty-three months). Senescence was associated with an increase of lipid peroxidation and a decrease of reduced and oxidized glutathione. In some brain areas, reduced cysteine and oxidized protein thiols were increased with aging. Results support the theory that aging is associated with oxidative stress in the brain of mice and provide an insight in the biochemical aspect of aging in reference to thiol redox status as a potential marker for aging.
Owing to the increasing demand for bone repair strategies, several biomaterials have been developed. Among the materials available for this purpose, hydroxyapatite stands out for its osteoinduction capacity, since it possesses a chemical composition similar to that of inorganic bone constituents. In comparison to bones, the mechanical properties of substitute structures incorporating hydroxyapatite still remain a great challenge for scientists. This study thus presents the synthesis of hydroxyapatite incorporated with a natural bioceramic and a metallic phase of excellent biocompatibility to obtain dense biomaterials with improved mechanical strength. The mechanical responses of the synthesized biomaterials are presented and discussed. The results obtained indicate that the hydroxyapatite-natural ceramic systems fulfils the general mechanical property requirements for some bone repair applications. Separately, the synthesis of titanium-based systems was shown to be much more challenging, but promising. Therefore, recommendations for suppressing the issues with the metal-ceramic interfacial bonding strength were provided.
Determination of salicylates in pharmaceutical formulations and biofluids is of great importance because of the toxicity of high doses in the blood. However, most analytical methods used for salicylate determination are expensive and time-consuming. In this study, potentiometric sensors based on carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) with the thiourea derivative (TUD1, ionophore) were successfully constructed for the detection of salicylate levels in pharmaceutical formulations and biofluids. Computational studies at the density functional theory (DFT) level were utilized to estimate inter-and intra-molecular interactions between salicylate and TUD1. The sensitivity of the CPEs to salicylate ions was optimized using different plasticizers (2-nitrophenyloctyl ether-NPOE, tricresyl phosphate-TCP, and dibutyl phthalate-DPB), nanomaterials (Gd2O3@rGO and MoO3@rGO), and ion exchanger (tridodecylmethylammonium chloride-TDMAC). The use of nanomaterials (Gd2O3@rGO and MoO3@rGO) improved the sensitivity and response time of the sensor over a wide pH range (4–10). The best sensor achieved a Nernst slope of 60 mV/decade over a dynamic concentration of 10⁻⁵ to 10⁻¹ M with a detection limit of 10⁻⁵ M and good selectivity to interfering ions (Cl⁻, F⁻, Br⁻, benzoate, uric acid, and ascorbic acid) compared to previous reports. In addition, the sensor exhibited a lifetime of 6 months without any significant change in sensitivity (less than 5 % deviation). The developed sensors were successfully used for the determination of salicylate in tablets (Aspocid®), spiked serum, and spiked urine with high accuracy.
Valorization of cellulosic biomass by processing it into functional nanoscale building blocks enables more sustainable use of resources and an expansion of its potential applications. Nanocelluloses are attractive engineered bionanomaterials with different morphologies, interesting properties, and surface functionalities that depend on the choice of specific resources, synthesis protocols, and processing conditions. This review highlights different natural resources (i.e., plants, bacteria, algae, animals) of nanocelluloses, production methods (i.e., mechanical, physical, chemical, mechanochemical, physicochemical, biological), and their morphologies (i.e., nanoparticles, nanocrystals, nanofibers). The structure-related properties of nanocelluloses (i.e., crystalline structures, mechanical strength, interactions with water, rheological properties, biocompatibility, nontoxicity, and biodegradation) are covered in particular detail. Surface modification by functional groups, macromolecules, and nanoparticle deposition are emphasized to improve their processability and compatibility. The assembly of nanocelluloses into engineered structures (hydrogels, aerogels, macroscopic filaments, and membranes) can produce materials with novel functionalities for various technological applications. Finally, the current state of research, future prospects, and challenges for the commercialization of nanocelluloses are addressed.
Due to the economic, social, and health consequences of burnout, farmer burnout is receiving increased attention in the media and in contemporary research. In this systematic review and narrative synthesis, we aim to evaluate and synthesise the current state of the international evidence for the prevalence of farmer burnout. We developed and applied a search strategy to target studies that examined the prevalence of burnout among farmers of any farming type, gender, and nationality. Combined with secondary and grey literature searching, this resulted in 811 search results. Twenty-three full texts were screened which resulted in nine eligible studies consisting of seven cross-sectional studies, one longitudinal study, and one RCT. We applied the STROBE checklist for quality appraisal, and most studies had a low risk of bias. Across North American, European and Australian studies using cutting points, the average prevalence of severe burnout in farmers was 13.72%. The prevalence rate was higher in New Zealand (25%) and Morocco (18.96%). Compared to non-farmers, farmers experienced higher overall burnout, and higher exhaustion, cynicism and professional efficacy. Gender differences indicated that women experience higher burnout than males. Associated factors included farming as primary occupation, being a dairy farmer, and work stress. Findings indicate the characteristics of farmers especially at risk of burnout which could inform the development of future research and supports to ameliorate farmer burnout. Results also highlight the limitations of the evidence for farmer burnout including the lack of standardised burnout classification methods, the potential for response-bias when examining gender issues, and the influence of socio-economic and agricultural policy in the international evidence.
Student voice is, of course, fundamental – who could argue against democracy? It is important that we do not return to a time where students were seen and not heard and positioned as subordinate figures but at the same time, do teachers suffer because of this democracy? Although student voice policies can represent positive developments, it would be naïve to be overly celebratory of pro-voice policies. This critical account focuses on some of the unsavoury ways that student voice can play out in schools: it can be used for surveillance; it can give rise to suspicion; and it can see dissenters stigmatised. Qualitative data generated through interviews with school staff are drawn on in this paper and researcher subjectivity is treated as a key asset as the author’s student voice experiences at the coalface are first expounded in an autoethnographic account and then reflected in the interpretations and presentations of the interview data. What is coined the ‘I(nterest) behind this research’ means that student voice is not taken at face value or as an unquestionably positive initiative but something that can, even unintentionally, be more sinister.
This paper studies the transition density and exponential ergodicity for affine processes on the canonical state space R≥0m×Rn$\mathbb {R}_{\ge 0}^{m}\times \mathbb {R}^{n}$. Under a Hörmander‐type condition for diffusion components as well as a boundary nonattainment condition, we derive the existence and regularity of the transition densities and then prove the strong Feller property of the associated semigroup. Moreover, we also show that, under an additional subcriticality condition on the drift, the corresponding affine process is exponentially ergodic in the total variation distance.
The United Kingdom (UK) Financial Reporting Council (FRC) introduced expanded audit reports to improve audit report disclosures and render audits more transparent to financial statement users. This study examines audit materiality threshold disclosures, providing descriptive evidence of how auditors disclose materiality information in UK audit reports. This research uses manual content analysis (i) to assess auditors’ benchmarks and the percentages auditors apply to those benchmarks. The analysis examines (ii) auditors’ use of non‐GAAP benchmarks, including non‐recurring and recurring item exclusions and (iii) auditors’ rationales for their benchmark choices. The research finds that auditors choose a wide variety of benchmarks and apply a wide range of percentages to the chosen benchmarks. Non‐GAAP adjustments are pervasive. Auditors’ rationales for benchmark choices include that the benchmark is a financial statement performance measure, and the benchmark eliminates volatility. The authors question whether the FRC's expanded disclosures have met its transparency objectives and concludes that ‘more (disclosure) is less’.
The post-acquisition growth of high-tech scaleups has received relatively little research attention. This is surprising since buyers are known to target these firms for growth opportunities whilst sellers increasingly seek strategic partners to access resource to scale their ventures. We examine the post-acquisition revenue and employment growth of high-tech scaleups in a multi-country setting, comprising five European economies. Using a propensity-score matching approach and difference-in-differences regression, for a sample of 2187 high-tech scaleups, we demonstrate that acquisition has a positive effect on target firms equivalent to cumulative growth of revenue (employment) of 9-13 (6-10) percent after five (four) years, relative to control firms. We find that nationality matters such that the targets of foreign-owned acquirers exhibit significantly higher cumulative revenue and employment growth than their domestic counterparts. Taking a longer-term perspective, we show that growth dips in the first year, then stabilizes and accelerates in the years following acquisition, indicating a period of adjustment.
Background: Physical inactivity rates have remained high worldwide since 2001. Public policies are an essential upstream lever to target individual physical activity (PA) behaviour. However, implementers have different strategies and face implementation challenges that are poorly understood. The present study analyzes the implementation processes of public policies to promote PA in terms of: (i) the policies covered and their legal quality, (ii) the actors and stakeholders involved in the implementation process and (iii) the used implementation strategies (vertical, horizontal or a mix). Methods: A scoping review was systematically conducted (registered Open Science Framework: osf.io/7w84q/), searching 10 databases and grey literature until March 2022. Of the 7741 titles and abstracts identified initially, 10 studies were included. Results: The current evidence includes high-income countries (USA, n = 7; UK, New Zealand and Oman, n = 1 each). Policy areas covered are education (school sector) and PA promotion in general (national PA plans or city-wide approaches). The legal classification ranges from laws (school sector) to coordination and budgeting to non-legally binding recommendations. The jurisdictions covered were federal (n = 4), state (n = 1), county (n = 1), school district (n = 1) and city (n = 3). Implementation strategies for city-wide approaches are characterized by a coordinated approach with vertical and horizontal integration; federal PA policies by a mix of implementation strategies; and the school sector by a strict horizontal top-down integration without the involvement of other actors. Conclusion: Implementation strategies differ by policy field. Therefore, continuous evaluation of the implementation process is necessary to align policy implementation with policy goals to promote individual PA behaviour.
Athlete burnout is a psychological syndrome with substantial negative consequences, including depression and sport dropout. It has been linked to a range of factors, some of which may vary across different sport-types. This review is the first to synthesise variables examined in relation to burnout in team-sports specifically. An online search of seven relevant databases yielded 59 papers examining 123 burnout correlates. Eligible papers were peer-reviewed, quantitative empirical studies, which assessed burnout using the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire. Results are reported in-line with PRISMA guidelines. Weighted meta-analysis (WMA) assessed the strength of the relationship between burnout dimensions and 18 variables examined across ≥3 samples. A narrative synthesis of the remaining cross-sectional, longitudinal and mediating/moderating relationships provides a comprehensive overview of the literature. Burnout displayed a negative relationship with autonomy, competence, relatedness, self-determined motivation, positive affect, autonomy supportive coach, harmonious passion, self-oriented perfectionism and social support, and a positive relationship with amotivation, negative affect, obsessive passion, socially-prescribed perfectionism, ego-involving climate, playing experience and controlling coach style in the WMA. Some variability in relationships was identified across the dimensions of burnout. The results highlight the key factors associated with the dimension of burnout in team sports, which may inform targeted intervention strategies.
Drawing on in-depth qualitative interviews, we examine Spanish language instructors’ interpretation and appropriation of gender-inclusive language (GIL) policy at a U.S. university. Policy appropriation is represented as a spectrum with varying degrees of policy rejection, avoidance, and engagement across and within participants. Policy rejection was based on language as an inappropriate arena for LGBTQI+ rights, prescriptivists views of language, and language authorities’ rejection of GIL; policy avoidance was based on lack of authority and prescriptive views of language; and policy engagement was rooted in ideas related to identity, representation, and inclusion. This study makes a contribution to understanding foreign language instructors’ appropriation of GIL in an Anglophone context and the complex realities and views that impact policy implementation. Since GIL is gaining prominence across the world, we suggest that foreign language departments encourage academic discussions on GIL so that instructors can make informed decisions about how and why to integrate GIL in the teaching of Spanish as a foreign language.
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Prince Anandarajah
  • School of Electronic Engineering
Bert Gordijn
  • Institute of Ethics
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  • Advanced Processing Technology Research Centre (APT)
Conor McArdle
  • School of Electronic Engineering
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Glasnevin, 9, Dublin, Ireland
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Prof. Daire Keogh
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www.dcu.ie