Organophosphorus compounds are those compounds which are widely used as pesticide or insecticide. But, these compounds have serious harmful effects if these compounds may enter in food chain via biomagnifications process. Therefore, different research groups have been working on modalities for removal of these toxic compounds from the environment. The current study investigates the potential of adsorption capacity of synthesized reduced graphene oxide for phosmet, which is a toxic organophosphorus compound. Reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was synthesized in high yield (88 %) using L-ascorbic acid as a reducing agent and further, it was characterized using UV–Vis, FT-IR, powder-XRD, Raman, FE-SEM, BET, and TGA techniques. The surface area of synthesized rGO was determined to be 334 m²/g using the BET technique. The adsorption study showed the uptake capacity of rGO for phosmet was found to be dependent on rGO dose, pH effect, contact time, and temperature effect. The highest adsorption capacity (2680 mg/g) and removal efficiency (96 %) were obtained at pH 6.8. The kinetic data were best described by pseudo-second-order model, suggesting that the adsorption of phosmet on rGO surface is chemisorptions type. The equilibrium adsorption studies were best fitted with Langmuir isotherm model; thus, confirming the homogeneous adsorption of phosmet on rGO surface. The temperature-dependent adsorption of phosmet on rGO investigation suggested that adsorption was enthalpy driven (ΔH⁰ = −150 kJ mol⁻¹) and spontaneous (ΔG⁰ = −10.6 kJ mol⁻¹) in nature. The adsorbent reusability was examined, and it was found that after 5 cycles, there was a little loss (19 %) in the adsorption efficacy of rGO for phosmet with no significant change in surface morphology. The current investigation reveals the synthesized adsorbent has a great potential for the removal of phosmet.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is the trimeric enzyme complex that converts pyruvate formed from glycolysis to acetyl CoA that is further directed toward the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA). The activity of PDC is regulated by pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase by activation and inhibition of PDC respectively. As PDC plays an important role in cellular metabolism, therefore, its regulation is of utmost importance. The imbalance in the regulation of mitochondrial PDC is the hallmark of various metabolic disorders including obesity, diabetes, cancers, neurodegenerative disorders, etc. Phosphorylation of PDC at E1⍺ of pyruvate dehydrogenase subunit by PDK isomers (PDK1–4) deactivates PDC. The PDKs are inhibited by PDK inhibitors that are emerging as a treatment option for various disorders. This book chapter gives an overview of the structure and isomers of PDK, elaborating the role of PDK in various metabolic disorders followed by the efficacy studies of PDK inhibitors.
Background and aimsAlterations in the gut immune axis under hypobaric hypoxia (HH) exposure may be a consequence of microbial dysbiosis. The mechanism of induction of gut inflammation by alterations in gut bacterial and viral populations has not been discovered meticulously. Here we used whole-genome and 16S rRNA sequencing to characterize the taxonomic and functional shifts in the faecal microbiome after HH exposure.Methods Ten faecal samples from unexposed and HH exposed (3 days, 7 days and 14 days) Sprague–Dawley rats were analyzed. 16S rRNA sequencing was conducted on Illumina MiSeq platform using universal primers and analysed using QIIME (Greengenes database). WGS sequencing was done on Illumina HiSEQ 2500 platform and analysed using MOCAT2 (eggNOG database).ResultsHH exhibited an overarching effect on taxonomic and functional gene composition. A significant change in α-diversity at phylum level and β-diversity at phylum and genus level were observed between control and HH exposed groups. Significant (p < 0.05) alterations in the taxonomic profiles of bacterial populations and functional metabolic pathways were observed post HH exposure was observed. Further, we hypothesized gut virome influencing bacterial diversity under HH to be a key determinant of intestinal inflammation and thus virome populations analyzed in unexposed and exposed groups showed seven families of Caudovirales to be significantly altered in terms of abundance and diversity.Conclusions Caudovirales may alter the abundance of beneficial bacteria under HH exposure and thus, changing the intestinal bacterial diversity, initiate intestinal inflammation. This study provided new insights into taxonomic and functional shifts in the faecal microbiome and these findings can aid in future for using bacteriophages for the treatment of different intestinal related inflammatory disorders.
Financial transaction through smart mobile devices is an attractive feature in today’s modern wireless network era. Despite having various advantages, privacy and security are always challenging in such services. A novel hybrid security scheme based on physical layer signature and cryptography has been proposed to provide a secured authentication scheme preserving user’s privacy, for the application of mobile payments. This scheme provides two levels of authentication, privacy preserving location authentication and device authentication. User’s privacy is preserved by encrypting the identity of the user by physical layer encryption based on user’s location. Physical layer signatures such as channel state information and carrier frequency offset are used for physical layer encryption. In conventional techniques, Media Access Control (MAC) address is used for initial authentication and they are shared without encryption. In this proposed technique, MAC is encrypted using the secret key derived from physical layer signatures using Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to preserve privacy. Since secret key, generated using SVD, is location specific and varies with respect to the location, it is used for the location authentication. User authentication, required for mobile payment, is realised using asymmetric key cryptography technique. Since, physical layer security is used for privacy preserving location authentication in addition to the conventional cryptographic methods, the proposed method provides significant improvement in the security. The performance of the proposed method has been analysed in terms of information leakage to adversary, bit error rate performance, and transaction time in comparison with existing method which uses cryptography and provides only device authentication for mobile payment. The proposed technique gives better performance than existing technique in terms of privacy and authentication for mobile payment.
Correction for ‘Synthesis of non-toxic, biocompatible, and colloidal stable silver nanoparticle using egg-white protein as capping and reducing agents for sustainable antibacterial application’ by Kalaiyarasan Thiyagarajan et al. , RSC Adv. , 2018, 8 , 23213–23229, DOI: 10.1039/C8RA03649G.
Wild mushroom foraging involves a high risk of unintentional consumption of poisonous mushrooms which is a serious health concern. This problem arises due to the close morphological resemblances of toxic mushrooms with edible ones. The genus Inocybe comprises both edible and poisonous species and it is therefore important to differentiate them. Knowledge about their chemical nature will unambiguously determine their edibility and aid in an effective treatment in case of poisonings. In the present study, the presence of volatile toxic metabolites was verified in Inocybe virosa by gas chromatography. Methyl palmitate, phenol, 3,5-bis (1,1-dimethyl ethyl) and phytol were the identified compounds with suspected toxicity. The presence of the toxin muscarine was confirmed by liquid chromatography. The in vitro study showed that there was negligible effect of the digestion process on muscarine content or its toxicity. Therefore, the role of muscarine in the toxicity of Inocybe virosa was studied using a bioassay wherein metameters such as hypersalivation, immobility, excessive defecation, heart rate and micturition were measured. Administration of muscarine resulted in an earlier onset of symptoms and the extract showed a slightly stronger muscarinic effect in comparison to an equivalent dose of muscarine estimated in it. Further, the biological fate of muscarine was studied by pharmacokinetics and gamma scintigraphy in New Zealand white rabbits. Significant amount of the toxin was rapidly and effectively concentrated in the thorax and head region. This study closely explains the early muscarinic response such as miosis and salivation in mice. By the end of 24 h, a relatively major proportion of muscarine administered was accumulated in the liver which stands as an explanation to the hepatotoxicity of Inocybe virosa. This is one of the rare studies that has attempted to understand the toxic potential of muscarine which has previously been explored extensively for its pharmaceutical applications.
Objectives The goal of the current study was to investigate the universality of the five-factor model of mindfulness and the measurement equivalence of the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ).Methods The study used FFMQ data from published and unpublished research conducted in 16 countries (total N = 8541). Using CFA, different models, proposed in the literature, were fitted. To test the cross-cultural equivalence of the best fitting model, a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis was used. Further, the equivalence of individual facets of the FFMQ and potential sources of non-equivalence was explored.ResultsThe best fitting models in most samples were a five-facet model with a higher-order mindfulness factor and uncorrelated positive and negative item-wording factors and a five-facet model with a correlated facets and uncorrelated positive and negative item-wording factors. These models showed structural equivalence, but did not show metric equivalence (equivalent factor loadings) across cultures. Given this lack of equivalent factor loadings, not even correlations or mean patterns can be compared across cultures. A similar pattern was observed when testing the equivalence of the individual facets; all individual facets failed even tests of metric equivalence. A sample size weighted exploratory factor analysis across cultures indicated that a six-factor solution might provide the best fit across cultures with acting with awareness split into two factors. Finally, both the five- and six-factor solution showed substantially better fit in more individualistic and less tight cultures.Conclusions Overall, the FFMQ has conceptual and measurement problems in a cross-cultural context, raising questions about the validity of the current conceptualization of mindfulness across cultures. The results showed that the fit of the FFMQ was substantially better in individualistic cultures that indicate that further data from non-Western cultures is needed to develop a universal conceptualization and measurement of mindfulness.
Cross-linking of polymer hydrogels can be achieved by exposing the polymer to gamma radiation that induces production of polymer chain radicals resulting in cross-linking of chains. The present study was focused on fabrication of hydrogel by gamma irradiation for immobilization of bacterial cells. Hydrogels were prepared using 30 and 40% acrylamide at gamma irradiation dose of 5 kGy. Five bacterial strains BR-6, BR-14, BR-18, BR-21, and BR-26 screened for resistance to strontium were immobilized in hydrogels and evaluated for the bioremoval of strontium. Strontium content for different strains was 4.21–4.68 μg/ml after 3 days in the presence of free cells grown in 5 μg/ml strontium, while for immobilized cells, the strontium content was 3.35–3.81 μg/ml (30% acrylamide gel) and 3.46–3.99 μg/ml (40% acrylamide gel). After 10 days of incubation, the strontium content was reduced to 0.94–1.26 μg/ml (30% acrylamide gel) and 0.82–1.07 μg/ml (40% acrylamide gel), and for free cells, strontium content was 1.34–1.41 μg/ml. 72–75% bioremoval of strontium by free cells of different strains BR-6, BR-14, BR-18, BR-21, and BR-26 was observed after 10 days of incubation. 77–83% reduction in strontium content was observed in the presence of cells immobilized in 30% acrylamide, whereas higher reduction of 80–85% was observed for cells immobilized in 40% acrylamide after 10 days. At higher concentration of 10-μg/ml strontium, 62 to 71% reduction was observed with immobilized bacterial cells. Obtained results indicated that immobilized bacterial cells in hydrogels prepared by gamma irradiation were found to have significantly higher efficiency as compared to free cells for bioremoval of strontium ions.
Molecular ferroelectric materials are an exciting class of materials for potential applications in energy and electronics. Herein, we report examples of hydrogen-bonded binary salts of diphenyl diisopropylamino phosphonium halides [Ph2(ⁱPrNH)2P]•X [DPDP•X, X = Cl, Br, I] which shows dielectric, piezoelectric and NLO properties and some potentially ferroelectric attributes at room temperature. The phosphonium bromide salt was prepared by bromination of the phosphine precursor Ph2PCl and its subsequent treatment with isopropyl amine. The chloride and iodide salts were synthesized by the halogen exchange reaction of the bromide salt. The variable temperature single crystal X-ray analysis indicates the retention of the polar non-centrosymmetric phase of these materials for a wide range of temperatures from 100 to 400 K and above. All these assemblies were shown to exhibit 1D H-bonded chain structures along the crystallographic b-axis. The P-E loop measurements of these salts gave the curves similar to those of non-linear leaky dielectric materials. However, the vertical Piezoresponse force microscopy (V-PFM) analyses showed the existence of polarizable domain inversions indicating the possibility of ferroelectric behaviour in these materials. The temperature dependent dielectric measurements on these salts support the absence of phase transition temperatures in these assemblies. Also, bias-dependant PFM studies reveal their piezoelectric nature as the obtained converse piezoelectric coefficients are consistent with the d33 values obtained by the direct quasi-static methods.
For nearly a decade, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been the most prevalent commercial nanomaterials products widely used in different biomedical applications due to their broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. However, their poor long-term stability in different environments, namely, pH, ionic strength, and temperature, and cytotoxicity toward mammalian cells has restricted their more extensive applications. Hence, there is urgent need to develop highly biocompatible, non-toxic, and stable silver nanoparticles for wide-ranging environments and applications. In the present study, a simple, sustainable, cost-effective and green method has been developed to prepare highly stable aqueous colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-EW) using the ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and ovomucoid of egg-white as reducing and capping agents accomplished under the irradiation of direct sunlight. Then, we evaluated the effects of freezing-drying (lyophilization) and freeze-thaw cycles on the stability of AgNPs-EW in aqueous solution under visual inspection, transmission electron microscopy, and absorbance spectroscopy. In addition, we studied the antibacterial activity against Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, carried out biocompatibility studies on chicken blood, and tested acute, chronic toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. The results suggest that AgNPs-EW did not aggregate upon freeze-thawing and lyophilization, thus exhibiting remarkable stability. The antibacterial activity results showed that the AgNPs-EW had the highest antibacterial activity, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgNPs-EW for E. Coli and S. typhimurium were 4 and 6 mg ml À1 , respectively. The biocompatibility study revealed that the AgNPs-EW did not induce any hemolytic effect or structural damage to the cell membranes of chicken erythrocytes up to a concentration of 12 mg ml À1. Similarly, no acute and chronic toxicity was observed on melanization, fecundity, hatchability, viability, and the duration of development in the 1 st generation of Drosophila melanogaster at the concentration range of 10 mg L À1 to 100 mg L À1 of AgNPs-EW, and all the flies completed their full developmental cycle. Therefore, the present study successfully demonstrated the green and sustainable preparation of non-toxic AgNPs-EW having good biocompatibility, enhanced colloidal stability, and antibacterial activity. Hence, the synthesized AgNPs-EW could be used for the development of an antimicrobial formulation for controlling microbial infection.
The sea buckthorn (SBT; Hippophae rhamnoides) in the family Elaeagnaceae is a deciduous shrub with a vast area of natural growth in temperate regions of the world, mainly in Mongolia, China, Tibet, Russia, Canada, India, Pakistan, and Nepal. The ancient Greeks noticed that horses fed with the leaves and new branches of SBT exhibited shiny hair and skin and a significant visible gain in weight. This resulted in the naming of the genus Hippophae (from hippo [horse] and phaos [shine]) (Singh 2005).The most common species of the genus Hippophae is rhamnoides, which is known by various names, such as Siberian pineapple, sand thorn, sea berry, and sallow thorn. In India the importance and widespread occurrence of SBT has been documented, pioneered by the author, over the past 25 years, in the cold deserts of Ladakh (State of Jammu and Kashmir) and in Lahaul and Spiti (H P), where it is known by many local names, such as Sastalulu, Shangti, Dhurchuk, Chumma, Tarwaa, Sirmaa, Chhurmak, and Leh berry. On September 23, 2015, a renowned Indian yoga guru, Baba Ram Deo of Patanjali Yogpeeth, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, named the plant Brahmaphal, in a transfer of technology function at the Defence Institute of High Altitude Research (DIHAR), Leh (Jammu and Kashmir), acknowledging the contribution of the author in finding this plant in Ladakh, an area known as a barren cold desert, and popularizing the plant in scientific and business communities in India. Hence, the Hindi name for SBT is also given as Brahmaphal. The author has seen it growing wild in other Indian Himalayan states such as Uttarakhand, Sikkim, West Bengal (Darjeeling hills), and Arunachal Pradesh. It mostly grows wild along river beds or wherever there are small water streams and even irrigation channels. Sea buckthorn is one of the future crops. The shrub has a remarkable lifespan of more than 100–150 years, and it has a number of eco-environmental and commercial benefits (Rana and Verma 2011).
Over the last few years, network management systems have increased exponentially in various dimensions such as size and complexity. In such systems, components are connected to each other for providing various services. However, a failure in a component may eventually affect other interlinked components. Therefore, the service interruption problem may occur in the network systems. One of the solutions to this problem is to generate an alarm, in order to detect the fault and its possible restoration. Moreover, the alarm is to be processed in real-time, to avoid unwanted service interruption. For this, many researchers have presented various algorithms to handle the alarms. Such methods are time-consuming which is a major drawback in fault management. To overcome this, here we have proposed a method comprising two novel algorithms, namely Alarm Coloring and Alarm Grouping. In Alarm Coloring algorithm, a color scheme is used in order to distinguish the alarms, and subsequently, those alarms are grouped on the basis of distinguished colors. The proposed method is extensively simulated and compared with the existing alarm grouping method(s).
Background Sleep deprivation (SD) leads to cognitive impairment. Neuroinflammation could be a significant contributing factor in the same. An increase in regional brain pro-inflammatory cytokines induces cognitive deficits, however, the magnitude of the effect under SD is not apparent. It is plausible that microglia activation could be involved in the SD-induced cognitive impairment by modulation of neuronal cell proliferation, differentiation, and brain-derived neuronal factor (BDNF) level. The present study aimed to evaluate the possible beneficial effect of minocycline in amelioration of spatial memory decline during SD by its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions. We scrutinized the effect of minocycline on the inflammatory cytokine levels associated with glial cells (microglia and astrocytes) activity and neurogenesis markers crucial for behavioral functions during SD. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 230–250 g were sleep deprived for 48 h using automated cage shaking apparatus. The spatial memory was tested using MWM apparatus immediately after completion of SD with and without minocycline. The animals were euthanized, blood was collected, and brain was extracted for neuroinflammation and neurogenesis studies. The set of experiments were also conducted with use of temozolomide, a neurogenesis blocker. ResultsMinocycline treatment increased the body weight, food intake, and spatial memory performance which declined during SD. It reduced the pro-inflammatory and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine levels in hippocampus and plasma and inhibited the reactive gliosis in the hippocampus evidenced by improved cell count, morphology, and immunoreactivity. Additionally, minocycline administration promoted neurogenesis at different stages: proliferation (BrdU, Ki-67), differentiation (DCX) cells and growth factor (BDNF). However, no significant change was observed in maturation (NeuN) during SD. In addition, molecules related to behavior, inflammation, and neurogenesis were shown to be more affected after temozolomide administration during SD, and changes were restored with minocycline treatment. We observed a significant correlation of neurogenesis with microglial activation, cytokine levels, and spatial memory during SD. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that the SD-induced decline in spatial memory, neuronal cells proliferation, differentiation, and BDNF level could be attributed to upregulation of neuroinflammatory molecules, and minocycline may be an effective intervention to counteract these changes. Graphical abstractMicroglial activation is involved in SD-induced changes in inflammatory molecules, neurogenesis, and spatial memory.Open image in new window
Advances in genetic sequencing of fungal genomes have made vast genetic resources available for improvement of these economically important organisms. For this various functional genomics tools like gene cloning, transformation, and mutations have been developed and are being used. Gene function can be studied both by forward genetics and reverse genetics. Mutant generation and characterization have been an exceptional tools for studying the role of specific gene in the development of fungi. In this chapter, various molecular techniques which can be utilized for controlling the expression of specific genes in fungi are described. For this we need to insert external DNA molecules in fungal cells through genetic transformation followed by the analysis of gene function. This chapter also focuses on the novel strategies for gene-editing techniques such as ZFNs and TALENs which can also be used to elucidate the functions of genes. These molecular tools for targeting gene expression have greatly enhanced the knowledge of fungal genes functions.
Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) is one of the most delicious fruits fetching high values in the market, and the area under its cultivation has increased manyfolds. It is generally multiplied by vegetative propagation method, and breeding is being done by conventional and molecular marker-assisted methods to achieve the quality improvement. There are various hybrids and cultivars developed conventionally by plant breeders in litchi. But due to laborious process, linkage drag, low fertility, longer flowering and fruiting time and high levels of heterozygosity, these conventional methods haven’t used to its potential in litchi. Plant genetic transformation can be a great tool in the modern molecular breeding of crops. It helps in transfer genes between unrelated plants resulting in genetically modified crop species with better agronomical traits, better nutritional values, disease resistance, insect tolerance and other desirable characteristics. Genetic transformation in plants is synergistic to conventional plant breeding technologies. By using this, the breeders can introduce novel genes irrespective of species barrier and can create phenotypes with desired characters. Over the last decade, some remarkable achievements have been made in the field of development of efficient transformation methods in field crops. Also in litchi genetic engineering technique can be used to introduce new traits in to popular genotypes, which can result into new cultivars with desirable traits. In this chapter we review the transformation methods which are being used or can be used for genetic improvement in litchi.
Electron beam welding, though considered a sophisticated welding process, still requires the operator to first carry out several trial welds to find the right combination of welding parameters based on intuition and experience. This archaic method is often unreliable, leading to unproductive manufacturing lead time, man hours, quality control tests, and material wastage. The current study eliminates this “trial and error” method by providing a reliable model which can predict the right combination of weld parameters to achieve a high-quality weld. Beads on plate welds were carried out on AISI 304 stainless steel plates using a low-kilovolt electron beam welding (EBW) machine. A model that can predict weld bead geometry and provide optimized output for minimum weld area condition without compromising on weld quality was developed. Experimental data were collected as per full factorial design of experiments, and the levels for each input parameter were established through pilot experiments. A multivariate regression analysis has been conducted to establish a relationship between four weld input parameters (three levels each) and four weld bead responses. Response surface methodology (RSM) has been used to study the interrelationship between input parameters and their effect on each response variable. Further, minimization of weld cross-sectional area was done using genetic algorithm for maximum penetration and minimum weld area condition. The optimized mathematical model convincingly establishes that the focusing current is a significant input parameter with very high influence over the weld bead geometry. Extensive material characterization and mechanical tests have been carried out to validate the regressed input-output relationship and the optimized mathematical model.
A facile and sensitive enzyme based electrochemical transducer has been fabricated for the detection of organophosporus compounds. The enzyme, acetylcholinesterase, was covalently immobilized on gold nanoparticles deposited electrochemically over screen printed carbon working electrode. The electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and electrochemical methods. The enzyme-substrate reactions and sensing studies were carried out at room temperature by cyclic voltammetry. The developed biosensor gave optimum response within 25 sec. for a substrate (acetylthiocholine) concentration of 0.0699 mM at pH. The electrode showed a linear response in the range between 0.2 and 1 ppb, and the detection limit was determined to be 0.6 ppb. Moreover the biosensor exhibited good reusability and stability thus, making it a promising tool for on-field detection of organophosphorus compounds.
Medical care generally relies on the face-to-face encounter between patients and doctors. In places where face-to-face encounters are not possible, telemedicine technologies are relied upon to link patients to specialist doctors for consultation and to obtain opinion. The telemedicine technologies provide improved health care to the underprivileged in inaccessible areas at reduced cost. Telemedicine also improve quality of health care and more importantly reduce the isolation of specialists, nurses and allied health professionals. This review papers discusses the telemedicine technologies and its history, the communications technologies that are being used. The paper also covers the advantages and benefits of telemedicine. Also the recent advances that are going on in telemedicine in the areas of m-health, Wearable Physiological Monitoring System (WPMS), Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN). Finally, the paper concludes with some of the drawbacks or issues of telemedicine technologies.
We consider the problem of enumerating irreducible transformation shift registers. We give an asymptotic formula for the number of irreducible transformation shift registers in some special cases. Moreover, we derive a short proof for the exact number of irreducible transformation shift registers of order two using a recent generalization of a theorem of Carlitz.
Hemophilia refers to a group of bleeding disorders in which there is a deficiency of one of the factors necessary for coagulation of the blood. Susceptibility to joint hemorrhage in persons with Hemophilia suggests that the routine assessment of joint health is an important aspect of clinical management and outcome studies assessing the efficacy of treatment. This prospective study was conducted to study joint health status in Hemophilia patients and draw their joint disability score by using Hemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS). Out of total 56 cases 51 (91.07 %) cases were diagnosed as hemophilia A while 5 cases (8.92 %) were diagnosed as hemophilia B. According to their factor level 44 % cases had severe 36 % had moderate and 20 % had mild disease. Knee joint was the predominant joint affected by hemarthrosis in 67.85 % cases followed by ankle joint (51.7 %) elbow joint (35.7 %), hip joint (12.5 %), shoulder joint (5.3 %) and proximal metacarpophalangeal joint (1.78 %).Out of total 37.5 % patients of hemophilia had developed target joint. Knee joint was the predominant target joint in 28.57 % cases and ankle joint was the target joint in 8.92 % cases. Maximum number of patients (40.47 %) had HJHS score of zero. The mean HJHS score was 6.78 ± 9.04. HJHS score showing significant positive correlation with age of patient (p < 0.0001). Most risky period and most aggravating development of hemophilic joint damage starts from 7 years of age. Therefore, treatment decisions, such as starting prophylaxis, should be tailored according to bleeding pattern and age of patients rather than based on the clotting factor activity levels.
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