Creighton University
  • Omaha, Nebraska, United States
Recent publications
Numerous laboratory evaluations have been conducted since Dr. Rafael Bowen introduced a method for determining the bond strengths of adhesive systems to dental substrates in 1965. Most of the past studies have been conducted using static bond strength tests, such as shear and tensile bond strength testing with either macro or micro sized specimens. These static bond strength tests are conducted using a monotonically increasing load in which stress is applied continuously until failure occurs. Although the type of stress that develops in static bond strength tests is not typically encountered in clinical situations, over the years clinicians have based their choice of adhesive systems for use in daily practice on the results of such tests. However, some well-known researchers have reported that the results obtained from static bond strength testing may have limited clinical relevance and should not be used only by themselves to make recommendations for clinical use. In clinical situations, restorations undergo cyclic stress during mastication at stress levels well below the breaking stress used in static bond strength tests. Thus, dynamic bond strength tests, using cyclic loading, should be more clinically relevant than static bond strength tests. Over 15 years, a testing method designed to assess fatigue bond strengths of dental adhesive systems has been developed through inter-collegial and international collaborative efforts. This review discusses the development of fatigue bond strength testing methodology, provides both a historical perspective and current information regarding available testing data for all categories of adhesive systems to enamel and dentin and perspectives on the future development of both adhesive systems and testing methods.
Classifying the sentiments of online reviews of products or services is important in that it provides the analysts with the ability to extract critical information which can be used to improve the corresponding product or service. The objective of this study is to classify the customer reviews (on a five-star and binary scale) that were collected for four different types of products/services. To achieve this goal, a novel classification framework is built by devising a unique classifier (composite variable), which includes rich information gathered by using all of the extracted features. The proposed framework is compared to commonly used Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and chi-square-based feature selection (selected features, SF). These approaches are separately deployed in tree-based machine learning algorithms and Logistic Regression using a five-fold cross validation strategy. The results indicate that the proposed methodology outperforms the alternatives for each dataset employed.
Background Pneumonia (PNA) may complicate the Severe Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome (SAWS), with ICU admission, mechanical ventilation (MV), prolonged length of stay (LOS), and adverse events. Objectives To examine the onset, features and courses of PNA in patients with SAWS to aid management. Methods A 33 month contiguous review of SAWS and PNA was conducted at an urban public hospital. Results There were 279 episodes of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome (AWS) among 255 patients. Males predominated (91%) with a mean age of 45.8 years (range 23-73), of whom 31% (87/279) developed SAWS with ICU management. Direct ICU admission occurred for 62 patients; 25 were transferred for delirium, seizures, escalating sedation, PNA or other complications. PNA was identified for 34 ICU direct admissions and 13 ward patients. Ten transfers to the ICU also developed PNA for an ICU total of 44/87 (51%), of whom 82% (36/44) required MV. Another 10 ICU patients without PNA received MV for high dose sedation or respiratory failure. Most ICU patients (72/87 (83%)), including all with MV, required IV infusion of sedation. MV prolonged LOS, but LOS for PNA with MV was similar to all MV. ICU transfers had longer LOS with greater use of MV than direct admits (p<0.05). PNA was identified before ICU admission or transfer for 73% (32/44 (p<0.05)), and usually before intubation. Most PNA was Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) with P. Pneumoniae frequently cultured. Conclusions PNA with SAWS is predominately CAP and occurs early. Focused ICU admission with respiratory support are priorities of initial management.
The topic of vaping is becoming increasingly prevalent in healthcare, especially regarding adolescents as their use of electronic cigarette products continues to increase. The many factors to consider include the safety of these products, human health and behavior, and social effects. Healthcare providers need to be aware of these issues to provide appropriate education and care to adolescent patients.
Similar to other medical professions, the field of physical therapy is transitioning from a reactive to proactive model of care. This holistic approach to practice largely includes physical activity but also includes the often-overlooked field of nutrition. The purpose of this research study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of nutrition in physical therapy students. Subjects included current students and recent graduates of doctoral physical therapy programs (N = 151). A cross-sectional mixed methods survey was disseminated to Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) students. The survey consisted of 49 questions including demographic information, a nutrition knowledge test (NKT), and questions about attitudes and beliefs regarding nutrition. The mean NKT score of this sample was15.09 ± 3.33 out of 28 total points. Only 19.2% of total respondents agreed or strongly agreed with feeling comfortable counseling clients and only 2.6% agreed or strongly agreed that their nutrition courses adequately provided them with the proper tools to educate clients on nutrition. However, 60.2% of respondents agreed or strongly agreed that an introductory nutrition course should be a requirement of any DPT education. Findings demonstrate a gap in knowledge of nutrition among physical therapy students.
While patient-reported outcomes measures (PROMs) are used in many practice settings as a standardized system of outcome measures, various factors may impact the meaningful use of PROMs by clinicians operating in various settings. Very limited research exists that focused on examining the use of FOTO® in outpatient rehabilitation settings. This study aimed to explore the barriers and facilitators in achieving FOTO® treatment completion rates and patient functional outcomes among physical therapists. Additionally, the study aimed to explore the internal acceptance of FOTO as a useful tool in rehabilitation from the perspectives of physical therapists. Qualitative data were collected through four focus group interviews with physical therapists at outpatient rehabilitation clinics. The interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed, and transcribed, and qualitative content analysis was applied for data analysis. Four major themes emerged from qualitative data analyses including (a) use of FOTO® in clinical practice, (b) reasons why the FOTO® process may not be followed, (c), therapists’ perceptions of FOTO®, and (d) perceived barriers and enablers related to FOTO®. The study concluded that multi-level determinants impact the successful use of FOTO® by therapists in outpatient rehabilitation settings. The findings have important implications for clinical practice, organizational leaders, and PROM developers.
Traditional models of cardiovascular risk assessment rely on population-level risk factors and may not accurately capture individualized risk. Imaging biomarkers such as plaque characterization and pericoronary fat inflammation may offer refined risk prediction and allow physicians to personalize care-plans for cardiovascular disease prevention. The integration of plaque morphology and pericoronary inflammation into clinical care is highlighted using a case-based discussion. This article reviews the existing body of evidence supporting the use of novel biomarkers in an individualized comprehensive risk assessment algorithm.
Although most neurophysiological studies of persons with cerebral palsy (CP) have been focused on supraspinal networks, recent evidence points toward the spinal cord as a central contributor to their motor impairments. However, it is unclear if alterations in the spinal pathways are also linked to deficits in the sensory processing observed clinically. This investigation aimed to begin to address this knowledge gap by evaluating the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) H-reflex in adults with CP and neurotypical (NT) controls while at rest and during an isometric wrist flexion task. The maximal H-wave (Hmax) and M-wave (Mmax) at rest were calculated and utilized to compute Hmax/Mmax ratios (H:M ratios). Secondarily, the facilitation of the H-wave was measured while producing an isometric, voluntary wrist flexion contraction (i.e., active condition). Finally, a wrist position sense test was used to quantify the level of joint position sense. These results revealed that the adults with CP had a lower H:M ratio compared with the NT controls while at rest. The adults with CP were also unable to facilitate their H-reflexes with voluntary contraction and had greater position sense errors compared with the controls. Further, these results showed that the adults with CP that had greater wrist position sense errors tended to have a lower H:M ratio at rest. Overall, these findings highlight that aberration in the spinal cord pathways of adults with CP might play a role in the sensory processing deficiencies observed in adults with CP.
Objective: To evaluate the potential for drug interactions with therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Treatments include calcium channel blockers, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, guanylate cyclase stimulators, prostacyclin analogues, and prostacyclin receptor agonists. Data Sources: A systemic literature search (January 1980-December 2021) was performed using PubMed and EBSCO to locate relevant articles. The mesh terms used included each specific medication available as well as “drug interactions.” DAILYMED was used for product-specific drug interactions. Study Selection and Data Extraction: The search was conducted to identify drug interactions with PAH treatments. The search was limited to those articles studying human applications with PAH treatments and publications using the English language. Case reports, clinical trials, review articles, treatment guidelines, and package labeling were selected for inclusion. Data Synthesis: Primary literature and package labeling indicate that PAH treatments are subject to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. The management of PAH is rapidly evolving. As more and more evidence becomes available for the use of combination therapy in PAH, the increasing use of combination therapy increases the risk of drug-drug interactions. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is also associated with other comorbidities that require concomitant pharmacotherapy. Conclusion: The available literature indicates that PAH therapies are associated with clinically significant drug interactions and the potential for subsequent adverse reactions. Clinicians in all practice settings should be mindful that increased awareness of drug interactions with PAH therapy will ensure optimal management and patient safety.
Widely known as a curry spice, curcumin has a long history of use in the treatment of inflammatory conditions in Eastern Medicine. The spice is gaining interest in modern medicine for a diverse array of conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence indicates curcumin can effectively suppress inflammation through inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production as well as modulate B cell and T cell differentiation and function. The following article will evaluate the existing clinical trial literature assessing the impact of curcumin on patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Potential mechanisms of action, bioavailability issues, and effective dosing will be described.
Introduction Liposomal bupivacaine has been integrated into clinical practice within many surgical disciplines to reduce post-operative pain and opioid consumption. This novel agent has been utilized in this regard in many subdisciplines of orthopedic surgery. Total hip arthroplasty has significant opioid use post-operatively as compared to many other orthopedic disciplines. Objectives The purpose of the present investigation is to summarize the current use of liposomal bupivacaine after total hip arthroplasty and to shed light on the prospect of liposomal bupivacaine to reduce opioid use after total hip arthroplasty. A tertiary purpose is to identify future areas of adjunctive pain measures that can assist in the reduction of opioid use after total hip arthroplasty. Methods This IRB-exempt scoping review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) checklist strictly. The literature search was performed in Mendeley. Search fields were varied until redundant. All articles were screened by title and abstract and a preliminary decision to include an article was made. The full-text screening was performed on the selected articles. Any question regarding the inclusion of an article was discussed by three authors until an agreement was reached. Results A total of 21 articles were included for qualitative description of the opioid epidemic, opioid overuse in total hip arthroplasty, and risk factors for opioid overuse in total hip arthroplasty. A total of 9 articles were included regarding the use of liposomal bupivacaine in total hip arthroplasty. Several risk factors have been identified for opioid overuse after total hip arthroplasty. These include younger age, an opioid risk tool score of > 7, a higher body mass index, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, immunodeficiency syndromes, preexisting pain syndromes, peripheral vascular disease, anxiety and mood disorders, and substance abuse disorders. Liposomal bupivacaine reduces postoperative opioid use, patient-reported outcomes, length of stay, and time to ambulation, yet is more expensive than traditional bupivacaine. Conclusions Liposomal bupivacaine represents a useful adjunct for multimodal pain strategies in total hip arthroplasty with sufficient evidence to suggest that it may be useful in decreasing postoperative opioid use. The high costs of LB represent a barrier to institutional acceptance of LB into standardized multimodal pain strategies. Further efforts should be aimed toward better understanding the current state of integration of LB into academic and private practice settings, industry movements to decrease the cost, and the role other adjunctive measures may have in reducing post-operative opioid use.
This is a commentary on the review article: “Gas in scattering media absorption spectroscopy (GASMAS) as a potential tool in neonatal respiratory care.”
Introduction Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is an inflammatory condition that affects large vessels and frequently involves the aortic valve causing valve regurgitation. Surgical management is recommended for symptomatic severe aortic regurgitation (AR); however, the optimal surgical approach is yet unclear. This study aims to review surgical treatment options for AR in TA and determine which procedure has a lower chance of late postoperative events and/or mortality. Methods An electronic database search was performed within PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and SCOPUS to identify articles from 1975 to 2016 focusing on surgical management of the AR in TA. Results Twenty seven studies encompassing a total of 194 cases (77% females) were included. Isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR) was performed in 105/194 cases (54%) (Group A), while combined aortic valve and root replacement (CAVRR) was performed in 87/194 (45%) (Group B). Prosthetic valve detachment was reported in 10/105 cases (9.5%) in group A and 1/87 cases (1.2%) in group B (p = 0.02). Dilation of the residual aorta was reported in 10/105 cases (9.5%) in group A and 1/87 cases (1.2%) in group B (p = 0.02). Any late (≥ 30 d) postoperative cardiac event was reported in 26/105 cases (24.8%) in group A, and in 7/87 cases (8.1%) in group B (p = 0.003). Conclusions Although CAVRR is a more complex procedure, it might offer a better outcome in terms of late postoperative cardiac events compared to isolated AVR procedure. Future prospective studies are required to help determine the best surgical approach in such a population.
Background: Microscopic colitis and Celiac disease have been shown to occur concomitantly, but their relationship has yet to be systematically evaluated. Some patients with refractory microscopic colitis may have simultaneous celiac disease, and the converse is also true. Aims: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies to assess the prevalence and possible association between these two conditions. Methods: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, Web of Science, SciELO, and CINAHL Plus were systematically searched through January 26, 2021, to include relevant observational studies assessing the prevalence of microscopic colitis in celiac disease population or vice versa. DerSimonian-Laird approach using random effects was used to pool data and compare outcomes. Pooled prevalence, 95% confidence interval (CI), and p values (where applicable) were calculated. Results: Five studies (with 2589 patients, age range 39.5-52 years and females 66.6%) and 21 studies (with 7186 patients, age range 46.4-65.8 years and females 76.3%) were included assessing the prevalence of microscopic colitis in refractory celiac disease and celiac disease in refractory microscopic colitis cohort. The overall prevalence was 4.5% (2.6-6.3%) and 6.7% (5.2-8.1%), respectively. Five studies showed higher odds of celiac disease diagnosis in the refractory microscopic colitis population compared to the control group (OR 8.12, CI 4.92-13.41, p < 0.001). Conclusion: Celiac disease and microscopic colitis are concomitantly prevalent in a subset of population with either refrac-tory diagnosis. Clinicians should explore alternate diagnosis when one condition has been appropriately treated and patients continue to have refractory symptoms.
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by mechanical injury or trauma to the spinal cord. Currently, SCI treatment requires extremely high doses of neuroprotective agents, which in turn, causes several adverse effects. To overcome these limitations, the present study focuses on delivery of a low but effective dose of a naturally occurring antioxidant, α-tocopherol (α-TP). Calcium alginate nanoparticles (CA-NP) and poly D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticles (PLGA-NP) prepared by ionotropic gelation and solvent evaporation technique had particle size of 21.9 ± 11.19 and 152.4 ± 10.6 nm, respectively. Surface morphology, surface charge, as well as particle size distribution of both nanoparticles were evaluated. Entrapment of α-TP into CA-NP and PLGA-NP quantified by UPLC showed entrapment efficiency of 4.00 ± 1.63% and 76.6 ± 11.4%, respectively. In vitro cytotoxicity profiles on human astrocyte-spinal cord (HA-sp) showed that blank CA-NP at high concentrations reduced the cell viability whereas blank PLGA-NP showed relatively safer cytotoxic profiles. In addition, PLGA nanoparticles encapsulated with α-TP (α-TP-PLGA-NP) in comparison to α-TP alone at high concentrations were less toxic. Pretreatment of HA-sp cells with α-TP-PLGA-NP showed two-fold higher anti-oxidative protection as compared to α-TP alone, when oxidative stress was induced by H2O2. In conclusion, CA-NP were found to be unsuitable for treatment of SCI due to their cytotoxicity. Comparatively, α-TP-PLGA-NP were safer and showed high degree of protection against oxidative stress than α-TP alone.
Objective: Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks are associated with elevated intracranial pressure and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Skull base erosion and widening of the foramen ovale have been reported in patients with IIH. This study sought to investigate changes in the size of the foramen ovale and foramen spinosum in patients with IIH, spontaneous CSF leak, and encephalocele. Study design: Retrospective cohort study. Setting: Tertiary care academic medical center. Patients: Adult patients treated from 2014 to 2018 with computed tomographic imaging of the head and who were diagnosed with IIH, encephalocele, or CSF leak. Intervention: Two blinded observers measured the long and short axes of the foramen ovale and foramen spinosum on axial computed tomographic images. Measurements were used to calculate the approximate elliptical cross-sectional area of the foramina. Main outcome measures: Length, width, and area of the foramen ovale and foramen spinosum. Results: A total of 264 patients were identified meeting the inclusion criteria and were placed into three groups. There were 170 patients with IIH, 48 with spontaneous CSF leak or encephalocele (CSF/E group), and 46 with traumatic or iatrogenic CSF leak (control group). Mean foramen ovale short axis (4.85 ± 1.00 mm) and cross-sectional area (30.17 ± 9.25 mm2) in the CSF/E group were significantly increased compared with measurements in patients with IIH or the control groups. Foramen ovale size was positively correlated with age in the CSF/E group. No significant difference in foramen spinosum size was found. Conclusion: Skull base defect resulting in spontaneous CSF leak or encephalocele is associated with enlargement of the foramen ovale on axial computed tomography.
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3,278 members
D. Roselyn Cerutis
  • Department of Oral Biology
Peter Thomas
  • Department of Surgery
Mark Wierman
  • College of Arts and Sciences
Thomas F Murray
  • Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience
Jason Bartz
  • Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology
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