Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been regarded as a disease of smokers, but the prevalence of non-smoking COPD patients have been reported to be considerable. We investigated differences in clinical characteristics between smoking and non-smoking COPD patients. We used data from the Korea COPD Subgroup Study (KOCOSS) database, which is a multicenter cohort that recruits patients from 54 medical centres in Korea. Comprehensive comparisons of smoking and non-smoking COPD patients were performed based on general characteristics, exacerbations, symptom scores, radiological findings, and lung-function tests. Of the 2477 patients included in the study, 8.1% were non-smokers and 91.9% were smokers. Non-smoking COPD patients were more likely to be female and to have a higher body mass index and lower level of education. Non-smoking COPD patients had more comorbidities, including hypertension, osteoporosis, and gastroesophageal reflux disease, and experienced more respiratory and allergic diseases. No significant differences in exacerbation rates, symptom scores, or exercise capacity scores were observed between the two groups. Smoking COPD patients had more emphysematous lung according to the radiological findings, and non-smoking patients had more tuberculosis-destroyed lung and bronchiectasis. Lung-function testing revealed no significant difference in the forced expiratory capacity in 1 sec between the two groups, but smokers had more rapid lung-function decline in the 5 years of follow-up data. We found differences in general characteristics and radiological findings between smoking and non-smoking COPD patients. No significant differences in exacerbation or symptom scores were observed, but decline in lung function was less steep in non-smoking patients.Supplemental data for this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/15412555.2022.2053088 .
This paper evaluated one-pot synthesis of magnetic manganese graphene oxide nanocomposite (MnFe2O4-GO) for Rhodamine-6G (Rh-6G) removal from aqueous solutions. The presented adsorbent was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). For the optimization, central composite design (CCD) was carried out to evaluate the effect of different parameters such as pH (6), equilibrium time (15 min) and adsorbent amount (0.6 g/L). Under the proposed conditions, the adsorption efficiency was investigated through Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models. Hence, due to high value of R2 (> 0.99) the adsorption process was well fitted to Langmuir isotherm. Findings showed that the absorption capacity of MnFe2O4-GO was 24.96 mg.g-1 and unmodified GO 14.82 mg.g-1in 6 minutes. Based on the thermodynamic studies, the high values of ΔH° (146.19 KJmol-1) and ΔG° (- 0.04 KJmol-1) indicated that the adsorption mechanism was endothermic and physio-sorption at room temperature. Overall, the results proved that the prepared MnFe2O4-GO nanocomposite was suitable to remove the Rh-6G from aqueous media.
The programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and its receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) deliver inhibitory signals to regulate immunological tolerance during immune-mediated diseases. However, the role of PD-1 signaling and its blockade effect on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) differentiation into the osteo-/odontogenic lineage remain unknown. We show here that PD-L1 expression, but not PD-1, is downregulated during osteo-/odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs. Importantly, PD-L1/PD-1 signaling has been shown to negatively regulate the osteo-/odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs. Mechanistically, depletion of either PD-L1 or PD-1 expression increased ERK and AKT phosphorylation levels through the upregulation of Ras enzyme activity, which plays a pivotal role during hDPSCs osteo-/odontogenic differentiation. Treatment with nivolumab (a human anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody), which targets PD-1 to prevent PD-L1 binding, successfully enhanced osteo-/odontogenic differentiation of hDPSCs through enhanced Ras activity-mediated phosphorylation of ERK and AKT. Our findings underscore that downregulation of PD-L1 expression accompanies during osteo-/odontogenic differentiation, and hDPSCs-intrinsic PD-1 signaling inhibits osteo-/odontogenic differentiation. These findings provide a significant basis that PD-1 blockade could be effective immunotherapeutic strategies in hDPSCs-mediated dental pulp regeneration.
Background The rhizome of Polygonatum kingianum Coll. et Hemsl ( P. kingianum ) is a crucial traditional Chinese medicine, but severe bud dormancy occurs during early rhizome development. Low temperature is a positive factor affecting dormancy release, whereas the variation in carbohydrates during dormancy release has not been investigated systematically. Therefore, the sugar content, related metabolic pathways and gene co-expression were analysed to elucidate the regulatory mechanism of carbohydrates during dormancy release in the P. kingianum rhizome bud. Results During dormancy transition, starch and sucrose (Suc) exhibited opposing trends in the P. kingianum rhizome bud, representing a critical indicator of dormancy release. Galactose (Gal) and raffinose (Raf) were increased in content and synthesis. Glucose (Glc), cellulose (Cel), mannose (Man), arabinose (Ara), rhamnose (Rha) and stachyose (Sta) showed various changes, indicating their different roles in breaking rhizome bud dormancy in P. kingianum . At the beginning of dormancy release, Glc metabolism may be dominated by anaerobic oxidation (glycolysis followed by ethanol fermentation). After entering the S3 stage, the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) and pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) were may be more active possibly. In the gene co-expression network comprising carbohydrates and hormones, HYD1 was identified as a hub gene, and numerous interactions centred on STS/SUS were also observed, suggesting the essential role of brassinosteroids (BRs), Raf and Suc in the regulatory network. Conclusion We revealed cold-responsive genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, suggesting regulatory mechanisms of sugar during dormancy release in the P. kingianum rhizome bud. Additionally, gene co-expression analysis revealed possible interactions between sugar and hormone signalling, providing new insight into the dormancy release mechanism in P. kingianum rhizome buds.
The purpose of this study is to develop a quantitative evaluation system that reflects the required performance factors that are important for a tracked vehicle crew jacket. We identified and analyzed the necessary performance factors obtained from a focus group interview and a questionnaire survey. Further, we proposed a new method of calculating weights and developed a quantitative evaluation system. This system featured an equation that calculated the evaluation score out of 100, using the factors’ percentages in the total factor as factor weights. The system’s application was verified by the assessment of subfactors by active-duty soldiers, and by confirmation that the results of the developed factor scores reflected the proposed development direction. The study is significant for its provision of a comprehensive and quantitative evaluation system which has not existed before for protective clothing design, as well as for the verification of the system’s application through the process of protective clothing development. The quantitative evaluation system and its development process described in this study may be referenced and widely deployed due to its use of a Likert scale, which is commonly used as a subjective sensory evaluation tool.
In this study, we aimed to evaluate the properties and mechanisms of heavy metal adsorption by biochar derived from fallen leaves (FLB). The optimum manufacturing temperature of FLB for heavy metal removal was 650 °C, which resulted in a high carbon content and specific surface area. The maximum adsorption capacities of Cd and Pb by FLB650 were 86.2 and 135.1 mg/g, respectively; their adsorption was achieved via chemisorption. The results from chemisorption agreed with the Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second order models. We confirmed that the adsorption of Pb by FBL was dominantly affected by the surface boundary layer; however, the adsorption of Cd occurred in cooperation with the boundary layer and pore diffusion; which was accomplished by employing the intraparticle diffusion model. After heavy metal adsorption, the distribution characteristics and mechanisms of each heavy metal in the FLB were noticeably observed through SEM-EDS, FTIR, and XRD. In addition, the content of exchangeable cations released from the FLB during the heavy metal adsorption process corresponded to 52% for Cd and 34% for Pb of the total amount of adsorbed heavy metals. We determined that FLB exhibits high affinity for heavy metals and its adsorption occurs via an adsorption mechanism based on the properties of FLB.
A novel aerator for enhancing the oxygen transfer rate and efficiency, named multistage vortex aerator (MVA), was developed. It uses vortex flow in repeated stages to increase the gas-liquid interfacial area and to decrease the thickness of the stagnant layer at the interface between the two phases. The basic characteristics of oxygen transfer using this aerator were investigated using the American Society of Civil Engineers standard procedure. The MVA could rapidly transfer oxygen to water to a concentration higher than 40 mg/L in 60 min owing to the effect of high purity oxygen, additional pressure induced by water and gas, and vortex flow dynamics. A gas transfer model was developed for describing the non-steady state operation of the aerator. This model is based on the mass and molar balances of oxygen in gas and water. It could successfully simulate the DO change inside the aerator. This study can help better understand the oxygen transfer mechanism and evaluate the performance of the new aerator at the various temperatures, pressures, and gas compositions found in diverse environmental systems.
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are a promising class of porous nanomaterials in the field of environmental remediation. Ni-MOF and Fe-MOF were chosen for their advantages such as structural robustness and ease of synthesis route. The structure of prepared MOFs was characterized using FE-SEM, XRD, FTIR, and N2 adsorption-desorption. The efficiency of MOFs to remove organic model contaminants (anionic Alizarin Red S (ARS) and cationic malachite green (MG) and inorganic fluoride was studied. Fe-MOF and Ni-MOF adsorbed 67, 88, 6% and 32, 5, and 9% of fluoride, ARS, and MG, respectively. Further study on ARS adsorption by Fe-MOF showed that the removal efficiency was high in a wide range of pH from 3 to 9. Moreover, dye removal was directly increased by adsorbent mass (0.1–0.75 g/L) and decreased by ARS concentration (25–100 mg/L). The pseudo-first-order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model with a qmax of 176.68 mg/g described the experimental data well. The separation factor, KL, was in the range of 0–1, which means the adsorption process was favorable. In conclusion, Fe-MOF showed remarkable adsorption of organic and inorganic model contaminants.
Tin oxide (SnO2) nanoparticles (NPs) as well as SnO2/chitosan(CS) nanocomposites (NCs) were successfully synthesized by a simple chemical precipitation technique and their photocatalytic degradation ability against congo red (CR) and Rhodamine-B (Rh-B) were subsequently evaluated. The crystallinity and surface morphology of test materials were evaluated using X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The TEM images revealed that nanosized SnO2 NPs were successfully obtained and homogeneously distributed within the CS matrix. The CS/SnO2 NCs were exposed to Rh-B dye molecules, resulting in 95% degradation within 60 min, which was significantly better than for SnO2 NPs. On the other hand, CS/SnO2 NCs were found to degrade 98% of CR dye molecules upon 40 min of visible light irradiation, which was also significantly better than for SnO2 NPs. The CR dye molecules experienced significantly better levels of photodegradation parameters than Rh-B. The present study demonstrates the potential of CS/SnO2 NCs in the area of environmental remediation of organic dye-based water pollutants.
Background Vaccination has helped to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic. Ten traditional and novel vaccines have been listed by the World Health Organization for emergency use. Additional alternative approaches may better address ongoing vaccination globally, where there remains an inequity in vaccine distribution. GBP510 is a recombinant protein vaccine, which consists of self-assembling, two-component nanoparticles, displaying the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in a highly immunogenic array. Methods This randomised, placebo-controlled, observer-blinded phase 1/2 study was conducted to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of GBP510 (2-doses at a 28-day interval) adjuvanted with or without AS03 in adults aged 19–85 years at 14 hospital sites in Korea. This study was consisted of two stages (stage I, healthy adults aged 19–55 years; stage II, 240 healthy adults aged 19–85 years). Healthy participants who did not previously receive any vaccine within 4 weeks (2 weeks for flu vaccine) prior to the study, no history of COVID-19 vaccination/medication, and were naïve to SARS-CoV-2 infection at screening were eligible for the study enrollment. Participants were block-randomized in a 2:2:1 ratio to receive 2 doses of 10 µg GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 (group 1), 10 µg unadjuvanted GBP510 (group 2) or placebo intramuscularly in stage I, while they were block-randomized in a 2:2:1:1 ratio to receive 10 µg GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 (group 1), 25 µg GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 (group 3), 25 µg unadjuvanted GBP510 (group 4) or placebo in stage II. The primary safety outcomes were solicited and unsolicited adverse events, while primary immunogenicity outcomes included anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG antibodies; neutralizing antibody responses; and T-cell immune responses. Safety assessment included all participants who received at least 1 dose of study intervention (safety set). Immunogenicity assessment included all participants who completed the vaccination schedule and had valid immunogenicity assessment results without any major protocol deviations (per-protocol set). This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04750343). Findings Of 328 participants who were enrolled between February 1 and May 28, 2021, 327 participants received at least 1 dose of vaccine. Each received either 10 µg GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 (Group 1, n = 101), 10 µg unadjuvanted GBP510 (Group 2, n = 10), 25 µg GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 (Group 3, n = 104), 25 µg unadjuvanted GBP510 (Group 4, n = 51), or placebo (n = 61). Higher reactogenicity was observed in the GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 groups compared to the non-adjuvanted and placebo groups. The most frequently reported solicited local adverse event (AE) was injection site pain after any vaccination: (88·1% in group 1; 50·0% in group 2; 92·3% in group 3; 66·7% in group 4). Fatigue and myalgia were two most frequently reported systemic AEs and more frequently reported in GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 recipients (79·2% and 78·2% in group 1; 75·0% and 79·8% in group 3, respectively) than in the unadjuvanted vaccine recipients (40·0% and of 40·0% in group 2; 60·8% and 47·1% in group 4) after any vaccination. Reactogenicity was higher post-dose 2 compared to post-dose 1, particularly for systemic AEs. The geometric mean concentrations of anti-SARS-CoV-2-RBD IgG antibody reached 2163·6/2599·2 BAU/mL in GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 recipients (10 µg/25 µg) by 14 days after the second dose. Two-dose vaccination of 10 µg or 25 µg GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 induced high titres of neutralizing antibody via pseudovirus (1369·0/1431·5 IU/mL) and wild-type virus (949·8/861·0 IU/mL) assay. Interpretation GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 was well tolerated and highly immunogenic. These results support further development of the vaccine candidate, which is currently being evaluated in Phase 3. Funding This work was supported, in whole or in part, by funding from CEPI and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Investment ID OPP1148601. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation supported this project for the generation of IND-enabling data and CEPI supported this clinical study.
Background and purpose: Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS), a variant of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), could be underestimated in evaluations of its adverse events (AEs) following COVID-19 vaccination. We aimed to identify and characterize MFS following COVID-19 vaccination. Materials and methods: Relevant studies reported on during the COVID-19 pandemic were identified in the MEDLINE, Embase, and other databases. Results: Nine cases of MFS following COVID-19 vaccination from various regions were included. Unlike MFS following COVID-19 infection, patients with MFS following COVID-19 vaccination frequently presented with anti-GQ1b antibody positivity (44%, 4/9). Unlike GBS following COVID-19 vaccination, only two of nine (22%) cases of MFS following COVID-19 vaccination had developed after viral-vector-related vaccine administration. Conclusions: Miller Fisher syndrome following COVID-19 vaccination seems to have a different pathophysiology from MFS following COVID-19 infection and GBS following COVID-19 vaccination. This neurological syndrome with a rare incidence and difficulty in diagnosis should be considered an AE of COVID-19 vaccination.
Organic solar cells (OSCs) have received considerable attention as a promising clean energy-generating technology because of their low cost and great potential for large-scale commercial manufacturing. With significant advances in new charge-transport material design, interfacial engineering, and their operating conditions, power conversion efficiencies of OSCs have continued to increase. However, a fundamental understanding of charge carrier transport and especially how ionic moieties affect carrier transport is still lacking in OSCs. In this regard, photoelectron spectroscopy has provided valuable information about interfacial electronic structures. The interfacial electronic structure of OSC interlayers greatly impacts charge extraction and recombination, controls energy level alignment, guides active layer morphology, improves material’s compatibility, and plays a critical role in the resulting power conversion efficiency of OSCs. Interfacial engineering incorporating inorganic, organic, and hybrid materials can effectively enhance the performance of organic photovoltaic devices by reducing energy barriers for charge transport and injection while improving compatibility between metal oxides and donor–acceptor based active layers or transparent conducting electrodes. This article provides a review of recent developments in interfacial engineering underlying organic photovoltaic devices of donor–acceptor interfaces.
Background Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a prognostic management strategy to help patients with CVD achieve a good quality of life and lower the rates of recurrence, readmission, and premature death from disease. Globally, cardiac rehabilitation is poorly established in hospitals and communities. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the discrepancies in the perceptions of the need for CR programs and relevant health policies between directors of hospitals and health policy personnel in South Korea to shed light on the status and to establish practically superior and effective strategies to promote CR in South Korea. Methods We sent a questionnaire to 592 public health policy managers and directors of selected hospitals, 132 of whom returned a completed questionnaire (response rate: 22.3%). The participants were categorized into five types of organizations depending on their practice of PCI (Percutaneous Coronary Intervention), establishment of cardiac rehabilitation, director of hospital, and government's policy makers. Differences in the opinions between directors of hospitals that perform/do not perform PCI, directors of hospitals with/without cardiac rehabilitation, and between hospital directors and health policy makers were analyzed. Results Responses about targeting diseases for cardiac rehabilitation, patients’ roles in cardiac rehabilitation, hospitals’ roles in cardiac rehabilitation, and governmental health policies’ roles in cardiac rehabilitation were more positive among hospitals that perform PCI than those that do not. Responses to questions about the effectiveness of cardiac rehabilitation and hospitals’ roles in cardiac rehabilitation tended to be more positive in hospitals with cardiac rehabilitation than in those without. Hospital directors responded more positively to questions about targeting diseases for cardiac rehabilitation and governmental health policies’ roles in cardiac rehabilitation than policy makers, and both hospitals and public organizations provided negative responses to the question about patients’ roles in cardiac rehabilitation. Responses to questions about targeting diseases for cardiac rehabilitation, patients’ roles in cardiac rehabilitation, and governmental health policies’ roles in cardiac rehabilitation were more positive in hospitals that perform PCI than those that do not and public organizations. Conclusions Hospitals must ensure timely referral, provide education, and promote the need for cardiac rehabilitation. In addition, governmental socioeconomic support is needed in a varity of aspects.
This study describes a soft‐actuator grade thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) with 73 ~ 86 shore A, the method of its fabrication and selected properties. The TPU was produced using bio‐based synthesized TPU (HP 2.5, HP 3.0, HB 2.5, and HB 3.0) pellets with bio‐based polyether‐biol (PO3G‐1000), and dicyclohexylmethane diisocyanate (H12MDI) and bio‐based 1,3 propanediol (PDO) and 1,4 butanediol (BDO) as a chain extender. The TPU was formed into a filament for fused deposition modeling (FDM) 3D printers during a melt‐extrusion process at 180 ~ 220°C. The manufactured TPU filaments were characterized by rheological, chemical, thermal, and mechanical analyses. The equivalence ratio 3.0 with a relatively large amount of HS with BDO as a chain extender, more hydrogen‐bonding peaks occurred. The transition temperature and mechanical properties increased depending on the [NCO]:[OH] ratio, and for BDO as the chain extender. However, it was found that when PDO derived from natural material was used, the thermal stability was better. From these results, samples of auxetic re‐entrant TPU were printed with the filaments with reference to the melt flow index. The results showed that the bio‐synthesized HP 3.0 with a hardness of (82 ± 1) shore A was most suitable for FDM 3D printing. In the present study, a soft actuator‐grade thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) was synthesized and then processed into a filament for FDM 3D printers during a melt‐extrusion process using synthesized pellets. Chemical, thermal, and mechanical properties of the manufactured TPU filaments were characterized. Auxetic re‐entrant TPU samples were then printed with the manufactured filament.
Objective A range of risk factors in occupational environments can negatively affect the sleep of workers. Although psychosocial factors have been emphasized in various studies, few have reported on the relationship between physical or chemical exposure in the workplace and sleep disturbances. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between occupational exposure to physical or chemical factors and sleep disturbances. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Data from the fifth Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS). Participants The target population of the fifth KWCS was economically active individuals aged 15 years or older in all Korean households in 2017, resulting in a total study population of 50,176 participants. After excluding the unemployed, full-time students, homemakers, and the retired, 36,996 employees were included in the current study. Measurements Exposure to occupational physical or chemical risk factors was assessed by multiplying the exposure scales of physical or chemical risk factors and weekly working hours. Sleep disturbance was estimated using the Minimal Insomnia Symptom Scale. Results In the fully adjusted logistic regression model, exposure to the following risk factors was positively associated with sleep disturbance: vibration (odds ratio [OR], 1.74)); noise (OR, 2.28); high temperatures (OR, 2.43); low temperatures (OR, 2.51); smoke, fume, and dust (OR, 2.12); vapors of solvents or thinners (OR, 3.78); chemical substances (OR, 3.78); and environmental smoking (OR, 5.03). Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence of a relationship between occupational exposure to physical or chemical factors and sleep disturbances.
Background: Overexpression of PD-L1 is observed in many types of human cancer, including glioblastoma (GBM) and contributes to tumor immune evasion. In addition, GBM shows highly-activated aerobic glycolysis due to overexpression of phosphofructokinase 1 platelet isoform (PFKP), which the key enzyme in the glycolysis. However, it remains unclear whether the metabolic enzyme PFKP plays a role in the regulation of PD-L1 expression and GBM immune evasion. Objective: We aimed to investigate the non-metabolic role of PFKP in PD-L1 expression-induced GBM immune evasion. Methods: The mechanisms of PFKP-induced PD-L1 expression were studied by several experiments, including real-time PCR, immunoblot analysis, and ATP production. The coculture experiments using GBM cell and T cells were performed to evaluate the effect of PFKP on T cell activation. The clinical relationship between PFKP and PD-L1 was analyzed in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and in human GBM specimens. Results: We showed that PFKP promotes EGFR activation-induced PD-L1 expression in human GBM cells. Importantly, we demonstrated that EGFR-phosphorylated PFKP Y64 plays an important role in AKT-mediated β-catenin transactivation and subsequent PD-L1 transcriptional expression, thereby enhancing the GBM immune evasion. In addition, based on our findings, the levels of PFKP Y64 phosphorylation are positively correlated with PD-L1 expression in human GBM specimens, highlighting the clinical significance of PFKP Y64 phosphorylation in the GBM immune evasion. Conclusion: These findings provide new mechanistic insight into the regulation of PD-L1 expression by a non-metabolic function of PFKP on tumor cells.
In this paper we study the asymptotic limits of a compressible two-fluid model in an unbounded domain Ω with general initial data. By applying refined related entropy method and carrying out detailed analysis on the oscillations of velocity, we derive rigorously that the dissipative turbulent solutions (velocity) of the compressible two-fluid model converge to the strong solution of the quasi-geostropic equation when there is a Coriolis force and Ω=R2×T1, and while the two-fluid model has no Coriolis force term and Ω=R3, its solutions converge to the strong solution of incompressible Euler equations.
Many strategies for manufacturing high-performance carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers have been reported in the past decade. Although spinning is an essential process regardless of the CNT pre-treatment method or fiber post-treatment route, little research has been carried out into the spinning process itself. During the formation of such fibers through the spinning, intra- and inter-bundle voids inevitably arise. The size and amount of these voids determines the macroscopic properties of fibers. Therefore, controlling the internal voids of fibers is key for enhancing their macroscopic properties. We systematically explore changes in the microstructures of fibers, especially inter- and intra-bundle voids in the solution spinning. Around the spinneret of the exit, extensional deformation by drawing is key for fiber orientation, and we find the minimum draw ratio (DR∗=4.5) for target orientation of the fiber. Moreover, by controlling the coagulation process, the shape of the fiber is made close to a circular shape, which drastically reduces voids in the fiber to 0.08 vol%. Consequently, the increase in packing density and orientation maximizes the fiber properties. The resulting fibers, which were highly oriented and exhibited a fine morphology, have the tensile strength of 5.0 ± 0.3 GPa, modulus of 302 ± 31 GPa, electrical conductivity of 11.2 ± 0.5 MS m⁻¹, thermal conductivity of 398 ± 27 W m⁻¹ K⁻¹, and knot efficiency of 85 ± 11%. We believe that this systematic investigation of fiber formation provides useful insights into the development of high-performance multifunctional CNT fibers.
Background Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a member of receptor tyrosine kinase, has been implicated in tumor progression. However, the function and underlying mechanism of DDR1 in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) progression is unclear. Thus, we explored the molecular regulatory mechanism of DDR1 in the migration of LUAD. Methods Transwell assays, wound healing assays and xenograft tumor assays were performed to study the function of DDR1 in the progression of LUAD. Immunoblotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) were used to detect the expression levels of genes. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays were performed to detect the interaction between DDR1 and AKT. Immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry assays were used to determine the expression level of proteins in cells and tissues, respectively. Results DDR1 expression was significantly higher in LUAD tissues than in normal lung tissues, and the level of DDR1 was inversely correlated with prognosis in patients. We found that DDR1 promoted the migration and invasion of LUAD cells in vitro. Furthermore, ectopic expression of DDR1 in LUAD cells altered EMT-related markers expression. Importantly, the DDR1 protein interacted with AKT and phosphorylated AKT. The AKT inhibitor MK2206 interrupted Snail upregulation in DDR1-overexpressing LUAD cells. Finally, our study revealed that depletion of DDR1 attenuated LUAD cell migration in a tumor xenograft mouse model. Conclusion Our findings uncovered that a high abundance of DDR1 increased the migration and invasion capability of LUAD cells via the AKT/Snail signaling axis and indicated that DDR1 could be a potential target for treating LUAD.
The World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a global pandemic in March 2020. Several vaccines have been developed to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic, and messenger RNA vaccines, commonly known as mRNA vaccines, were the first COVID-19 vaccines to be authorized in Korea. With the worldwide increase in vaccinations, reports of adverse reactions are increasing. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports of eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) following mRNA vaccination. Here, we present the first case of EGE in a patient who received a second dose of the mRNA vaccine, BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech). A previously healthy 34-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with generalized abdominal pain for the preceding 2 weeks. She had received a second dose of the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine 2 weeks prior. Subserosal EGE was diagnosed, oral prednisolone was administered, and she recovered completely.
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