In this work, the task was to investigate the processes of microstructure change occurring in relatively large bulk bars under the action of large plastic deformations. Such large levels of deformation are usually achievable in high pressure twisting of small flat disks, but are difficult to achieve in large bulk bars. The method of radial shear rolling makes it possible to achieve comparable ultrahigh degrees of deformation (~45 mm/mm) in combination with the vortex flow of the metal. Sequential rolling of the E110 zirconium alloy was carried out under extreme conditions on 2 radial shear rolling mills with a total diameter reduction ε = 185 % and a maximum accumulated strain = 46 mm/mm. To assess the level of deformation and its distribution over the section, FEM modeling was carried out in Deform‑3D. The resulting structure was studied by electron microscopy (TEM/SEM). A detailed cross‑sectional study of the EBSD structure was performed with a resolution of 1 mm. A gradient structure with a predominance of an equiaxed ultrafine‑grained structure was found, which was not very pronounced compared to the use of smaller deformations.
Fifth-generation (5G) cellular networks have led to the implementation of beyond 5G (B5G) networks, which are capable of incorporating autonomous services to swarm of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). They provide capacity expansion strategies to address massive connectivity issues and guarantee ultra-high throughput and low latency, especially in extreme or emergency situations where network density, bandwidth, and traffic patterns fluctuate. On the one hand, 6G technology integrates AI/ML, IoT, and blockchain to establish ultra-reliable, intelligent, secure, and ubiquitous UAV networks. 6G networks, on the other hand, rely on new enabling technologies such as air interface and transmission technologies, as well as a unique network design, posing new challenges for the swarm of UAVs.Keeping these challenges in mind, this article focuses on the security and privacy, intelligence, and energy-efficiency issues faced by swarms of UAVs operating in 6G mobile network. In this state-of-the-art review, we integrated blockchain and AI/ML with UAV networks utilizing the 6G ecosystem. The key findings are then presented, and potential research challenges are identified. We conclude the review by shedding light on future research in this emerging field of research.
Worldwide governments are launching e-government (E-Gov) systems to ensure the superior delivery of services to their citizens. Ensuring the success of government-to-citizen (G2C), E-Gov systems is still challenging for various developing countries. To overcome this challenge, investigating the success of G2C E-Gov systems is important. This paper assesses the success of E-Gov systems from the perspective of a developing country. For this purpose, this research incorporates perceived-usefulness and perceived-trust variables into DeLone and McLean’s IS success model. A survey-based method was employed to collect data from Pakistani citizens. The PLS-SEM method was used for the validation of the conceptual model. Using the non-probability sampling technique, a sample of 264 usable cases was collected and used to analyze our model. It is evident from the outcomes of the study that information-quality has significant effects on the use of E-Gov and user-satisfaction, while service-quality, system-quality, and perceived-trust have significant effects on the use of E-Gov, user-satisfaction and perceived-usefulness. Further, the use of E-Gov, perceived-usefulness, and user-satisfaction have direct, significant impacts on the perceived-net-benefits. The practitioners are recommended to concentrate on the three quality dimensions i.e. information quality, system quality, and service quality while preparing E-Gov applications. The role of governments is also important to launch awareness campaigns and motivate their citizens to use E-Gov services.
The paper presents the evaluation of the load capacity of lap joints and the distribution of plastic deformations. The influence of the number and arrangement of welds on the load capacity of the joints and the method of their failure was investigated. The joints were made using resistance spot welding technology (RSW). Two combinations of joined titanium sheets were analyzed: Grade 2-Grade 5 and Grade 5-Grade 5. Non-destructive and destructive tests were carried out in order to verify the correctness of the welds within the given parameters. All types of joints were subjected to a uniaxial tensile test on a tensile testing machine, using digital image correlation and tracking (DIC). The results of the experimental tests of the lap joints were compared with the results of a numerical analysis. The numerical analysis was performed using the ADINA System 9.7.2 and was based on the finite element method (FEM). The conducted tests showed that the initiation of cracks in the lap joints occurred in the place as the maximum plastic deformations. This was determined numerically and confirmed experimentally. The number of welds and their arrangement in the joint affected the load capacity of the joints. Depending on their arrangement, Gr2-Gr5 joints with two welds reached from approximately 149 to 152% of the load capacity of joints with a single weld. The load capacity of the Gr5-Gr5 joints with two welds ranged from approximately 176 to 180% of the load capacity of joints with a single weld. Observations of the microstructure of RSW welds in the joints did not show any defects or cracks. The microhardness test in the Gr2-Gr5 joint showed that the average hardness of the weld nugget decreased by approximately 10-23% when compared to a Grade 5 titanium alloy and increased by approximately 59-92% compared to Grade 2 titanium.
This paper describes the research on the influence the technology of zinc-coated steel wire manufacturing has on the energy and force parameters of the drawing process, energy consumption and zinc expenditure. In the theoretical part of the paper, the theoretical work and drawing power were calculated. Calculations of the electric energy consumption have shown that usage of the optimal wire drawing technology results in a 37% drop in energy consumption, which in the course of a single year translates to savings equal to 13 TJ. This, in turn, results in the decrease of CO2 emissions by tons and a total decrease of the eco-costs by approximately EUR 0.5 mln. Drawing technology also influences the losses of the zinc coating and CO2 emissions. Properly adjusted parameters of the wire drawing technology allow obtaining a zinc-coating that is 100% thicker, translating to 265 tons of zinc, whose production generates 900 tons of CO2 and incurs eco-costs equal to EUR 0.6 mln. Optimal parameters for drawing, from the perspective of decreased CO2 emissions during the zinc-coated steel wire manufacturing, are as follows: usage of the hydrodynamic drawing dies, angle of the die reducing zone a = 5°, and drawing speed of 15 m/s.
Soils enriched with biochar are recommended as a cultivation grounds, especially in case they contain significant amount of sand. However, the interactions between biochar and plants, as well as the influence of the biochar on water retention, cultivation and air properties of soils, are still not obvious. The present study aimed to determine the impact of various biochar doses on soils used for soya cultivation, in comparison to soils maintained as black fallow soil, on their water retention and productivity, for the period of two years. Sunflower husk biochar (BC1) and biochar of leafy trees (BC2), in doses of 0, 40, 60, 80 t·ha−1, were used for field experiments. The water retention was investigated with porous boards in pressure chambers by a drying method. No differences in the hydrological properties of the soils that were differently managed (black fallow soil, crop) were observed following biochar application. Addition of BC1, in the amounts of 40, 60, and 80 t·ha−1, caused an increase in the plant available water capacity (AWC) by 15.3%, 18.7%, and 13.3%, respectively, whereas the field capacity (FC) increased by 7.4%, 9.4%, and 8.6% for soils without biochar. Application of BC2 analogously resulted in higher AWC, by 8.97, 17.2%, and 33.1%, respectively, and higher FC by 3.75, 7.5%, and 18.3%, respectively. Increasing the doses of BC1 and BC2, both on black fallow soils and soils enriched with soya, caused a rise in total porosity (TP) and drainage porosity (DP), and a decrease in soil bulk density (SBD). Biochar with a higher total area and higher porosity (BC1) applied to soils with soya cultivation resulted in lower reductions in AW and FC than BC2 in the second year of investigation.
The investigation of mould inserts in the injection moulding process using metal epoxy composite (MEC) with pure metal filler particles is gaining popularity among researchers. Therefore, to attain zero emissions, the idea of recycling metal waste from industries and workshops must be investigated (waste free) because metal recycling conserves natural resources while requiring less energy to manufacture new products than virgin raw materials would. The utilisation of metal scrap for rapid tooling (RT) in the injection moulding industry is a fascinating and potentially viable approach. On the other hand, epoxy that can endure high temperatures (>220 °C) is challenging to find and expensive. Meanwhile, industrial scrap from coal-fired power plants can be a precursor to creating geopolymer materials with desired physical and mechanical qualities for RT applications. One intriguing attribute of geopolymer is its ability to endure temperatures up to 1000 °C. Nonetheless, geopolymer has a higher compressive strength of 60–80 MPa (8700–11,600 psi) than epoxy (68.95 MPa) (10,000 psi). Aside from its low cost, geopolymer offers superior resilience to harsh environments and high compressive and flexural strength. This research aims to investigate the possibility of generating a new sustainable material by integrating several types of metals in green geopolymer metal composite (GGMC) mould inserts for RT in the injection moulding process. It is necessary to examine and investigate the optimal formulation of GGMC as mould inserts for RT in the injection moulding process. With less expensive and more ecologically friendly components, the GGMC is expected to be a superior choice as a mould insert for RT. This research substantially impacts environmental preservation, cost reduction, and maintaining and sustaining the metal waste management system. As a result of the lower cost of recycled metals, sectors such as mould-making and machining will profit the most.
This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of risk management research developments in the energy sector by using bibliometric analysis techniques. We apply the SciMAT bibliometric analysis software to understand how the intellectual base of this topic has evolved over time and what the major themes are that have contributed to this evolution. We analyse 679 publications referenced in the Web of Science Core Collection and Scopus to map the content of publications on risk management research in the energy sector over a period of 30 years (1993–2022), following the methodical rigour of PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic and Meta-Analyses). Our results identify and support the evolution of risk management research in the energy industry, its interactions, its stability, and changes in its research network. Our work contributes to the current debate on identifying trends and enhancing understanding of the evolution in the energy sector from the perspective of risk management research. It can also be a reference point for those interested in deepening their knowledge in this field.
With expanding local, national, and international markets and changing customer expectations, enterprises are faced with the need to implement solutions to compete effectively. It is expected that agile management allows enterprises to achieve this objective. Therefore, many organizations, including those in the food sector, are taking advantage of agile management solutions and see changes in consumer behavior as an opportunity for growth. The present study has a theoretical and empirical character. The basis of the theoretical considerations is a critical analysis of the scientific literature on the concept of agility and its relevance to organizations. The diversity of perspectives on the problems of agility, highlighted in many publications, provided the basis for identifying a research gap and formulating a research objective and conducting an empirical study. The study describes the agile management of enterprises, indicates the characteristics and mechanisms applicable to organic food production, and characterizes organic food processing enterprises in Poland. The survey was conducted in 2021-2022 and allowed the authors to analyze the location, size, type of production, or capital in the enterprises. This was possible with a properly designed questionnaire and statistical analysis.
Most of the modern computer software for the building structures‘ calculation is based on mathematical dependencies which make it possible to analyse rather complex stress-strain state of structures subjected to loading. As a rule, the calculation is based on the finite element method and is reduced to the calculation of deformations arising in structures due to the action of external forces with the use of real strain diagrams of materials, σ-ε diagrams for concrete and reinforcement. Modern normative regulations for reinforced concrete structures‘ calculation are also based on the deformation model using material deformation diagrams, which are as close to the real ones, as possible. Therefore, this study was aimed to investigate in more detail the stress-strain state and the physical essence of the processes occurring in reinforced concrete structures with combined reinforcement according to mathematical approaches and regulations of DBN B.2.6-98:2009 and DSTU B. In 2.6-156:2010. Namely, in the research is analysed the combined reinforcement of S245 steel tapes and A1000 rebar, which is used in the production of reinforced concrete elements. The results of mathematical modelling were compared with the calculation results, according to DBN B.2.6-98: 2009 and DSTU B. B 2.6-156:2010, as well as with field experimental data. Therefore, the conclusion could be made, whether it is possible to use this technique with sufficient accuracy to calculate reinforced concrete structures with combined reinforcement.
The flow field between two tandem buildings will be investigated using PIV technique and the effect of various angles of incoming flow will be described. The 3D model is composed from two blocks of different size arrangement (ratio is 0.6) and it is subjugated to well-developed boundary layer. Experiments are conducted for many vertical and horizontal planes to study statistical features of the flow.
This paper presents a low-frequency shadow sinusoidal oscillator using a bulk-driven multiple-input operational transconductance amplifier (MI-OTA) with extremely low-voltage supply and nano-power consumption. The proposed oscillator is composed using two-input single-output biquad filter and amplifiers. The condition and the frequency of oscillation of the shadow oscillator can be controlled electronically and independently using amplifiers. The circuit is designed in Cadence program using 0.18 µm CMOS technology from TSMC. The voltage supply is 0.5 V and the power consumption of the oscillator is 54 nW. The total harmonic distortion (THD) of the output signals is around 0.3% for 202 Hz. The simulation results are in accordance with theory.
The continuous increase in the demand for electricity makes it necessary to modernize or build new transmission lines. This, in turn, results in research that is still being carried out on the optimal use of power cables. In the paper, an improved analytical method for the determination of the current rating of power cables was proposed. The method for determining the ampacity of the power cable presented in the IEC standard assumes that power losses in the phase conductors and screens are determined by taking into account skin and the proximity effects on the basis of tabulated coefficients. The methodology proposed in the paper is based on the method presented in the IEC standard, but the power losses in the conductive elements of the cable are determined analytically, which offers higher accuracy. In order to validate the analytical method proposed in this paper, numerical calculations based on the finite element method with very fine mesh were also performed. Exemplary calculations carried out for three types of cables with use of the proposed method, IEC standard and finite elements showed very good agreement in the results. The proposed method requires more computational effort, but it offers more accurate results than the IEC standard and can be used when higher accuracy is required. It can also serve as a reference point for simplified calculations.
In recent years, the interest in renewable fuels has increased mainly due to regulations regulating the permissible limits of toxic components of exhaust gases emitted by reciprocating engines. This paper presents the results of a comparison of the effects of fueling a compression-ignition piston engine with a mixture of diesel fuel and n-butanol, as well as RME (Rapeseed Oil Methyl Esters) biodiesel and n-butanol. The tests were carried out for a constant load and a wide energetic share of fuels in the mixture. The main focus was on the assessment of combustion stability, the uniqueness of the combustion stages, and the assessment of the fuel type influence on the CA50 angle. The tests show that RME offers the possibility of efficient combustion with n-butanol with up to 80% energy share. The share of n-butanol has a positive effect on the engine’s efficiency and very effectively reduces soot emissions. Without the influence on COVIMEP, the share of n-butanol up to 40% in the mixture with diesel fuel and up to 80% in the mixture with RME was recorded. Combustion of RME with n-butanol was more stable. The share of n-butanol in the mixture with diesel fuel caused an increase in NOx emissions, and co-combustion with RME caused a decrease in emissions.
This paper introduces novel research into specific mechanical properties of composites produced by 3D printing using Continuous-Fiber Fabrication (CFF). Nylon (Onyx) was used as the composite base material, while carbon constituted the reinforcement element. The carbon fiber embedment was varied in selected components taking values of 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° for parts undergoing tensile testing, while one specific part type was produced combining all angles. Carbon-fiber-free components with 100% and 37% fillings were also produced for comparison purposes. Parts undergoing the Charpy impact test had the fibers deposited at angles of 0° and 90°, while one part type was also produced combining the four angles mentioned before. Carbon-fiber-free parts with 100% and 37% fillings were also produced for comparison purposes as with the first part. The Markforged MARK TWO 3D printer was used for printing the parts. These were subsequently scanned in the METROTOM 1500 computed tomography and submitted to the tensile and impact tests. The results showed that adding carbon fiber to the base material increased the volume of defects in the samples as a result of the porosity increase. Although the tensile testing manifested an overall increase in tensile strength Rm of up to 12 times compared to the sample without reinforcement, it was proven that an improper fiber orientation significantly diminished the strength and that combining the four selected angles did not lead to the highest strength values. Finally, the impact tests also showed that fiber-reinforced parts implied up to 2.7 times more work to fracture, and that an improved fiber orientation also led to strength reduction.
The inability of an individual to identify, assess, and manage emotions and levels of stress has adverse individual and societal consequences. Previous studies have shown that yoga-based interventions can successfully treat stress, anxiety, and depression, and can enhance emotional control. The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of a specific, intensive, yoga-based intervention, Dynamic Suryanamaskar, on the levels of perceived stress and emotional intelligence in Indian male school students. One hundred and five students with a median age of 17.15 ± 1.42 years were assessed. Practice took place over 12 weeks (n = 70 workouts). The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) questionnaire and the emotional intelligence (EQ) questionnaire, developed for the Indian population, were used to measure stress and emotional levels at the start and end of the study. The Solomon four-group design was used to ensure statistical reliability. The post-study univariate analysis of covariance ANOVA between groups (p < 0.001) and the t-test for independent samples (p < 0.05) indicated that, for those using the Dynamic Suryanamaskar protocol, there was a significant reduction in stress levels and a significant (p < 0.01) increase in the levels of emotional intelligence. This study thus provides further evidence of the benefits of the practice of Dynamic Suryanamaskar.
The continuous worsening environmental pollution and rapid depletion of natural resources exerts pressures on the economies to adopt circular economy principles in order to improve and protect the natural environment. Given the importance to humanity and social responsibility, this study examines how CETP is achieved through zero waste practices and IP. Zero waste practices are also tested as a mediator between IP and CETP. Furthermore, we also tested the moderating role of enviropreneurship on the relationship between zero waste practices and CETP. Data were collected from 273 front-line managers of manufacturing concerns and analyzed through SPSS 25.0 and SEM. Results proved that IP plays an essential role in explaining CETP and zero waste practices. Zero waste practices directly affectCETP, and also act as a mediator between IP and CETP.
The objective of the study was to analyze the effect of the pyrolysis temperature (PT) and feedstock on the quality and quantity of humic-like (HLAs) and fulvic-like (FLAs) acids entrapped in the biochars (BioCs) produced from leaves, litter, and straw of forest habitat at different temperatures. Extraction methods, 3DEEM fluorescence and UV–vis spectroscopies enabled to track the changes of HLAs and FLAs concentration, humification degree, lignin type compounds, biological index, aromaticity/aliphaticity, molecular weight and quality of fluorophores. Additionally, the feedstock and PT effect was discussed for the properties of the BioCs and the water extractable organic matter (WEOM). The results showed that the PT increase caused increase in the pH, ash, surface area and negative charge of the BioCs. Woody feedstock resulted in the BioCs with lower ash content, while the BioCs derived from straw revealed low content of organic matter and carbon but high surface area. The feedstock effect was not clear on structural parameters of HLAs and FLAs, however the BioC derived from litter at 750 °C placed HLAs in group of the strong humification. Woody parts in feedstock and increasing PT was the reason of lower humic-like substances content. It was relatively high after pyrolysis at 430 °C and decreased rapidly at higher PTs. The PT increase affected structure of organic fractions. For HLAs, thermal transformation lead to increase of the humification, molecular weight and content of aromatic structures. Changes for FLAs revealed opposite trend due to a greater susceptibility to the pyrolytic partitioning of molecules. PT elevation resulted also in decreasing contribution of protein- and aminoacid- like compounds and degradation of structures derived from lignin-rich feedstocks. These changes were accompanied by progressive decrease in the biological index of HLAs revealing gradual destruction of freshly produced compounds of microbiological origin. WEOM was enriched in organic compounds typical for HLAs fraction, and PT effect was similar to this predominant fraction.
Water contamination is a major issue due to industrial releases of hazardous heavy metals. Copper ions are among the most dangerous heavy metals owing to their carcinogenicity and harmful effects on the environment and human health. Adsorption of copper ions using alkali activated materials synthesized through the polycondensation reaction of an alkali source and aluminosilicates is the most promising technique, and has a high adsorption capability owing to a large surface area and pore volume. This research focuses on the effect of the alkaline activator ratio, which is a sodium silicate to sodium hydroxide ratio. Various exposing temperatures on metakaolin based alkali activated materials on a surface structure with excellent functional properties can be used as adsorbent materials for the removal of copper ions. A variety of mix designs were created with varying sodium silicate to sodium hydroxide ratios, with a fixed sodium hydroxide molarity, metakaolin to alkali activator ratio, hydrogen peroxide, and surfactant content of 10 M, 0.8, 1.00 wt%, and 3.0 wt%, respectively. Most wastewater adsorbents need high sintering temperatures, requiring an energy-intensive and time-consuming manufacturing process. In this way, metakaolin-based alkali activated materials are adsorbent and may be produced easily by solidifying the sample at 60 °C without using much energy. The specific surface area, water absorption, microstructure, phase analysis, functional group analysis, and adsorption capability of copper ions by metakaolin based alkali activated materials as adsorbents were evaluated. The water absorption test on the samples revealed that the sodium silicate to sodium hydroxide 0.5 ratio had the highest water absorption percentage of 36.24%, superior pore size distribution, and homogeneous porosity at 60 °C, with a surface area of 24.6076 m2/g and the highest copper ion uptake of 63.726 mg/g with 95.59% copper ion removal efficiency at adsorption condition of pH = 5, a dosage of 0.15 g, 100 mg/L of the initial copper solution, the temperature of 25 °C, and contact time of 60 min. It is concluded that self-supported metakaolin based alkali activated material adsorbents synthesized at low temperatures effectively remove copper ions in aqueous solutions, making them an excellent alternative for wastewater treatment applications.
This paper presents new voltage-mode shadow filters employing a low-power multiple-input differential difference transconductance amplifier (MI-DDTA). This device provides multiple-input voltage-mode arithmetic operation capability, electronic tuning ability, high-input and low-output impedances. Therefore, the proposed shadow filters offer circuit simplicity, minimum number of active and passive elements, electronic control of the natural frequency and the quality factor, and high-input and low-output impedances. The proposed MI-DDTA can work with supply voltage of ±0.5 V and consumes 9.94 μW of power. The MI-DDTA and shadow filters have been designed and simulated with the SPICE program using 0.18 μm CMOS process parameters to validate the functionality and workability of the new circuits.
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Dabrowskiego 69, 42-201, Częstochowa, slaskie, Poland