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- SourceAvailable from: Sanjoy Pal
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ABSTRACT: Insects and nematodes are the most diverse and abundant groups of multicellular animals feeding on plants on either side of the soil-air interface. Several herbivore-induced responses are systemic, and hence can influence the preference and performance of organisms in other plant organs. Recent studies show that plants mediate interactions between belowground plant parasitic nematodes and aboveground herbivorous insects. Based on the knowledge of plant responses to pathogens, we review the emerging insights on plant systemic responses against root-feeding nematodes and shoot-feeding insects. We discuss the potential mechanisms of plant-mediated indirect interactions between both groups of organisms and point to gaps in our knowledge. Root-feeding nematodes can positively or negatively affect shoot herbivorous insects, and vice versa. The outcomes of the interactions between these spatially separated herbivore communities appear to be influenced by the feeding strategy of the nematodes and the insects, as well as by host plant susceptibility to both herbivores. The potential mechanisms for these interactions include systemic induced plant defence, interference with the translocation and dynamics of locally induced secondary metabolites, and reallocation of plant nutritional reserves. During evolution, plant parasitic nematodes as well as herbivorous insects have acquired effectors that modify plant defence responses and resource allocation patterns to their advantage. However, it is also known that plants under herbivore attack change the allocation of their resources, e.g. for compensatory growth responses, which may affect the performance of other organisms feeding on the plant. Studying the chemical and molecular basis of these interactions will reveal the molecular mechanisms that are involved. Moreover, it will lead to a better understanding of the ecological relevance of aboveground-belowground interactions, as well as support the development of sustainable pes
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this paper is to examine the causes of food insecurity in Wolayta. This question is of interest since it has been argued that there is no problem of underdevelopment that can be more serious than food insecurity. The study showed that the majority of the rural households (74.2%) are food insecure. A binary logistic model is used to determine the factors, which influence households' food security status. The results obtained from the analysis indicate those households with large family sizes, large dependents, and young heads were food insecure. Besides livestock ownerships, farm inputs, employment in off farm sectors and value own consumption were the determinants of household food security. This finding strongly supports that input access by the poor, promotion of family planning; enhancing livestock packages, facilitation of credit service, creation of off farm opportunities, delivery of food aid for emergency needy groups, can mitigate food insecurity in the study area.
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