Czech University of Life Sciences Prague
Recent publications
There are relatively few studies that explicitly evaluate the performance of machine learning algorithms (MLAs) such as decision trees while varying conditions like data splitting strategies and feature selection methods in digital soil mapping (DSM). Since several more powerful black-box models such as Random forest (RF) exist, regular models like the Classification and Regression Tree (CART) are least applied despite being more intelligible than the former. We demonstrate a simple yet relevant way to improve the performance of a CART model for DSM while still benefiting from its intelligibility, interpretability and intuition potential. Soil organic carbon (SOC) levels across the Czech Republic are predicted at 30 m × 30 m resolution using selected covariates coupled with respective CART models. For this work, 440 topsoils (0 – 20 cm) for the Czech Republic were retrieved from the LUCAS soil database. Regarding the distinct CART models, data splitting strategies (Random, SPlit and Conditional Latin Hypercube Sampling: cLHS) and 7 feature selection methods were varied. Meanwhile, overall model results were compared using accuracy metrics including the root mean square error (RMSE). One of the satisfactory SOC model validation results based on SPlit has a root mean square error (RMSE) of 17.30 g/kg and a coefficient of determination (R²) of 0.52. The cLHS proves robust for model data splitting. Feature selection methods including stepwise regression (SWR), recursive feature elimination (RFE) and the genetic algorithm (GA) were considered computationally efficient for identifying relevant covariates. Generally, the study demonstrates the relevance and effectiveness of varying data splitting strategies and feature selection methods for improving SOC modelling via a decision tree (CART).
To address the knowledge gap on the effects of the co-existence of nanomaterials on plant growth, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants were irrigated with zinc oxide nanoparticles (0.5 g L⁻¹), nanoplastics (1 g L⁻¹), and the combination of these two nanomaterials for 10 days. The co-existence of nanoplastics and ZnO nanoparticles increased H2O2 concentration by 12.76% and 38.30%, compared with the ZnO nanoparticles and nanoplastics exposure. The concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) in plants under the co-existence of nanoplastics and ZnO nanoparticles was 29.53% and 10.42% higher than that in ZnO nanoparticles treated plants and nanoplastics treated plants. The global analysis of phosphoproteomics identified 132 phosphorylated proteins and 173 phosphorylation sites in barley leaves exposed to the nanomaterial combination, which were related to photosynthesis, carbon fixation, nitrogen metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolisms. Further physiological analysis indicated that the combination of ZnO nanoparticles and nanoplastics caused larger damage to the systems of antioxidant and carbohydrate metabolisms as exemplified by decreased activities of apoplastic peroxidases (25.10%−48.60%), glutathione reductase (91.07%−94.94%), and sucrose synthase (53.59%−61.19%) in roots and increased cell wall invertase activity (12.97%−17.61%) in leaves, compared with the single nanomaterial treatments. These results indicate that the modulations in protein phosphorylation were closely related to the physiological responses to nanomaterial exposure, suggesting that the co-existence of nanomaterials may lead to greater impacts than single ones.
Colluvisols represent a significant part of the erosional catena in undulating landscapes, often changed by long-term agricultural management. The present study provides a detailed description of the stratigraphy, properties and development of colluvial profiles in two geologically, climatically and historically different areas of Czechia, situated in the loess region of South Moravia and Central Bohemian Upland, built on plutonic rocks. For the first time in Czechia, colluvial profiles were dated and interpreted in terms of the history of human impact on the landscape and Holocene climatic fluctuations. Four profiles were excavated in the toe-slope and side valley areas. A multidisciplinary approach combining absolute dating by optically stimulated luminescence, assessing ¹³⁷Cs activity and micromorphological, mineralogical and geochemical analysis was applied to identify the period and mode of deposition of each layer. In both areas, a predominantly rapid, event-based sedimentation with thick recently deposited layers was identified in the toe-slopes, while the side-valleys are characterized by gradual, slower and older sedimentation. Peaks of erosion activity at both plots were distinguished in the High and Late Middle Ages and the recent period since 1950. In both periods, significant changes in anthropogenic pressure on the landscape, whether due to increased population density or agricultural intensification, were identified as the main trigger. Nevertheless, significant associations were also found with climatic events in the periods in question. In both areas, colluvial layers corresponding to the pre-Neolithic period were also found, probably exclusively associated with the influence of contemporary climate.
The gregarious parasitoid strategy allows multiple larvae to complete development in a single host due to their tolerance and/or lower mobility, and thus flexibly adjust their reproductive potential. Reproductive potential is traditionally measured as the number of each mother’s offspring. In our previous study we showed the benefits of an intergenerational approach to assessess the fitness through measuring fertilities in F1 and F2 generation – bringing possible predictions about the future population density of parasitoids and their use in biological control. Here, again using the gregarious parasitoid Anaphes flavipes as model species, we experimentally demonstrate the effects of superparasitism due to scarcity of host on fertility. Whereas the conventional approach would assume a simple reduction of female fertility, our intergenerational approach shows that the reduction of female fertility translates as an actual increase in the individual offspring fertility. We showed the same effect using an experiment where females had different visual interactions and different timings between parasitation. The fertility of females did not differ, but the distribution of clutch sizes, and consequently the body size and fertility of the offspring, was statistically different. The intergenerational approach in these groups therefore reveals a fertility difference in the F2 generation that is not visible from the F1 generation.
Tick-borne diseases are a significant health problem worldwide and have become even more pervasive in Europe due to the increasing abundance of tick species, especially the common tick (Ixodes ricinus L.). Moreover, in recent years, there have been changes in tick geographical distribution, the occurrence of new tick species, and an expansion in abundance driven by changes in forest management and climate change. Therefore, this paper's objective is to determine the effect of tree species composition and forest structure on the abundance of I. ricinus in various forest stands in Czechia. Altogether, we analyzed 4195 collected ticks on 56 monitored research plots, of which 4182 individuals were I. ricinus, 4 individuals were Dermacentor reticulatus Fabricius, and 7 individuals were Haemaphysalis concinna C. L. Koch. The average density reached 1.21 ticks per 10 m 2. The highest I. ricinus abundance was observed in coniferous stands (especially in Scotch pine-Pinus sylvestris L.) and forest edges with a high incidence of wild ungulate habitat signs. Contrarily, the lowest tick numbers were in clear-cut biotopes and mixed stands. Increasing vertical structure had a significant (p < 0.05) negative effect on I. ricinus abundance , similar to tree species diversity (richness, evenness, heterogeneity) and complex stand diversity on nymph stage abundance. Close-to-nature silviculture of mixed forests, which are resistant to climate extremes, could reduce the tick abundance, as well as the presence of tick-borne diseases compared to standard coniferous monocultures, which are receding now due to climate change. Based on this knowledge, it should be possible to predict the I. ricinus abundance under changing environmental conditions in the Central European region.
Adopting a qualitative approach, this study performs a gender analysis of the climate change effects on rice farmers’ adaptation strategies (AS) in Mazandaran Province (northern Iran) based on the sustainable livelihood approach. For this purpose, 36 male and female heads of households in Arab Mahalla and Qajar Khel villages and 10 heads of households in Kiasar village (in Mazandaran Province) were selected and studied through theoretical and purposeful sampling methods of Corbin and Strauss. These villages have the highest number of female household heads and have been severely affected by the climate crisis in recent years. For the male-headed households (n = 23), the most important climate crisis was drought (f=16), and for the female-headed households (n = 23), drought, cold, and early off-season frost and monsoon storms were the most important (f=13). The results also indicated that in climatic crises, human (X̅=12.35) and social (X̅=13) capital from the women’s perspective and financial (X̅=12.5) and physical (X̅=13) capital from the men’s perspective had the highest vulnerability percentages whereas natural capital was equally affected from both the men’s and women’s viewpoints. One of the innovative aspects of this study is the gender analysis of the impact of climate change on the AS of sustainable livelihood framework based on a qualitative approach. This study recommends that beyond increasing the diversity of living amid climate change, deliberate climate change efforts should be directed at women and that fundamental gender discrimination such as prejudices and gender inequality should be eliminated.
Semi-natural grasslands are known to provide numerous ecosystem services, of which one of the most important is production of biomass. However, the contribution of individual plant species to the total biomass is much less well understood. This study addressed questions concerning community structure and responses of species-specific biomass (s-AGB) to gradients in soil acidity and fertility, topographical and climatic features, and disturbance regimes in mown and abandoned grasslands in the Sudetes Mountains (Central Europe). It identified pH as the most significant environmental gradient affecting turnover in s-AGB, and mowing cessation, temperature , and precipitation also had significant effects. Further, it showed high inequality in biomass among co-occurring plant species. It also showed that biomass inequality (measured by the Gini coefficient) among interacting species decreases with increasing functional diversity (Rao's index). This study highlights that common plant species (in terms of frequency) play a major role in contributing to the total aboveground biomass (t-AGB). However, less frequent species are also significant contributors to the t-AGB. Thus, the combined contribution of infrequent species to the t-AGB should not be neglected. Our findings support the mass ratio hypothesis stating that ecosystem functions such as biomass production depend on dominant species. On the other hand, high niche differentiation ensures the coexistence of less competitive species with the dominants by the variety and complementarity of functional traits. Infrequent and non-dominant species were the core of the diversity seen in the studied grasslands. The maintenance of species diversity in grasslands should be prioritized in nature conservation policies to ensure the sustainability of ecosystem services.
Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an efficient technology that can efficiently convert organic waste into biofuel, but excessive ammonia nitrogen concentration will lead to failure of AD. In this study, a metal–organic framework (MOF)-derived porous metal oxide/graphene nanocomposite (FeMn-MOF/G) was first applied in AD to investigate the mitigation effect of ammonia nitrogen inhibition. Five total solids (TS) concentrations of 8 %, 10 %, 12 %, 15 % and 20 % were set up for AD experiment to investigate the effect of FeMn-MOF/G on AD. The results showed that the average ammonia nitrogen adsorption capacity of FeMn-MOF/G in AD with different TS concentrations was 102.68 mg/g, and the ammonia nitrogen adsorption effect decreased with the increase of TS. When FeMn-MOF/G was added to AD, the ammonia nitrogen concentration of the experimental group could be reduced to 2,086.00 mg/L, and the VFAs concentration was reduced to 1,510.34 mg/L. The methane production in each experimental group increased significantly, and the experimental group MOF-8 obtained the highest cumulative methane production of 321.35 mL/gVS, indicating that FeMn-MOF/G effectively mitigated the ammonia nitrogen inhibition,which promoteed the successful operation of AD. We characterized the prepared FeMn-MOF/G. The results of the vibrating sample magnetometer show that FeMn-MOF/G has excellent superparamagnetic properties. Magnetic recycling is a promising method for the recycling of FeMn-MOF/G materials, which provides a broad prospect for the application of FeMn-MOF/G in AD.
Tardigrada is an invertebrate phylum that often constitutes a dominant micrometazoan group on glaciers worldwide. We investigated tardigrades residing in surface ice above the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) on three temperate glaciers of New Zealand’s Southern Alps. Morphological, morphometric and multilocus DNA analyses (CO1, 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, ITS-2) revealed two new genera comprising four species, of which two are formally described here: Kopakaius gen. nov. nicolae sp. nov. and Kararehius gen. nov. gregorii sp. nov. The former is represented by three genetically distinct phyletic lineages akin to species. According to CO1, Kopakaius gen. nov. nicolae sp. nov. inhabits Whataroa Glacier only while the remaining two Kopakaius species occur on Fox and Franz Joseph Glaciers, suggesting low dispersal capabilities. Although morphological characteristics of the new genera could indicate affinity with the subfamily Itaquasconinae, phylogenetic analysis placed them confidently in the subfamily Diphasconinae. Kopakaius gen. nov. lack placoids in the pharynx similar with some Itaquasconinae, whereas dark pigmentation and claw shape aligns them with the glacier-obligate genus, Cryobiotus (subfamily Hypsibiinae), which is an example of parallel evolution. The second genus, Kararehius gen nov. could be classified as Adropion-like (subfamily Itaquasconinae), but differs greatly by genetics (placed in the subfamily Diphasconinae) as well as morphology (e.g., lack of septulum), exemplify deep stasis in Hypsibiidae. Our results suggest that glacier fragmentation during the Pleistocene triggered tardigrade speciation, making it a suitable model for studies on allopatric divergence in glacier meiofauna.
This study presents the results of a multi-element and multivariate geochemical analysis of a deserted medieval settlement and its agricultural landscape, including a monastic (Cistercian) manorial farm, situated in the Czech Republic. We used LiDAR survey and historic maps to detect relict landscape features and identify past changes in land use-patterns. Comparing archaeological evidence and soil chemistry, we found that geochemical signals - derived from samples collected in the courtyard of the farm and in the surrounding area and processed by PCA on log-transformed and isometrically log-transformed data - responded to different agricultural activities, which could be linked to the farm and - more broadly - to current and past land-uses. The results generally illuminate the environmental impact of monastic settlement in a marginal landscape, with regard to different economic activities, and the study also demonstrates that this type of analysis allows tracing anthropogenic and natural phenomena over a wider area, beyond the limits of the more narrowly defined archaeological site.
CONTEXT Climate change is expected to adversely affect agricultural production, particularly in Iran where the agricultural sector forms the backbone of the economy. This is true for the agriculture sector of the southwest region of Iran which is largely rain-fed and dominated by smallholder farmers with minimal livelihood alternatives. Although several studies have been conducted on climate change, little has been done on the adaptive capacity of farmers within farming systems, especially in Iran. OBJECTIVE The main objective of this study was to evaluate the adaptive capacity of four common farming systems (i.e., family farming system, cooperative farming system, commercialized farming system, and agro-enterprise farming system) in Fars province, southwestern Iran. METHODS A seven-step approach was used to normalize, weigh, and aggregate 102 individual indicators within a composite adaptive capacity index that is dimensionless, ranging from 0 to 1, and 1 is the optimal value. The required data were collected using a cross-sectional survey from 1472 farmers within the four mentioned farming systems. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS The results showed that the highest value was recorded by agro-enterprise for knowledge, perception and awareness, transport and physical accessibility, and institution and economic resources. Agro-enterprise scored higher in terms of awareness and action, which shows that these farming systems have a higher capacity for adaptation to the threat posed by climate diversity. Farmers in this farming system benefit from high formal education, high perceptions about the threat and risk of climate change, the occurrence of climatic events, causes for the change in climatic parameters, and awareness of climate change impacts. SIGNIFICANCE This paper recommends resilience-building interventions in the study area, which target individuals with low adaptive capacities, especially farmers. The results can also assist agricultural policymakers to recognize which components and determinants of adaptive capacity should be prioritized to mitigate the threat of climate change to farming systems.
Fruit orchards under different types of management represent the most common agroforestry practice in central Europe. Traditional fruit orchards with trees usually planted in meadows are at a surplus, providing suitable habitats for many plant and animal species. We examined the influence of different management and biotope types on three insect groups. This study was conducted in thirty orchards across the capital city of the Czech Republic – Prague (496 km²). We investigated the diversities of butterflies, hymenopterans and beetles. Their species richnesses mainly benefitted from orchard management and was partly higher at the xerothermic sites than at the mesic sites. Red-listed species did not show any clear patterns. Open-landscape specialists were influenced by management, while forest species were influenced by habitat type. Generally, orchard abandonment led to insect biodiversity loss. Therefore, active agricultural management appears to be essential for insect biodiversity conservation in orchards, and different management and biotope types provide suitable conditions for specific species. Mowing and maintaining orchards are two important biodiversity management actions in terms of maintaining large-scale and long-term species diversity.
One of the most promising techniques for rapid detection of bark beetle-infested trees is the use of specially trained dogs. Due to the novelty of using dogs in detecting bark beetle-infested trees, evaluation of success or comparison with the traditional approaches is lacking. Spruces were pre-treated with a synthetic pheromone at several tree positions in six experimental forest stands of 4–12 ha. The tree positions were selected based on their arrangement in a random scheme or in patches considered suitable for bark beetle colonisation. Three dogs of different ages, sex, and levels of experience in detecting Ips typographus were compared with three experienced human bark beetle specialists. We used GPS positioning of dog tracks (unleashed), handlers, human experts, and detection points during the search under a blind-test procedure for tracking positions. The potential utility of the search methods was estimated with three aspects: 1) search success: detection of infested trees, 2) search effort: length of route, and 3) search efficiency: trees detected / unit time. Dog-handler pairs were overall more successful in detecting trees attacked by bark beetles than human experts. In particular, the success rate of dogs was higher in plots with random arrangement pre-baited trees and search efficiency was four times higher than that of the human experts. The most efficient time for the use of dogs for detection would be during the spring flight period, when detection of first attacks and small hot spots could potentially prevent the development of larger infestations. The main advantage of using the dog search method is to amplify the time-window from about one week to one month from the detection to prompt removal of the infested trees from the forest.
Zinc (Zn) is a vital element required by all living creatures for optimal health and ecosystem functioning. Therefore, several researchers have modeled and mapped its occurrence and distribution in soils. Nonetheless, leveraging model predictive performances while coupling information derived from visible near-infrared (Vis-NIR) and soils (i.e. chemical properties) to estimate potential toxic elements (PTEs) like Zn in agricultural soils is largely untapped. This study applies two methods to rapidly monitor Zn concentration in agricultural soil. Firstly, employing Vis-NIR and machine learning algorithms (MLAs) (Context 1) and secondly, applying Vis-NIR, soil chemical properties (SCP), and MLAs (Context 2). For the Vis-NIR information, single and combined pretreat-ment methods were applied. The following MLAs were used: conditional inference forest (CIF), partial least squares regression (PLSR), M5 tree model (M5), extreme gradient boosting (EGB), and support vector machine regression (SVMR) respectively. For context 1, the results indicated that M5-MSC (M5 tree model-multiplicative scatter correction) with coefficient of determination (R 2) = 0.72, root mean square error (RMSE) = 21.08 (mg/ kg), median absolute error (MdAE) = 13.69 and ratio of performance to interquartile range (RPIQ) = 1.63 was promising. Regarding context 2, CIF with spectral pretreatment and soil properties [CIF-DWTLOGMSC + SCP (conditional inference forest-discrete wavelet transformation-logarithmic transformation-multiplicative scatter correction-soil chemical properties)] yielded the best performance of R 2 = 0.86, RMSE = 14.52 (mg/kg), MdAE = 6.25 and RPIQ = 1.78. Altogether, for contexts 1 and 2, the CIF-DWTLOGMSC + SCP approach (context 2) was the best Zn model outcome for the agricultural soil. The uncertainty map revealed a low to high error distribution in context 1, and a low to moderate distribution in context 2 for all models except CIF, which had some patches with high uncertainty. We conclude that a multiple optimization approach for modeling Zn levels in agricultural soils is invaluable and may provide fast and reliable information needed for area-specific decision-making.
SARS-CoV-2 is suspected to be the product of a natural or artificial recombination of two viruses – one adapted to the horseshoe bat and the other, donor of the spike protein gene, adapted to an unknown species. Here we used a new method to search for the original host of the ancestor of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and for the donor of its gene for the spike protein, the molecule responsible for binding to and entering human cells. We computed immunological T-distances (the number of different peptides which are present in the viral proteins but absent in proteins of the host) between 11 species of coronaviruses and 38 representatives of the main mammal clades. Analyses of pentapeptides, the presumed principal targets of T-cell non-self recognition, showed the smallest T-distance of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 to humans, while the rest of SARS-CoV-2 proteome to the horseshoe bat. This suggests that the ancestor of SARS-CoV-2 was adapted to bats, but the spike gene donor was adapted to humans. Further analyses suggest that the ancestral coronavirus adapted to bats was shortly passaged in treeshrews, while the donor of the spike gene was shortly passaged in rats before the recombination event. Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Covid-19; host specificity; immunological distance; origin; alignment-free method; peptide vocabulary analysis
The work aimed to evaluate the growth ability of Czech Fleckvieh bulls in the conditions of modern stable based on their breeding lines. A total of 94 bulls were included in the experiment. The growth curve, weight at standardized ages, and weight gain were evaluated. The average weight of fattened bulls ranged from 109.43 kg at the age of 90 days to 705.65 kg at the end of the fattening period. Statistically significant model function was created by regression analysis and included the effects of bull sire, peers, age, and age squared. Furthermore, we used a linear model with the effects: birth month of the bull, the group of peers, the breeding line of bull sire, and random repeated effect of the animal. Significant differences were observed for the month of birth and between groups of peers. The effect of the breeding line was significant for regression analysis, however in evaluation based on linear model it was significant only for the weight at the beginning of fattening. The results suggest that in the standardized conditions of a modern stable with good housing and nutrition, the genetic predisposition for the growth ability of dual-purpose Fleckvieh cattle was attenuated.
Water is crucial for birds, especially during hot weather. However, the availability of water, and its use by birds in modern anthropogenic habitats, is far from understood, especially outside arid regions. Here, we analyze a large nationwide dataset collected in the temperate zone and present an overview of small water resources used by birds in urban and rural habitats in Poland. We investigated the proportion of birds using free-standing water, preferences for various water sources, and factors and threats influencing drinking and bathing behaviour. Birds using water resources are represented by various taxonomic and ecological groups. Species composition differed slightly due to environmental conditions in the vicinity of the water resource and the background species composition. In total 51 species were observed using water, representing 64% of the 80 species recorded in the vicinity. The probability of water usage was positively related to temperature, which further emphasizes the importance of water under future climate-warming scenarios. We show that small water resources, including those provided by people, were less likely to be used by birds than resources resembling natural waters (puddles, ponds, fountains). This novel finding may have particular importance for avian conservation planning, including appropriate behaviour for nature lovers (providing water sources and reducing stress to birds due to predation risk). Finally, we assessed potential threats to bathing and drinking birds, such as moving cars, risk of drowning, and the presence of predators. Any kind of surface water is currently beneficial for wild birds inhabiting human modified landscapes. During heatwaves and droughts access to water can be crucial for many birds. Unfortunately, such extreme events are predicted to become more frequent and more severe under climate change. Therefore, we would encourage further research in the use by birds of free-standing water, similar to the many studies of birdfeeders in winter, and to consider the maintenance of diverse sources of accessible water in environmental management.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of tannins addition to hen diets on the performance and egg quality characterised by the physical characteristics, vitamin content and fatty acid composition of egg yolks. Two hundred and forty 18-week-old Lohmann Brown hens were assigned to three dietary treatments according to the supplementation of chestnut wood tannin (Castanea sativa Mill.; 0, 1 and 10 g/kg) to the diet. The fat source in the diets was rapeseed oil and extruded flaxseed that ensured higher polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) content in the feed. No effect of tannin addition on the performance characteristics of hens was observed. Both tannin addition treatments (1 and 10 g/kg) significantly increased the shell breaking strength (p = .050), shell thickness (p = .001), shell index (p = .006) and shell percentage (p = .002). The higher level of tannins (10 g/kg) in feed increased the deposition of α-tocopherol (p < .001), γ-tocopherol (p = .005) and retinol (p < .001) in the yolk. The cholesterol content and n-6/n-3 ratio in the yolk were not influenced by the level of tannins in the diet. A negative effect of tannins was detected in the fatty acid indexes. In conclusion, the inclusion of chestnut wood tannins in the hen diet rich in PUFAs improved eggshell quality, and higher dose of tannin (10 g/kg) increased the deposition of fat-soluble vitamins in the yolk without negatively affecting young hen performance. • Highlights • The tannins increased the eggshell quality and fat-soluble vitamins content in yolks. • A dose of 1 g/kg chestnut wood tannins increased the eggshell quality. • The increase in fat-soluble vitamins (α- and γ-tocopherol and retinol) content occurred after the addition of 10 g/kg chestnut wood tannins. • The dietary tannins changed the levels of myristic, margaric, palmitoleic and eicosenoic fatty acids. • Chestnut wood tannins did not affect the performance characteristics.
Perception of the spatio-temporal events of extreme precipitation and their variations is essential for diminishing the natural hazards linked with extreme events. In this research, a satellite-based precipitation dataset derived from remotely sensed soil moisture (SM2RAIN-ASCAT, obtained from ASCAT satellite soil moisture data through the Soil Moisture to Rain algorithm) was selected to evaluate the accuracy of daily precipitation and extreme events estimations against a regional gridded weather dataset by employing various performance indicators, and ETCCDI indicators (CDD, and CWD, SDII, R10mm, R20mm, R95p, R99p, Rx1day, and Rx5day). The study area includes entire Poland as well as small parts of Ukraine, Belarus, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Russia, and Germany. According to PBIAS (~ −3.9 %) and coefficient of correlation (~0.74), SM2RAIN-ASCAT has good accuracy in the study area. Assessments reveal that, in general, over southern, mountainous part SM2RAIN-ASCAT does not have accurate estimations.. According to the reference dataset, during the 2007–2019 period, on average, the length of dry days was ~22 days, while SM2RAIN-ASCAT shows ~19.6 consecutive dry days. In contrast, SM2RAIN-ASCAT overestimated (16 days/year) the consecutive wet days compared to the reference dataset (~8.7 days/year). SM2RAIN-ASCAT underestimated the number of heavy precipitation days index (R10mm) over the northern part of the region, close to the Baltic Sea), but the accuracy increased in the southern parts. SM2RAIN-ASCAT underestimated the maximum 1-day rainfall total and relative max 5-day precipitation amount indices. The total precipitation divided by the amount of wet days index shows that SM2RAIN-ASCAT has relatively acceptable accuracy in the center and south of the study area. Our results show that SM2RAIN-ASCAT should be improved for relatively higher extreme indicators.
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5,894 members
Jaroslav Vadlejch
  • Department of Zoology and Fisheries
Jitka Horackova
  • Deparment of Landscape and Urban Planning
Asa Gholizadeh
  • Department of Soil Science and Soil Protection
Richard Mally
  • Department of Forest Protection and Entomology
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Petr Sklenička
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