Dav Institute of Engineering and Technology
Recent publications
The rapid developments in the electronics industry and advancements in semiconductor fabrication techniques brings a unique emerging technology into the light called E-textiles or smart textiles. It is an integration of soft electronic components including smart sensors, controllers, batteries, antenna, and like-wise on the wearable textile or clothing. Thanks to the flexible soft circuitry and sensors that are placed very close to the body, E-textiles can precisely monitor the physiological or vital signals of the user. The soft circuitry is embedded inside the user’s clothing and it is designed to monitor the wearer (user) activity by using sensors but without causing any discomfort to the wearer. Similarly, E-textiles can be used in automobiles to display a digital instrument cluster and other important information on the dashboard textile cover or can be used to warm the vehicle seats in cold temperatures. Further, E-textiles has a quite high scope in the decoration, sports and fashion designing industry. However, despite having such a high potential—E-textile technology is still undervalued and quite a little research conducted in this field. This paper aims to extract, analyse and provide a comparative study of research and related work done in the E-textile technology up to now as well as to provide a comparative study of manufacturing techniques, components, and controllers used in E-textiles. In addition, the application areas are proposed, where E-textile can be utilized. At the last, whitespace or area of interest recommended where further research can be focused.
Fifth‐generation wireless networks (5G) are defined to meet the requirements of high data rates for thousands of users, synchronized connections for vast wireless sensor networks, improved coverage area, efficient signal processing, low latency and enhanced network spectrum as compared to the fourth‐generation wireless networks (4G). These networks were initially envisioned for efficient and fast mobile networks along with converged fiber‐wireless networks. However, with the explosion of smart devices and emerging multimedia applications the need to roll out 5G networks to meet the demands both at the consumer and business end became necessary. Therefore, to create a network with faster speed, the 5G networks have initiated a new basis for communication, which consists of the Internet of Things (IoT) and Machine‐to‐Machine communication (M2M). The IoT and M2M have been able to overcome the major limitations of 5G to initiate multiple‐hop networks, making available high data rates to peers between several base stations and thereby reducing costs and initiating reliable security standards. Such a major deviation from the conventional design to involve large networks to support massive access by machine‐type devices (MTDs) sets special technical challenges for M2M. This chapter offers an outline of the main issues raised by the M2M vision along with a survey of the common approaches proposed in the literature to enable the coexistence of M2M devices and the challenges which need to be investigated.
The present paper explores the terahertz (THz) generation by the interaction of obliquely incident laser beams with the array of vertically aligned anharmonic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) acting as dipole antennas. In the scheme, anharmonicity arises due to the nonlinear variation of restoration force on the various electrons of CNTs and it plays a key role in the enhancement of THz generation. The anharmonic CNTs help in broadening the resonance peak, which paves the way for the enhancement of the normalized THz amplitude. The laser beams incident obliquely on the close-packed array of vertically aligned anharmonic CNTs grown over the glass substrate and set oscillations in the CNTs so that each CNT act as the oscillatory dipole to generate THz radiation. The THz electric field shows enhancement at surface plasmon resonance frequency ω=ωp0.5(1+β)/ϵr, where β is the characteristic parameter of CNTs, ϵr is the relative permittivity of lattice and ωp is the plasma frequency. This scheme is quite suitable to generate THz radiations in the milliwatt range of optimized values of the laser and CNTs parameters. We also explore the impact of polarization, S-parameter, critical angle, and length-matching effects of CNT antennas on the THz generation.
An analytical model of second harmonic generation (SHG) from amplitude modulated laser irradiated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) implanted in silica substrate is presented. In the interaction of an intense amplitude modulated laser with an array of magnetized anharmonic CNTs, a force is exerted on the electrons of CNTs due to the electric field of the laser. The exerted force causes the displacement of the electrons which is of the order of the radius of CNTs due to their nanoscale dimensions. In turn, the restoring force of the electrons becomes a nonlinear function of the displacement and results in anharmonicity. The CNTs are magnetized by applying the magnetic field perpendicularly to the beam propagation direction. The anharmonicity in CNTs broadens the plasmon resonance. The effects of the amplitude modulated parameter and CNTs parameters on the amplitude of the second harmonic are analyzed. The magnetic field also helps to enhance the power of generated second harmonic.
Reducing the total, differential settlement and increasing adequate bearing capacity are the two basic requirements for the construction of high-rise buildings, bridges, nuclear power reactors and offshore rigs on soft soil. They cover an immense area all along the coastal zones in India and other parts of the world. This coastline contains marine soft silt and cohesive soils and a higher level of the water table. These areas’ major structure foundations are built on a piled-raft foundation. Stone columns (SC) are very widely used for widespread loads, circular tanks, embankments and fills. The combination of piles with SCs may give an effective solution to resist the total and differential settlements. The performances of raft supported by the composite system of the pile—SCs are investigated using three-dimensional analyses. Effects of material properties of SCs, the tensile strength of geotextile, area replacement ratio and raft thickness have been examined. Results show that strengthening the soft clay soil with SCs and geosynthetic encased stone columns (GESC) were effective in enhancing the bearing capacity of the raft and reducing the total and differential settlement of the composite column supported raft foundation.
Due to overexploitation of renewable resources, we have observed that some species are already extinct. So, the time demands conservation, reproduction and optimal utilization of these resources and the study of such problems. In this paper, a delayed stage-structured self-dependent two compartment (compartment-I contains immature fishes and compartment-II contains mature fishes) commercial fishery model with impulsive harvesting is proposed and analyzed mathematically as well as numerically. The aim is to manage the fishery resource system and that to extract maximum profit without the species become extinct. The proposed system is proved to have positive periodic solutions which are bounded, locally stable and permanent with certain conditions. Then by using optimal impulsive harvesting theory, the optimal harvesting time and optimal harvesting level have been obtained. At last, numerical simulation has been done to support the analytic results, along with comparative plots drawn for different values of harvesting effort E, maturation delay τ\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\tau $$\end{document} and impulsive period T.
The most critical feature of current energy management systems is ORPD, which is used to maintain safe and reliable working conditions for power networks. Currently, due to their economic and technological advantages, HVDC transmission systems are commonly used in modern electrical power systems. The incorporation of DC link introduces more complexity in ORPD computation. Therefore, an attempt is made to optimally place and size the UPFC. In the transmission network, the UPFC is an efficient multipurpose FACTS controller for handling the reactive as well as the physical power individually in a rapid manner. This paper plans to develop a new hybrid approach referred as Backtraping Assisted Elephant Herding Optimization (BAEHO), to address the RPD issues in a power system under unbalanced conditions. The introduced hybridized approach further determines the optimal position and size for placing the UPFC based on the constraints like the LSI, VDI, ATC, and C UPFC. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is proved for its performance in maintaining a better trade-off among multiple objectives, even under overloading conditions.
With the propelling high capacity demands, long band (L-Band) passive optical networks (PONs) are getting extra consideration nowadays and fault detection/Monitoring is becoming crucial because of high capacity PONs. Fault detection using reflective Fiber Bragg gratings and an additional amplified spontaneous noise (ASEN) source in conventional band (C-Band) are widely reported. However, ASEN and transmitter signals in the same wavelength band cause interference and incorporation of additional ASEN sources increases overall cost. Therefore, an economical, complexity reduced fault detection system is required in PONs. In this work, a fault detection/monitoring system is proposed for L-Band PON using C-Band ASEN from inline erbium doped fiber amplifier and dual purpose FBG i.e. (1) ASEN reflection for fault monitoring and (2) Pulse width reduction. A 4 × 10 Gbps L-Band PON is investigated over 40 km feeder fiber (FF) which serve 32 optical network units (ONUs)/λ at different input powers, PWB, laser linewidths, chirping profiles of FBG in terms of reflective power of FBGs, eye opening factor, correct bit reception rate and pulse width reduction efficiency (PWRE) respectively. Reflective power from FBG and correct bit reception rate, decrease with the increase in input power and laser linewidth respectively. Moreover, FBG after FF provide PWRE of 60%, 75.8%, 73.06%, 72.41% and 65.5% in case of no chirping, liner, quadratic, square root and cube root respectively. Proposed system can detect fault without affecting data rate in optical distribution network and ONU, also compensate PWB effects.
In this paper, we have provided a theoretical analysis on enhanced terahertz (THz) generation by beating two amplitude-modulated laser beams in the collisional plasma under the effect of static electric and magnetic fields. Two amplitude-modulated laser beams of slightly different frequencies (ω1,ω2) with wavenumbers (k1,k2) are propagating along the same direction under the effect of these fields. The coupling between the various nonlinear terms like the nonlinear velocity and electron density in the collisional plasma results in the THz generation. The electric field, magnetic field, and propagation direction of lasers are mutually perpendicular to each other. The applied static magnetic and electric fields assist to enhance the nonlinear current density and normalized THz amplitude. The normalized THz amplitude shows notable enhancement with the increase of applied static electric and magnetic fields. This scheme can be employed to generate and detect the THz radiations for making interesting astronomical observations.
We proposed an alternative scheme for the generation of terahertz (THz) radiation by using the rectangular array of horizontally aligned hollow anharmonic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) embedded on the base of the dielectric surface. Two transversely amplitude-modulated filamented laser beams interact with this array of CNTs in the presence of static D.C. electric and magnetic fields acting mutually perpendicular to each other as well as to the direction of propagation of the laser beam. Due to the non-uniform density of electrons in CNTs, the restoration force on the different electrons is different and this results in anharmonicity. This anharmonicity broadens the resonance peak. The laser beams also, exert space periodic ponderomotive force and beat frequency ponderomotive force on the electrons of CNTs. Space periodic ponderomotive force is well balanced by the pressure gradient force to form a transverse density ripple. Nonlinear coupling between D.C. drift velocity of electrons and electron density in the plasma of CNTs results in enhancement in the generation of THz radiation. We have found that the normalized THz amplitude increases significantly with the increase of applied electric field from10kV/cm to 20kV/cm and magnetic field from11.50kG to 24.50kG.
The single-board computer (SBC) is a compact, powerful and cost-effective system on chip (SOC) that can perform all complex tasks that may be executed by the desktop computer. Further, with the development of the SBCs having a powerful processor and high RAM support–they are already deployed in many applications such as in agriculture, home security, automation, drones, unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) and like-wise. However, each SBC has a unique capability and therefore some SBC may perform better than others depending upon the application. Further, some SBC has high processing power but they are either costly or support fewer I/O pins. Similarly, some SBC are cost-effective, has a high number of I/O pins but they have quite less processing power for executing complex instructions and tasks. In addition, for some SBC there is no dedicated integrated development environment (IDE) available that can be used to program SBC according to the user-specific need. Due to these above-mentioned problems, the user has to either invest in the high processing power SBC (having high price) but compromise with less I/O pins or invest in the SBC (having low price) that has the high number of I/O pins but compromise with low processing power (although there are some SBCs available in the market that has high processing power along with the high number of I/O pins. But they are available at a quite high price so we are not considering these SBCs). In both cases, the user is not able to integrate intelligent high processing sensors and equip the system in which SBC is used with new features over time. To over this problem, we are introducing a smart and highly intelligent hybrid implementation of Raspberry pi model 3b+ with Arduino UNO board for controlling UGV. During testing, we have found that our developed hybrid SBC system for UGV work quite impressively. The CPU utilization and CPU temperature readings of the hybrid system are noted while performing various complex tasks on the UGV. Further during the evaluation process, it is observed that UGV consumed a maximum of 80% of system CPU utilization to perform all the allocated tasks efficiently. The rest 20% of the CPU usage as well as some of the GPIO pins of Raspberry pi are reserved and can be used to implement various complex applications in the UGV based on the user requirement.
Objective Privacy in VANETs commands the use of short-lived pseudonyms, since the nodes are very mobile. It results in weighty computational overheads during secure communication between vehicles, which could place the safety of people and the vehicles under risk. To overcome such a limitation, we are making use of the validation approach of pseudonyms based on Bloom Filter, which provides less computational overheads compared to other authentication procedures. A complete end-to-end system is developed in three phases: authorization, clustering, encryption, and decryption phase, to establish secure transmission of data in VANETs Methods Authorization phase makes use of Bloom’s Filter authentication based on the pseudonym scheme. Based on the distributed parameters related to vehicles, clusters of vehicles are created to save power and bandwidth in communications. These clusters are chained to the next cluster with the help of the cluster head to share the information. First, only authenticated vehicles that are a regular traveler on the road segment are allowed to become part of the cluster. SMBF ensures that any vehicle which is not a frequent traveler on the given road segment is not taking part in the communication process. Clustering is used to ensure the speed of communication. Results and Conclusion The results of the proposed scheme are compared with other state-of-art techniques in VANETs and the analysis indicates that the requirements of storage and computational processing are reduced by 28%, which in turn results in the decrease in the cost of communication.
Chimp optimization algorithm (ChoA) has a wholesome attitude roused by chimp’s amazing thinking and hunting ability with a sensual movement for finding the optimal solution in the global search space. Classical Chimps optimizer algorithm has poor convergence and has problem to stuck into local minima for high-dimensional problems. This research focuses on the improved variants of the chimp optimizer algorithm and named as Boosted chimp optimizer algorithms. In one of the proposed variants, the existing chimp optimizer algorithm has been combined with SHO algorithm to improve the exploration phase of the existing chimp optimizer and named as IChoA-SHO and other variant is proposed to improve the exploitation search capability of the existing ChoA. The testing and validation of the proposed optimizer has been done for various standard benchmarks and Non-convex, Non-linear, and typical engineering design problems. The proposed variants have been evaluated for seven standard uni-modal benchmark functions, six standard multi-modal benchmark functions, ten standard fixed-dimension benchmark functions, and 11 types of multidisciplinary engineering design problems. The outcomes of this method have been compared with other existing optimization methods considering convergence speed as well as for searching local and global optimal solutions. The testing results show the better performance of the proposed methods excel than the other existing optimization methods.
The conventional power system is transforming into a new, modern, and digital power system. Integration of Internet of Things (IoT) and machine learning in smart grid improves power system entities’ overall performance like load forecasting, data acquisition, fault analysis and system security, etc. Smart grid (SG) takes good decisions according to the requirement, faults, and resolutions to organize power and maximize electrical energy usage. These decisions increase the power and regulation of the grid by keeping stability between power generation and consumption. This paper attempts to focus on IoT and machine learning in the smart grid that help smart grids in the decision-making process. IoT-integrated network system is prone to cyber-attacks and network threat, which needs to be adequately addressed in the near future.
The present work is to strengthen the low density, low consolidation, and low load-carrying capacity and higher settlement of industrial solid waste fills (ash). The current research work is on the hybrid confined (HC) stone columns (SC’s) in ash fills. The experimental and numerical investigation was carried out on various encased and hybrid confined SC’s. The HC SC’s increasing stiffness’s of geotextile and geogrids and observed the effect of applied pressure–settlement, lateral bulging, and reduction in lateral stresses are studied. The consolidation studies conducted on embankment supported by the various encased stone columns and calculated the amount of pore water pressure generated and dissipated degree of consolidation and settlement with time. This HC system can be suggested for reinforcing the loose decomposed organic soils like peat ground and strengthening the ash dykes to increase the slope of the embankments.
In this novel scheme of terahertz (THz) generation, the effect of cross-focusing of Gaussian laser beams in the array of vertically aligned anharmonic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been studied. The static magnetic field is applied transverse to the axis of CNTs to magnetize the CNTs. The nonlinearity in the system arises due to the ponderomotive force exerted by the laser beams on the electrons of CNTs. The plasma in the CNTs rearranges itself due to this ponderomotive nonlinearity, which gives rise to the cross-focusing of both laser beams. The nonlinear current at THz frequency appears in the array of CNTs on account of the ponderomotive nonlinearity and anharmonicity of the system. The anharmonicity plays a pivotal role in the enhancement of THz generation. The normalized amplitude of THz radiation shows a notable enhancement with the increase of the externally applied static magnetic field 90kG to330kG, dimensions of CNTs, and inter-tube separation. The cross-focusing of two laser beams in the magnetized collisional plasma makes a significant enhancement in the THz generation with the help of anharmonicity.
In present days, wireless heterogeneous networks include a variety of interfaces that can be used between users and various base stations. In this multi-interface environment, it is mandatory for a model to interface and synchronize information to lessen the errors, related to continuing communication like latency, erroneous data, disconnecting and many more. Interface management (IM) manages these activities directly to ensure a successful exchange of important information. IM is a set of rules to allot channels for different interfaces in the multichannel/multi-interface atmosphere. Several methods which exposed the distinguishable properties of the interface management have been reveiwed. Moreover, interface management is the leading part of wireless heterogeneous networks as it plays a significant role in effective communication. Therefore, the recent developments in interface management systems are reviewed and the probable challenges of such systems are investigated. Interface Management is a system where a variety of artificial intelligence (AI) techniques can be used to combine functions and information from a variety of interfaces. The main reason of this evaluation is to lighten up all relevant literature related to interfaces, interface selection, interface management, the level of development and possibilities of AI approaches to make best system.
The electroencephalogram is used in brain-computer interface (BCI) in which signal from the human brain is sensed with the help of EEG and then sent to the computer to control the external device without having any touch of muscular body parts. On the other hand, the brain chip interfacing (BCHIs) is a microelectronic chip that has physical connections with the neurons for the transfer of information. The BCI needs a reliable, high-speed network and new security tool that can assist BCI technology. 5G network and blockchain technology is ideal to support the growing needs of brain chip interfacing. Further, the Cloudmind, which is an emerging application of BCI, can be conceptualized by using blockchain technology. In this chapter, brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are expedient to bridge the connectivity chasm between human and machine (computer) systems via 5G technologies, which offers minimal latency, faster speeds, and stronger bandwidth connectivity with strong cryptographic qualities of blockchain technologies.
We purpose a theoretical analysis for the generation of efficient terahertz (THz) radiation by using the nonlinear interaction of Gaussian laser beam with vertically aligned anharmonic, and rippled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) array. This array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNTs) is embedded on the base of the dielectric surface. The VA-CNTs have been magnetized by applying a static magnetic field mutually perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the Gaussian beam and length of CNTs. The Gaussian laser beam passing through the CNTs exerts a nonlinear ponderomotive force on the electrons of CNTs and provides them resonant nonlinear transverse velocity. This produces the nonlinear current which is further responsible for the generation of THz radiation. The anharmonicity plays a vital role in the efficient generation of THz radiation. The anharmonicity arises due to the nonlinear variation of restoration force on the various electrons of CNTs. This anharmonicity in the electrons of CNTs helps in broadening the resonance peak. We have observed that externally applied static magnetic field 110 kg to 330 kg) also paves the way for the enhancement of the normalized THz amplitude.
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82 members
P. S. Mann
  • Department of Information Technology
Kanchan L. Singh
  • Department of Applied Sciences
M. K. Kaushik
  • Civil Engineering
Sanjeev Naval
  • Civil Engineering
Jalandhar, India