Delta State University, Abraka
Recent publications
This study investigated the effect of self-monitoring on emotional labor strategies (surface acting and deep acting) and the moderating role of gender in development. In anchoring the relationship between self-monitoring and emotional labor, the conservation of resources theory was used, while the moderating role of gender was based on sociocultural theory. A sample of 312 employees from the health and communication sectors provided the analyzed data. Data analysis was based on regression analysis (complemented with the PROCESS tool). The results showed positive self-monitoring (surface and deep acting) effects on emotional labor. More so, gender was found to moderate the impact of self-monitoring on surface acting strategy but not on deep acting strategy. The practical implication of this study is to provide information on the value of self-monitoring in improving, especially in men, the ability to express emotional labor.
Existing literature has shown that violence against women (VAW) is still common in Africa. Harmful traditional cultural norms have contributed to VAW. The identification and the awareness of the negative effect of these socio-cultural norms (SCN) will reduce VAW in Nigeria. This work looks at the socio-cultural norms (SCN) that lead to violence against rural and sub-urban Nigerian women. A mixed research approach involving 400 people from Ikaland of different age levels, marital status, and educational attainment was adopted. More than 75% of the respondents agreed that blaming the wife for her husband’s angry outburst, not prospering, and his mysterious death are the leading promoters of VAW. Others are; that a woman is not accorded respect if she is not married, and it is not proper for a wife to deed any landed property in her name. Participants suggested that schools could minimise these SCN by using the teaching-learning process, mass media, and professional academic associations to carry out public campaigns. This investigation adds to the current body of information on SCN that promote VAW in the various ethnic groups and provides ways the schools can contribute to combating these norms. Educational stakeholders should implement the recommended school ways of eliminating these identified socio-cultural norms.
Background The rising increase in the incidence of breast cancer among women is worrisome and a great concern to all. More disturbing is that the incidence of breast cancer and death has been attributed to exposure to imaging modalities that utilize ionizing radiation such as computed tomography. The aim of this study was to estimate the lifetime attributable risk (LAR) incidence and mortality for breast cancer for female patients who had head computed tomography in two imaging facilities (centres) in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Result The overall estimated mean effective dose in centres G1 and G2 is 5.76 mSv and 1.54 mSv, respectively. There was a statistical significant difference in the mean effective dose between centres G1 and G2 (P < 0.001). The LAR breast cancer incidence obtained in this study ranged between 0.5 and 26.45 per 100,000 population in centre G1, while in centre G2, it ranged between 0.14 and 6.56 per 100,000 population. The LAR breast cancer mortality obtained in this study ranged between 0.07 and 6.25 per 100,000 population in centre G1, while in centre G2, it ranged between 0.03 and 1.55 per 100,000 population. Conclusion The estimated mean LAR of breast cancer incidence and mortality for the women who had head CT examination in the two study centres was found to be minimal to negligible among the female patients of the different age groups in the study population. The overall mean risk of breast cancer incidence was very low in centre G1 and minimal in centre G2. The obtained risk values can be used to optimize the dose delivered to patients and also ensure that CT examinations are justified.
This study investigated the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in soil and vegetables, and the associated health risk of ingesting vegetables from Amaonye-Ishiagu farming zone, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Soil samples from 0 to 20 cm depth were analyzed with atomic absorption spectrometer for Cd, Pb and Zn and modeled with geostatistical extension of the ArcGIS. Edible parts of five leafy vegetables commonly found in the regional markets were randomly harvested from ten (10) farms and tested for the metals. Risk indication parameters (health risk index, daily intake of heavy metals and target health quotient) were evaluated. Results obtained showed that the soil was polluted with Pb, Cd and Zn as their concentrations were above the respective maximum allowable limits (100, 3 and 300 mg/kg) set for soils used for crop production. The soil pollution was highest around the Unu stream channel receiving waste from the mining site, and the forest portions affected by stream overflow. Vegetables from the farms had Cd and Pb above the respective prescribed limits of 0.1 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg. Daily intakes of Cd, Pb and Zn were higher than the respective oral reference doses of 0.001, 0.0035 and 0.300 mg/kg/day. The health risk index and target health quotient values were, respectively, greater than one—indicating that the ingestion of the vegetables might affect human health negatively. Children consuming vegetables from farms in the study area were noted to be in greater danger of health risks than the adults.
Background Ambient air pollution has persisted in many communities resulting in chronic human exposure to unhealthy pollutants. Epidemiological studies on air pollution have been mainly quantitative with a dearth of information on health risk perception, a key component of environmental health risk management. The aim of this qualitative study was to illuminate the health risk perception of ambient air pollution amongst persons residing near a petrochemical industry. In addition, determine their perception of existing control measures and ideas for more effective control. Methods A focus group study of residents near a petrochemical refinery. Participants were purposively selected based on age, sex, long-term residence in the community, occupation, and involvement with community leadership. Three 90mins face-to-face focus groups and one individual interview were conducted while observing COVID-19 safety precautions. The moderator guided discussions using a pre-formed topic guide. All discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed manually and coded using NVivo soft-ware. Data analysis was conducted using reflective thematic analysis proposed by Braun and Clarke. Results Twenty-four adults agreed to participate; 23 in three focus groups and one individual interview. Six themes were inductively generated from the data as follows: Negative perception of the environment, the refinery is to blame, Air pollution is seen or smelt, Air pollution is associated with health and non-health risks, Poor response to air pollution: everyone is to blame, and Government is primarily responsible for healthy air quality. The participants perceived their ambient air was polluted mainly by activities of petrochemical industries, but were not aware of the extent of its potential health implications. Key suggestions for air pollution control included stopping gas flaring, regulating tanker drivers and illegal artisanal refineries, environmental health education, dissemination of research findings to stakeholders, access to affordable health care and providing incentives for community members Conclusions Participants perceive their ambient air was unhealthy, however concern about the health risks was shaped by demographic, socio-economic and other contextual factors. Existing mitigating efforts were perceived as inadequate and the key barriers were poor environmental health literacy and political factors. More inclusive and collaborative approaches are required for improved environmental and public health.
Objective Oxidative and nitrergic aberrations have important consequences in reproductive organs. Previous research has shown that long-term use of chlorpromazine (CPZ) causes reproductive problems by causing oxidative and nitrergic stress in the testes. The impacts of taurine (TAU) and co-enzyme Q-10 (COQ-10) alone, or combination of both treatments, in the prevention and reversal of CPZ-mediated testicular oxidative and nitrergic damages in male Wister rats were investigated in this study. Ten milligrams per kilogram of oral saline, 150 mg/kg of TAU and 10 mg/kg of COQ-10, or combination of both drugs (TAU + COQ-10) were given to animals for the period of 56 days, or in combination with CPZ (30 mg/kg) treatment from days 29 to 56 in the drug alone or preventive-treatment groups. In the reversal treatment pattern, the animals were given CPZ or saline for 56 days before administration of TAU, COQ-10, or the combination from days 29 to 56. The serum and testes were then tested for protein, enzymatic, non-enzymatic levels, and biomarkers of oxidative and nitrergic stress. The testes’ histopathologic features were also examined.ResultsThe superoxide-dismutase and catalase activities were increased when TAU and COQ-10 were supplemented separately or in their combined treatment. In the testis of naive and CPZ-treated rats, both drugs increased glutathione, glutathione-peroxidase, peroxiredoxin-4, sulphydryl, L-carnitine, and protein levels. In both preventive and reversal studies, TAU and COQ-10 reduced CPZ-induced elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide, protein carbonyl, malondialdehyde, nitrite, and peroxynitrite in the testes of rats. In addition, taurine and COQ-10 protected and reversed testicular histomorphological damage caused by chlorpromazine.Conclusions By increasing testicular enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, inhibiting reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and protecting testicular tissues, TAU and COQ-10 together prevented and reversed CPZ-mediated testicular oxidative and nitrergic stresses.
The present study valorizes cashew nutshell ash (CNA) and uses it at 5-20 wt. % of cement for concrete production. The concrete grades of 25-40 MPa were used as mix design proportions. The thermal and mechanical properties of the concrete samples were determined on day 28 of curing. Regression models were used to predict the thermophysical properties of the concrete specimens. Also, the concrete’s sustainability was estimated via the inventory of carbon and energy (ICE). The results revealed that CNA enhanced the thermal insulating characteristics of the concrete produced. Maximum compressive strength was obtained at 15 wt. % of CNA content, while the developed models yielded high precision. Compared with the control concrete, the sustainability index decreased as CNA content in the mix increased, indicating that incorporating CNA in concrete production improves the sustainability of such concrete. Therefore, the outcome of this work can be beneficial, especially in hot or arid climate regions, and at the same time, achieve a cleaner environment.
This study investigated the concentrations of nine metals such as Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni Cu, Co, Mn, Zn and Fe in dusts from automobile mechanic workshops (AMWs) in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Samples of dusts were digestion with aqua-regia and analyzed for metals using atomic absorption spectrometry. The levels of metals in the AMW dusts (mg kg − 1 ) were 0.12 to 4.20 for Cd, 11.3 to 3897 for Pb, 9.05 to 45.3 for Cr, 0.35 to 345 for Ni, 170 to 56390 for Cu, 1.05 to 31.4 for Co, 51.3 to 310 for Mn, 143 to 634 for Zn and 70875 to 258013 for Fe. Metal distribution patterns in dusts from AMWs followed the sequence; Fe > > Cu > Zn > Mn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Co > Cd. The indices for pollution assessment indicated that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were the top contaminants in the AMW dusts. The hazard index values obtained for children’s exposure to metal laden dusts from these AMWs were above 1 which implies that children exposure to dusts from AMWs could elicit adverse non-carcinogenic heath effects. The carcinogenic risk values obtained for human exposure to metals in these AMW dusts were above safe levels indicating possibility of inducing cancer or cancer related sickness. The sources of metals in dusts from the AMWs are related to automobiles emissions and discharges from vehicular components.
Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) were measured in imported canned fish such as mackerel, sardine and tuna to evaluate the risk relating to human consumption of these products. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used to evaluate the concentrations of PCBs and PCDD/Fs in the samples. The ∑28 PCB concentrations in the canned mackerel, tuna and sardine ranged from 0.33 to 9.48 ng g ⁻¹, <LOQ to 8.8 ng g⁻¹ and <LOQ to 15.1 ng g⁻¹, respectively, while the ∑14 PCDD/Fs concentrations varied from 0.06 to 4.70 ng g⁻¹ for mackerel, 0.72 to 9.43 ng g⁻¹ for tuna and not detected to 22.0 ng g ⁻¹ for sardines. Health risk analysis suggests that ingestion of these samples could lead to adverse non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks over a lifetime.
Light Emitting Diode (LED) applications are increasingly used in various microelectronic devices due to their efficient light generation. The miniaturisation of the LED and its integration into compact devices within the weight limit have resulted in excessive heat generation, and inefficient management of this heat could lead to the failure of the entire system. Passive and/or active heat sinks are used for dissipating heat from the system to the environment to improve performance. An ANSYS design modeller and transient thermal conditions were utilised in this study to design and simulate the LED system. The modeller performs its function by utilising the Finite Element Method (FEM) technique. The LED system considered in this work consists of a chip, thermal interface material, and a cylindrical heat sink. The thickness of the Cylindrical Heat Sink (CHS) fins used in the investigation is between 2 mm and 6 mm, whilst ensuring the mass of heat sinks is not more than 100 g. The input power of the LED chip is between 4.55 W and 25.75 W, as required by some original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). A mesh dependency study was carried out to ensure the results were synonymous with what can be obtained practically. The simulation results suggest that the power ratings did not affect the thermal resistance of the CHS. In addition, the thermal resistance increased with the increased thickness of the CHS fin. The efficiencies of the heat sink were found to increase with an increased thickness of the cylindrical fin and the accuracy between the calculated and simulated thermal efficiency ranges from 84.33% to 98.80%. Evidently, the CHS fin of 6 mm thickness is more efficient than the other CHS fins, as depicted in this study.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Dietary modifications in the form of a vegetarian diet can perhaps be the key to the prevention and management of cardiovascular diseases. The aims of this review are to determine the association between a vegetarian diet and CHD, to compare the risk of CHD in different types of vegetarian diets, and to assess variability in the biochemical predictors of CHD in the various vegetarian diets. Our study inferred that adherence to a plant-based diet was inversely related to the incidence of heart failure risk. Our research further supports the idea that a vegetarian diet is advantageous for the secondary prevention of CHD since it alters lipid profiles, lowers body mass index (BMI), and increases plasma antioxidant micronutrient concentrations. Additionally, eating a plant-based diet starting in adolescence is linked to a decreased risk of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) by middle age. An increase in sensitization and education efforts is imperative to ensure that people are appropriately informed about this option to significantly improve their quality of life.
Ethnopharmacological relevance Persistent ketamine insults to the central nervous system block NMDA receptors and disrupt putative neurotransmission, oxido–nitrosative, and inflammatory pathways, resulting in schizophrenia-like symptoms in animals. Previously, the ethnomedicinal benefits of Carpolobia lutea against insomnia, migraine headache, and insanity has been documented, but the mechanisms of action remain incomplete. Aim of the study: Presently, we explored the neuro-therapeutic role of Carpolobia lutea ethanol extract (C. lutea) in ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like symptoms in mice. Materials and methods Sixty-four male Swiss (22 ± 2 g) mice were randomly assigned into eight groups (n = 8/group) and exposed to a reversal ketamine model of schizophrenia. For 14 days, either distilled water (10 mL/kg; p.o.) or ketamine (20 mg/kg; i.p.) was administered, following possible reversal treatments with C. lutea (100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/kg; p.o.), haloperidol (1 mg/kg, p.o.), or clozapine (5 mg/kg; p.o.) beginning on days 8–14. During the experiment, a battery of behavioral characterizations defining schizophrenia-like symptoms were obtained using ANY-maze software, followed by neurochemical, oxido-inflammatory and histological assessments in the mice brains. Results A 7-day reversal treatment with C. lutea reversed predictors of positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. C. lutea also mitigated ketamine-induced neurochemical derangements as evidenced by modulations of dopamine, glutamate, norepinephrine and serotonin neurotransmission. Also, the increased acetylcholinesterase activity, malondialdehyde nitrite, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis-factor-α concentrations were reversed by C. lutea accompanied with elevated levels of catalase, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione. Furthermore, C. lutea reversed ketamine-induced neuronal alterations in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum sections of the brain. Conclusion These findings suggest that C. lutea reverses the cardinal symptoms of ketamine-induced schizophrenia in a dose-dependent fashion by modulating the oxido-inflammatory and neurotransmitter-related mechanisms.
The aim of this study was to obtain fermented black glutinous rice (FBGR) powder using the foam‐mat freeze‐drying method and to evaluate the physicochemical, microstructural, and bioactive characteristics of FBGR powder. To obtain FBGR foams, maltodextrin (MD; 0%–40% w/w) and whey protein isolate (WPI; 7.5% w/w) were used. The results showed that MD concentration had a significant effect (p ≤ .05) on powder recovery and bulk density which increased from 68.9% to 80.5% and 0.46% to 0.63 g/ml, respectively. The lowest moisture content (2.17%) and water activity (0.48) were found in powders produced with 20% MD. The solubility of FBGR powders ranged from 74% to 75% and increasing MD concentration gave higher lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) readings in color properties of powders. Although the addition of the carrier agent caused reductions in total phenolic content and anthocyanins, the retention of these bioactive compounds rose with increasing MD content from 67% to 76% and 78% to 84%, respectively. FBGR produced with 40% MD had the most superior physical and technological properties, and foam‐mat freeze‐drying is a promising technology for retaining the bioactive compounds in FBGR. Foam‐mat freeze‐drying, using different concentrations of maltodextrin (MD) and whey protein isolate (WPI), represents a promising technology for retaining the bioactive compounds in fermented black glutinous rice (FBGR) powder and have the most superior physical and technological properties.
Globalization has brought compelling changes to the world transport systems and ways through which domestic goods are marketed. The main objective of this research is to determine the effect of globalization and transport mode on the marketing of goods made in Africa and the difference in consumer choice for imported products and domestic goods. A 10-item validated structured questionnaire was administered to 300 civil servants of selected parastatals from five states in Nigeria. The feedback statistics showed that a total number of 280 (93.3%) questionnaires were retrieved and 20 (6.7%) were rejected. The results obtained were subjected to analytical procedures of correlation and multiple regression. The study used clothing as research sample to test the effect of globalization and transportation mode on consumer preference for imports over local products and vice-versa. It was found that globalization and chosen transportation mode have a significant effect on marketing of goods made in Africa and on consumer preference. The resultant effects were numerous including capital flight, development of new markets, transport-induced costs, etc. The study recommends governments in Africa to re-orient the African population to appreciate and patronize domestic goods, and implement appropriate modern transportation systems, and ICT tools to promote domestic goods.
Introduction High consumption of alcohol has an enormous toll on the health status of individuals. A direct affectation of cardiac integrity concerns cardiologists, primary care physicians, and the healthcare system because this increases the disease burden. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) results from the enormous consumption of alcohol over a long period of time. The prevalence varies between regions and sex and ranges between 4% and 40%. Viewing the entire spectrum of cardiomyopathies, ACM makes up about 4% of all cardiomyopathies. However, it causes dilated-type cardiomyopathy and is the second most common cause of dilated cardiomyopathy. We sought to explore the outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) among patients with ACM. Methods This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study of the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) for hospital discharges in the United States between 2012 and 2014. We identified the number of patients with a primary or secondary diagnosis of ACM using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code of 4.255. Using the ICD-9 codes for PCI (00.66, 36.01, 36.02, 36.05, 36.06, 36.07, and 17.55), we identified patients diagnosed with ACM who underwent a PCI (ACPCI). The racial and sexual prevalence, hospital length of stay (LOS), mortality, cost of hospitalization, and cardiovascular outcomes (ventricular fibrillation (VF) and atrial fibrillation (AF)) were compared between patients with and without ACM who underwent a PCI. Results A total of 2,488,293 PCIs were performed between 2012 and 2014. Of these, there were a total of 161 admissions for ACM. About 93% (151) of the ACM PCI group were men. Ethnic distribution revealed a majority of Caucasians with 69% (98), and blacks and Asians at 13.4% (19) and 11.3% (16), respectively. The mean age was 59.8 (SD = 9). The patients with ACPCI were likely to stay longer in the hospital, with an average stay of 6.6 days (SD = 6.2) compared to patients without ACM undergoing PCI (NOACPCI) (3.7 days; SD = 5.0) (p = 0.0001). The mean cost of hospital admission for patients with ACPCI was $120,225 (SD = 101,044), while that of those without ACM who underwent PCI (NOACPCI) was $87,936 (SD = 83,947) (p = 0.0001). A higher death rate during hospitalization (3.7%) was recorded in the ACPCI category vs. 2.3% in patients without ACM who underwent PCI (p = 0.0001). Patients with ACPCI had a higher prevalence of AF (30.4%) than VF (7.5%). Conclusion The ACPCI group had overall poorer hospital outcomes. The majority affected were older Caucasian men with an increased prevalence of AF, higher cost of hospitalization, and longer hospital stays. Further studies are needed to explore the burden of long-term alcohol consumption on cardiovascular disease treatment outcomes.
Introduction: The production of large amounts of reactive oxygen species in severe malarial infection is due to parasite invasion to erythrocytes. Malaria resistance to medication has left malaria-endemic countries with no alternate source of medications but traditional medicine. One of such plants utilized by traditional healers is Phyllanthus amarus. Therefore, this study aims at ascertaining the antiplasmodial and cytotoxic activities of P. amarus and its specific actions on retaining erythrocyte viability and antioxidant activity. Methods: Antiplasmodial and erythrocyte viability activities were determined in vitro via parasite suppression and tetrazolium-based colorimetric assays, respectively. Antioxidant capacity was determined by measuring extract’s ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation, scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide ions, reduce iron(III) ions, and chelate iron in vitro using documented methods. Results: Alkaloid extracts of P. amarus showed great antiplasmodial activity (IC50=0.52μg/mL) and low cytotoxic activity (CC50=54.95 μg/mL). Erythrocyte viability assay showed the minimal impact of the extract on the uninfected erythrocytes but improved viability of the infected RBC in a dose dependent manner, and antioxidant activity manifested mainly in its iron chelating activity (EC50=0.34 μg/mL). Conclusion: This study suggests that the alkaloid extract of P. amarus has significant antiplasmodial and antioxidant activities. These activities promoted the repair of parasite-induced free radical damage to the erythrocyte membrane but distorted the parasites redox balance and defense mechanism, and hence survival rate as indicated by the parasite suppression associated with alkaloid extract treatment of malarial infection.
Background As most of the available studies on acceptance of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine were done prior to the development of a vaccine, this study aimed to determine the current willingness to receive the available COVID-19 vaccines in Nigeria and ascertain factors influencing its acceptance. Methodology A cross-sectional descriptive study using a paper-based questionnaire was conducted among patients aged 18 years and above, attending the General Outpatient Clinic of Federal Medical Centre, Asaba, Delta State, Nigeria (n= 366). Data were analyzed using SPSS version 26 (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted at an alpha level of significance set at p<0.05. Results This study comprised 366 participants, of which 56.28% were willing to take a COVID-19 vaccine if it was made available to them. Generally, it was found that participants aged <40 years (56.90%), females (56.88%), singles (57.32%), and unemployed respondents (67.44%) were more willing to receive the vaccine than others. Those who agreed that COVID-19 was not an invention by man (p=0.031; OR=1.64; 95% CI=1.05, 2.58) were more likely to receive a vaccine. Suspicion of the government's intentions about COVID-19 was a perceived barrier by participants to accepting a vaccine. Conclusion Our findings represent one of the few estimates of the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine in Nigeria. They can be used to guide the planning and development of future public health efforts, increasing the awareness of the COVID-19 vaccine, its acceptability, and its uptake.
Fossil fuels have remained a major global energy source for many decades, and their use has lingered on with downbeat attendants, considering their high demands and environmental issues caused by overexploitation and exploration. The increase in global energy consumption, emerging issues of climate change, and perceived decline in fossil reserves due to the world’s increasing population has raised serious concerns and clamor for the replacement of fossil fuel with biological substitutes. Biodiesels have received much attention in all countries due to their renewability, non-toxicity, biodegradability, and low pollution emissions, and are projected as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Although biodiesel is mainly a derivative of edible/non-edible plant oil extractions, in this review, biodiesel derived from non-vegetable oils e.g. animal fats/waste, leather industry waste, lipids from microalgae, insects, and waste rubber tires were explored as potential biodiesel feedstocks. In addition, waste materials as heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production, environmental and economic impacts were also highlighted. Noteworthily, the transesterification of these non-vegetable oil feedstock to biodiesel in the presence of waste materials as heterogeneous catalysts could afford up to 98% biodiesel production, and the catalyst can be recycled. The inherent ability to compensate for the quantity supply of biodiesel is the aim of every energy-producing nation in order to maximize economic development and minimize pollution in the environment.
The aim of the study was to investigate biogenic amine production in different types of cooked protein foods. The food samples were incubated at varying temperatures (4, 37 and 55 °C) on different microbiological media for 48, 72 and 180 h. Resulting bacteria were isolated and characterized using cultural, biochemical and molecular methods, further screened for production of biogenic amines in decarboxylase broth media supplemented with 0.4% of histidine, tyrosine, lysine and ornithine. The samples were incubated at 25 °C for 48 h and the biogenic amine concentration in each food sample determined by means of HPLC. There was a high prevalence of the isolates among the food samples. All the isolates except Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were positive for decarboxylase activity indicating 84.6% of the isolates capable of biogenic amine production. The amine concentration varied among the types of food and methods of cooking. Histamine was detected in 41.67% of the inoculated food samples (9.2 ± 1.2-100.95 ± 0.1 µg/g) while putrescine was the least detected (41.67%) in the inoculated food sample (7.7 ± 0.1-8.8 ± 0.2 µg/g). Cadaverine and histamine were detected in 16.4% (2.6 ± 0.2-49.9 ± 0.9 µg/g) and 7.5% (1.4 ± 0.1-20.4 ± 0.3 µg/g) of the foods, respectively. Microbial contamination of the cooked protein foods led to high levels of biogenic amines irrespective of the cooking methodology adopted and type of foods investigated. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13197-022-05576-0.
The antimalarial activity of different parts (leaf, fruit, stem, and root) of Phyllanthus amarus and their associated impact on surrogate markers of insulin sensitivity in experimental mice, having ascertained their toxicity (LD50) index were documented. Results showed that the plant parts were nontoxic (LD50 > 5,000 mg kg⁻¹) and were antimalarial in a dose-dependent manner, with the ethanol leaf extract having the highest parasite suppression followed by the fruit, root, and stem extracts. However, the root extract had the most profound impact on insulin sensitivity compared to other parts, although all showed improvement, with insulin sensitivity/resistance indices, with QUICKI vs. HOMA-IR showing a strong positive correlation (r = 0.993), but QUICKI vs. HOMA-IR and HOMA-IR vs. 1/HOMA = IR having strong negative correlation (r = −0.963 and −0.927, respectively). So, QUICKI and 1/HOMA-IR are surrogate indices of insulin sensitivity and HOMA-IR and TyG index, insulin resistance surrogate markers.
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1,122 members
Lawrence Omo-Aghoja
  • Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Samuel Ogheneovo Asagba
  • Department of Medical Biochemistry
Albert Ofuoku
  • Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension
Iwegbue Chukwujindu
  • Department of Chemistry
Eze Nwangwa
  • Department of Physiology
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Abraka, Nigeria