This systematic literature review examines the relationship between secondary traumatic stress (STS) and compassion satisfaction (CS) to identify the state of the science and directions for future research. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis framework was used to guide the identification and evaluation of studies. Eight academic databases were systematically searched between July and December of 2022 to identify articles and dissertations published in English or Hebrew between 2000 and 2022. Studies were considered for inclusion if they examined the relationship between STS and CS and met an established quality threshold. If studies used a mixed methods approach, only quantitative results were included in the review. The search strategy yielded 537 studies with 33 included in the final review. Findings of this review suggest experiences of high levels of STS can coexist with high levels of CS indicating that people can gain satisfaction from their work and experience STS. Most studies examined the relationship between STS and CS using bivariate analyses with variability found in the direction of the relationship. This variability was also found in multivariate studies included in this review. These findings suggest the need for interventions to address both STS and CS with attention paid to the potential negative impact of emotional contagion and the vulnerability of younger female practitioners. Future research should pay attention to the rigor of the analysis of STS and CS and the exploration of mediating or moderating mechanisms between these constructs.
With this paper, we aim to look into the issue of identities among the immigrant population living in the West using an integrative multimodal approach. Although this topic has been in fashion for quite some time, most studies analyze either the political or mass-media discourse related to immigrants or reflect on how immigrants see themselves, on the basis of textual analysis of immigrants’ narratives and interviews. Our study takes a different approach and analyzes a video recorded and published on YouTube, focusing not only on the text but also on by analyzing non-verbal manifestations of changing positions on the part of the narrator. In particular, we examine identities/positions that the main protagonist, a Moroccan immigrant named Omar, assumes in the course of the story. We show how one particular gesture (pointing), coupled with other verbal and non-verbal markers, can signal a change of identity/position.
Preparing special education preservice teachers (PTs) to serve students with autism includes understanding theoretical foundations of teaching strategies and developing competency in applying the resulting knowledge and strategies within teaching settings. The current pilot study explored the Internet-Based Parent-implemented Communication Strategies (i-PiCS) program, targeting evidence-based teaching practices, as an alternative training method in an autism field-experience course conducted online during the COVID-19 lockdown. The purpose of the pilot study was to explore changes in PTs’ knowledge, confidence, and implementation of naturalistic communication teaching strategies in a pre- and postfield-experience course. The participants were nine females enrolled in a 3rd-year special education teacher preparation program. A multimethod assessment was utilized, including self-rating questions, knowledge quizzes, video-model analysis, and videotaped teaching simulations. Quantitative data were graphically displayed and compared. Teaching simulations were analyzed qualitatively. The results showed that all PTs improved the identification of instructional steps. Self-rating of knowledge and confidence level improved as well. Five PTs improved the accuracy of evaluating the instructional steps, albeit the level of fidelity of implementation improved only mildly. We conclude that i-PiCS could be useful for training PTs in a special education program. We discuss the limitations of the current application of i-PiCS and the appropriate implementation modalities that could be further explored.
A major goal of regenerative medicine of the central nervous system is to accelerate the regeneration of nerve tissue, where astrocytes, despite their positive and negative roles, play a critical role. Thus, scaffolds capable of producing astrocytes from neural precursor cells (NPCs) are most desirable. Our study shows that NPCs are converted into reactive astrocytes upon cultivation on coralline-derived calcium carbonate coated with poly-D-lysine (PDL-CS). As shown via nuclei staining, the adhesion of neurospheres containing hundreds of hippocampal neural cells to PDL-CS resulted in disaggregation of the cell cluster as well as the radial migration of dozens of cells away from the neurosphere core. Migrating cells per neurosphere averaged 100 on PDL-CS, significantly higher than on uncoated CS (28), PDL-coated glass (65), or uncoated glass (20). After 3 days of culture on PDL-CS, cell migration plateaued and remained stable for four more days. In addition, NPCs expressing nestin underwent continuous morphological changes from round to spiky, extending and elongating their processes, resembling activated astrocytes. The extension of the process increased continuously during the maturation of the culture and doubled after 7 days compared to day 1, whereas bifurcation increased by twofold during the first 3 days before plateauing. In addition, nestin positive cells’ shape, measured through the opposite circularity level correlation, decreased approximately twofold after three days, indicating spiky transformation. Moreover, nestin-positive cells co-expressing GFAP increased by 2.2 from day 1 to 7, reaching 40% of the NPC population on day 7. In this way, PDL-CS promotes NPC differentiation into reactive astrocytes, which could accelerate the repair of neural tissue.
This paper describes and analyzes three cases to show the impact that curiosity-driven (CD) discourse based on self-video can have on the professional awareness and noticing skills of mathematics teachers and instructors of mathematics teachers. The findings indicate that CD discourse raises awareness of heretofore unnoticed events in the lesson, and improves the mathematical and pedagogical knowledge, teaching skills, and efficacy of teachers and instructors. This study combines peda-gogical content knowledge (PCK) of teachers with Mason's "levels of awareness" model in studying, from an epistemological point of view, the contribution that CD discourse makes to the growth of professional awareness in mathematics teachers and instructors. Thus, this study contributes to the theoretical and practical understanding of the growth of mathematics teachers as teachers and as teacher instructors, in their professional awareness, noticing skills, and attention shifting. Link to the paper: https://rdcu.be/dm6sH
Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by a gradual destruction of insulin-producing β-cells in the endocrine pancreas due to innate and specific immune responses, leading to impaired glucose homeostasis. T1D patients usually require regular insulin injections after meals to maintain normal serum glucose levels. In severe cases, pancreas or Langerhans islet transplantation can assist in reaching a sufficient β-mass to normalize glucose homeostasis. The latter procedure is limited because of low donor availability, high islet loss, and immune rejection. There is still a need to develop new technologies to improve islet survival and implantation and to keep the islets functional. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent non-hematopoietic progenitor cells with high plasticity that can support human pancreatic islet function both in vitro and in vivo and islet co-transplantation with MSCs is more effective than islet transplantation alone in attenuating diabetes progression. The beneficial effect of MSCs on islet function is due to a combined effect on angiogenesis, suppression of immune responses, and secretion of growth factors essential for islet survival and function. In this review, various aspects of MSCs related to islet function and diabetes are described.
As part of an effort to establish a national identity within the education sector, the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) revised its 2018/2019 textbooks. This study seeks to understand the motivation behind the revisions, focusing on how the new content depict ‘the self’ and ‘the other’. Through our analysis, it was discovered that the textbooks should be seen as an extension of the Palestinian struggle for nation‐building and self‐determination. The PNA's strategy to curricula development represents a departure from the previous Oslo framework with a focus on historical Palestine and defining ‘the other’ on their own terms.
We investigated the viability of spectral filters as an adjunctive treatment for adults with both ADHD and visual processing difficulties. Fifty-nine adults (age 18-50), diagnosed with both ADHD and visual stress received either spectral filters (n = 39) or no intervention (n = 20) to address visual processing difficulties. We administered the MOXO d-CPT, a computer based continuous performance test, before the intervention and one hour after the intervention to assess any short-term change in the participants' attention profile. We used the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) before and 3-6 months after the intervention to assess any long-term intervention impact after 3-6 months. The intervention group had significant short- and long-term improvements in overall attention compared to the control group (X2(1, N = 59) = 20.10, p < .001). On the DSM-5, 49% of participants with short term and 64% with long-term intervention no longer met criteria for an ADHD diagnosis. Findings suggest that spectral filters may be an adjunctive treatment for many adults suffering from perceptually-based attention issues common to visual stress and ADHD.
Purpose: This study examines the impact of academic institutions on changes to students’ awareness and habits regarding a healthy lifestyle, specifically through nutrition and physical exercise, following the Covid-19 pandemic. Design and subjects: In May 2020, quantitative online questionnaires were completed by 266 pre-service teachers (83.5% female), aged 19–63, who were studying at an academic institution in Israel. Setting: The questionnaire, which included health-related 15 items, as well as a number of demographic questions, was distributed via social media, academic mailing lists, and the researchers’ colleagues. Methods: The respondents were asked to provide socio-demographic data and information regarding their health-related habits, such as smoking and exercising, at two timepoints: prior to the Covid-19 pandemic and during the first lockdown in Israel (March–May 2020). Analysis: Statistical analysis included paired t-tests, Wilcoxon and McNemar tests, Pearsons’s correlations, and hierarchical regressions. Results: The academic institution’s promoting of a healthy lifestyle, as perceived by students, was found to contribute to the explained variance (EPV) of their maintaining a healthy lifestyle, prior to and during the Covid-19 pandemic (R2 = 9.4%, p < .001and R2 = 2.4%, p = 0.009, respectively), beyond the respondents’ demographic characteristics. Moreover, correlations were found between the institution’s promoting of a healthy lifestyle at both timepoints. Respondents who perceived their institution as promoting a healthy lifestyle prior to the pandemic maintained healthier lifestyles than their peers; healthier lifestyles were also maintained by respondents who were unmarried, non-smokers, more educated, and watched less television. Finally, the institution’s promoting of a healthy lifestyle prior to the pandemic significantly contributed to the students’ maintaining a healthy lifestyle and healthy nutrition during the pandemic. Conclusion: The findings of this study highlight the impact of academic institutions on maintaining healthy lifestyles, even in times of crises and emergencies, thereby contributing to public health.
The vast majority of studies on Buṭrus al-Bustānī (1819–83), a leading intellectual of the Arab Nahḍa, have focused on his intellectual “transitions” from the Maronite church to Protestantism and then to various secular pursuits, such as fostering a Syrian national identity, the separation of religion and politics, and supporting a political culture based on equal rights and religious ecumenism. The present article contends that the extant literature confers undue precedence to the secular over the religious in Bustānī’s intellectual biography. A balanced portrayal requires giving due weight to his engagement with religious matters, such as: a defense of Protestantism as the sole true faith; the divine character, textual integrity, and veracity of the Bible; and the rejection of Darwinism’s contradiction of aspects of his faith. The study also elucidates his explicit prejudices against Catholicism and Islam that were concomitant with his defense of freedom of conscience and support for revival of classical Arabic culture. The study shows that Bustānī strove to balance his loyalties to multiple intellectual orientations, creating tension within his own thought.
Lnd multilingual backgrounds. This also generally characterises preparation programmes that have been developed to prepare elementary and secondary school language teachers for increasingly globalised, pluralistic, interconnected classrooms. Despite variations, there is value in attempting to identify common denominators in research related to the preparation of such teachers. This paper surveys 20 years of research published in journals focusing on language learning and teaching. Content analysis and thematic analysis was performed to generate salient categories related to language teacher preparation, induction and retention. Five key themes emerged: reflective practice and its role in preparation programmes and induction; ongoing formal and informal support in the early years of teaching; teachers’ beliefs and their identity; pedagogical and content knowledge; and the sociocultural context of teaching. Despite the focus on journals devoted to language learning and teaching, findings overwhelmingly related to teacher preparation in general. We discuss these findings and then offer suggestions specifically for school L2 language teacher preparation, induction and retention with an emphasis on early career teachers. Such recommendations can guide language teacher preparation programmes as well as the professional trajectory of teachers in the field, ultimately increasing the chances of retention in the long term.
DESCRIPTION Recent policy documents of K-12 education suggest two organizing principles for an integrated curriculum: Disciplinary Core Ideas (DCIs) that define the main principles and corresponding concepts of a discipline, and Crosscutting Concepts (CCCs) that promote connections between the seemingly disparate scientific topics. This chapter employs a content-oriented perspective to examine these two organizing principles from the standpoint of physics education. First, we address the DCI of electrostatic interactions, traditionally considered “bound” to a physics context and rarely activated by learners in other domains, to show how to make a physics DCI more relevant to other disciplines. Second, we examine how introducing the concept of energy using a traditional physics definition may prevent its use as a CCC and suggest that a calorimetric definition is more likely to serve as a bridge between the meaning of energy in physics and in other disciplines. Finally, we discuss how an integrated curriculum can reshape the traditional focus of physics teaching and its epistemic goals. We suggest that physics taught in an integrated curriculum can yield a richer account of physics-based reasoning that is aligned with the current practice of physicists that study complex systems in other disciplines such as biology or chemistry.
Teletherapy, namely, therapy that uses technology for communication between patients and therapists, is challenged by the impersonal nature of remote and digital communication. Using Merleau-Ponty's theoretical concept of intercorporeality, which refers to the perceived reciprocity between two people's bodies during communication, this article aims to elaborate on spiritual caregivers' experience of interacting with patients during teletherapy. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with 15 Israeli spiritual caregivers who use various forms of teletherapy (Zoom, FaceTime, phone calls, WhatsApp messages, etc.). Interviewees emphasized their physical presence with the patient as a main principle in spiritual care. They indicated the involvement of nearly all senses in physical presence therapy, which allows for joint attention and compassionate presence. When making use of various communication technologies in teletherapy, they reported the involvement of fewer senses. The more senses involved in the session and the clearer it is that space and time are shared by both caregiver and patient, the stronger the caregiver's presence with the patient. Interviewees experienced teletherapy as eroding the multisensory joint attention and intercorporeality and, hence, the quality of care. This article points at the advantages of teletherapy for therapists in general and spiritual caregivers in particular but claims, nonetheless, that it challenges the main principles of therapy. Joint attention in therapy is, fundamentally, a multisensory phenomenon that may be understood as intercorporeality. Our use of the notion of intercorporeality sheds light on the reduction of the senses involved in remote interpersonal communication and its impact on care and, more generally, the interpersonal communication experienced during telemedicine. This article's findings may also contribute to the field of cyberpsychology and to therapists engaged in telepsychology.
This article is a response to Backman and Barker’s Re-thinking Pedagogical Content Knowledge for Physical Education Teachers-Implications for Physical Education Teacher Education. It affords us an opportunity to correct their misrepresentation of our research. Multiple perspectives on teaching and teacher education are necessary to advance the field because they provide different lenses to help us understand a particular phenomenon. However, there is a critical difference between interpretation and misrepresentation. Interpretation is the right due to all researchers to draw inferences. Misrepresentation, in contrast, is the attributing of positions and outcomes that are not supported by the empirical record. In making their case for phronesis in a 2020 publication, Backman and Barker used our research as the basis for their critique and in doing so, they misrepresented our body of research as well as the epistemology of Radical Behaviorism. We identify misrepresentations in their paper and address them using the empirical record.
In this response, we address issues they raised in their paper. We tackle the misrepresentation of our research and findings by further clarifying the applied behavior analytic framework underpinning our intervention studies; emphasize the substantial effects of improving the content knowledge of teachers; refute ideological positioning based on scholarly one-upmanship; and elaborate on the scientific growth of our understanding of CCK.
Corpora reveal authentic language use in different contexts and are, therefore, indispensable for L2 vocabulary teaching. Considering the real needs of language teachers, this chapter shows how corpus tools can be employed in the classroom to enhance vocabulary teaching, firstly with regard to single words, their frequency and use, and secondly in relation to multi-word units or chunks. The chapter encourages teachers to consult frequency-based lists of both single words and multi-word items, and to step into the shoes of linguistic researchers by trying out a number of corpus tools and techniques. The suggestions presented in the chapter can be used by both teachers for lesson preparation and students themselves as part of classroom activities.
The COVID-19 crisis has forced education systems around the world to switch hurriedly from learning in class to learning via online technology. One of the common platforms worldwide for teaching online was zoom. Working under uncertain conditions and facing rapid changes are characteristics of the twenty-first century. Coping adaptively with these challenges requires teachers to apply twenty-first century skills such as creativity and metacognition in their teaching. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether teachers integrate metacognition and creativity in their online lessons more than in classroom instruction. To examine the research question, we analyzed 50 lesson reports (25 for each learning environment) using a mixed-method design model. We used a performance assessment that was based on a creativity metacognitive teaching reports index. Teachers reported greater use of the 'debugging' metacognitive component in online lessons than in classroom lessons. Also, an online environment could provide a suitable platform for promoting students' learning process and encourage teachers to be more creative in terms of diversifying their teaching methods and developing student’s creativity. However, the originality component of creativity was less pronounced in online lesson reports. These results can contribute to the field of blended learning and to the literature dealing with the adaptation of teaching to learning environments in the twenty-first century in general and during pandemics in particular.
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