Coventry University
  • Coventry, West Midlands, United Kingdom
Recent publications
Eye tracking technologies have frequently been used in sport research to understand the interrelations between gaze behavior and performance, using a paradigm known as vision-for-action. This methodology has not been robustly applied within the field of interface design. The present work demonstrates the benefit of employing a vision-for-action paradigm for interface evaluation. This is demonstrated through the evaluation of a novel task-specific symbology set presented on a head-up-display (HUD), developed to support pilots conduct ground operations in low-visibility conditions. HUD gaze behavior was correlated with task performance to determine whether certain combinations of gaze behavior could produce effective predictive performance models. A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted with 11 professional pilots who were required to taxi in a fixed-base flight simulator using the HUD symbology, while gaze data toward the different HUD symbology elements was collected. Performance was measured as centerline deviation error and taxiing speed. Results revealed that appropriately timed gaze behavior toward task-specific elements of the HUD were associated with superior performance. During turns, attention toward an undercarriage lateral position indicator was associated with reduced centerline deviation ( p < 0.05). The findings are interpreted alongside detailed posttrial user-feedback of the HUD symbology to illustrate how eye tracking methodologies can be incorporated into interface usability evaluations. The joint interpretation of these data demonstrates these novel procedures, the findings contribute to enhancing the wider domain of interface design evaluation.
  • S M Charlesworth
    S M Charlesworth
  • D Kligerman
    D Kligerman
  • F Warwick
    F Warwick
  • M Blackett
    M Blackett
The 2015 Zika virus outbreak in Brazil established that neonate microcephaly was related to maternal infection by the virus during pregnancy, the highest densities of which occurred in the northeast and southeast of Brazil, the country’s most populated areas. These areas are typically associated with informal settlements or favelas which lack effective water management, sanitation and drainage, hence providing suitable breeding environments for the Aedes aegypti mosquito, the Zika virus vector. This paper reports on a novel study of community perceptions around the potential for Sustainable Drainage Systems to provide a means of reducing areas for the mosquito to breed, and hence reduce Zika infections in favelas. Interviews were carried out with key external stakeholders working with favelas and members of the favela community. Poor management of water supply, drainage and solid waste were clearly emphasised by participants illustrating gaps in current research connecting these areas. Participants proposed that only a holistic approach could address sanitation issues, hence the distribution of Zika-carrying mosquitos, subsequent infections and microcephaly. An approach was therefore needed taking account of the environment as a whole, increasing public awareness of sanitation and environmental health, improving sanitation infrastructure and providing adequate systems for solid waste management.
  • Freddy Brown
    Freddy Brown
  • Matt Hill
    Matt Hill
  • Derek Renshaw
    Derek Renshaw
  • [...]
  • Jason Tallis
    Jason Tallis
New Findings What is the central question of this study? What are the effects of compression garments on recovery from unaccustomed damaging exercise and subsequent protective adaptations? What is the main finding and its importance? Compression did not influence recovery, but was associated with blunted protective adaptations for isokinetic performance, which were completely absent at high velocities. Based on these findings, the use of compression garments for recovery would not be recommended following unaccustomed exercise, particularly if the maintenance of high‐velocity performance following exercise‐induced muscle damage is desirable. Abstract Whilst compression garments (CG) may enhance recovery from exercise‐induced muscle damage (EIMD), many recovery strategies can attenuate adaptative responses. Therefore, the effects of CG on recovery from EIMD, and the rapid protective adaptations known as the repeated bout effect (RBE) were investigated. Thirty‐four non‐resistance‐trained males (18–45 years) randomly received class II medical‐grade CG or placebo for 72 h following eccentrically‐focused lower‐body exercise, in a double‐blind, randomised controlled trial. Indices of EIMD were assessed at baseline, 0, 24, 48 and 72 h post‐exercise, before exercise and testing were repeated after 14 days. Results were analysed using a three‐way (time × condition × bout) linear mixed‐effects model. Exercise impaired isometric and isokinetic strength, with soreness and thigh circumference elevated for 72 h ( P < 0.001). Compression did not enhance recovery ( P > 0.05), despite small to moderate effect sizes (ES, reported alongside 90% confidence intervals) for isokinetic strength (ES from 0.2 [−0.41, 0.82] to 0.65 [0.03, 1.28]). All variables recovered faster after the repeated bout ( P < 0.005). However, RBE for peak isokinetic force was impaired in CG at 60° s ⁻¹ (group × bout interaction: χ ² = 4.24, P = 0.0395; ES = −0.56 [−1.18, 0.07]) and completely absent at 120° s ⁻¹ (χ ² = 16.2, P < 0.001, ES = −0.96 [−1.61, −0.32]) and 180° s ⁻¹ (χ ² = 10.4, P = 0.001, ES = −0.72 [−1.35, −0.09]). Compression blunted RBE at higher isokinetic velocities without improving recovery in non‐resistance‐trained males, potentially contraindicating their use following unaccustomed exercise in this population.
Advanced aerospace materials like Carbon Fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) contains heterogeneous and anisotropic material characteristics that does not exhibit sufficient toughness before failure. CFRP materials are recently replacing most of the modern applications like aerospace, space exploration and in various exotic engineering applications due to their outstanding strength to super lightweight properties. Manufacturing operations like cutting and machining the CFRP to the required shapes are most challenging aspects that are addressed in recent times. Aim of this research is to investigate the influence of CFRP orientation and layering pattern when machined using WEDM Machining process. As the material is extremely capable, and its heterogeneous structure makes them stand out from other conventional materials investigating its machinability using WEDM is vital. WEDM is extremely capable and could produce parts with intrinsic cuts and high precision. The various parameters involved with WEDM are carefully studied along with the novel metal-CFRP-metal sandwich configuration to machine and the CFRP samples are experimented with these parameters. The results obtained from the research are analyzed and the best suitable combinations of WEDM parameters are determined. To facilitate this, the cut samples are observed under a microscope to closely inspect the samples to discover which parameters had influenced the smoothness and quality of the cut the most.
AUXIN/INDOLE 3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) transcriptional repressor proteins and the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESISTANT 1/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX (TIR1/AFB) proteins to which they bind act as auxin coreceptors. While the structure of TIR1 has been solved, structural characterization of the regions of the Aux/IAA protein responsible for auxin perception has been complicated by their predicted disorder. Here, we use NMR, CD and molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the N-terminal domains of the Aux/IAA protein IAA17/AXR3. We show that despite the conformational flexibility of the region, a critical W–P bond in the core of the Aux/IAA degron motif occurs at a strikingly high (1:1) ratio of cis to trans isomers, consistent with the requirement of the cis conformer for the formation of the fully-docked receptor complex. We show that the N-terminal half of AXR3 is a mixture of multiple transiently structured conformations with a propensity for two predominant and distinct conformational subpopulations within the overall ensemble. These two states were modeled together with the C-terminal PB1 domain to provide the first complete simulation of an Aux/IAA. Using MD to recreate the assembly of each complex in the presence of auxin, both structural arrangements were shown to engage with the TIR1 receptor, and contact maps from the simulations match closely observations of NMR signal-decreases. Together, our results and approach provide a platform for exploring the functional significance of variation in the Aux/IAA coreceptor family and for understanding the role of intrinsic disorder in auxin signal transduction and other signaling systems.
We provide a complete description of the presentations of the interval groups related to quasi‐Coxeter elements in finite Coxeter groups. In the simply laced cases, we show that each interval group is the quotient of the Artin group associated with the corresponding Carter diagram by the normal closure of a set of twisted cycle commutators, one for each 4‐cycle of the diagram. Our techniques also reprove an analogous result for the Artin groups of finite Coxeter groups, which are interval groups corresponding to Coxeter elements. We also analyse the situation in the non‐simply laced cases, where a new Garside structure is discovered. Furthermore, we obtain a complete classification of whether the interval group we consider is isomorphic or not to the related Artin group. Indeed, using methods of Tits, we prove that the interval groups of proper quasi‐Coxeter elements are not isomorphic to the Artin groups of the same type, in the case of when is even or in any of the exceptional cases. In Baumeister et al. (J. Algebra 629 (2023), 399–423), we show using different methods that this result holds for type for all .
This paper introduces a method for improving parameter estimation in statistical models. Parameter estimation is a popular area of study in statistics, and recent years have seen the introduction of new distributions with more parameters to enhance modelling success. While finding a suitable model for a dataset is crucial, accurately estimating parameters is equally important. In some cases, classical parameter estimation methods fail to provide a closed form of estimation for parameters. As a result, researchers commonly resort to numerical methods and software programs for parameter estimation in models. The success rates of models have gained significance with the rising popularity of novel techniques like machine learning algorithms and artificial neural networks. Robust and reliable models are built on the strong theoretical foundations of statistical distributions. Specific distributions are used in various research fields to model datasets, and the assumptions associated with these distributions provide valuable insights into observations. Additionally, parameter estimation results sometimes lead researchers to direct conclusions. This paper presents an improvement method that relies on the estimation of parameters from other statistical distributions. This novel approach aims to make parameter estimation easier and more successful in certain situations. In the applications in this paper, the proposed methodology improves the success rate by up to 10% which provides an additional 6% success in the models.
Conflicting findings have emerged from research on the relationship between thinking styles and supernatural beliefs. In two studies, we examined this relationship through meta-cognitive trust and developed a new: (1) experimental manipulation, a short scientific article describing the benefits of thinking styles: (2) trust in thinking styles measure, the Ambiguous Decisions task; and (3) supernatural belief measure, the Belief in Psychic Ability scale. In Study 1 (N = 415) we found differences in metacognitive trust in thinking styles between the analytical and intuitive condition, and overall greater trust in analytical thinking. We also found stronger correlations between thinking style measures (in particular intuitive thinking) and psychic ability and paranormal beliefs than with religious beliefs, but a mixed-effect linear regression showed little to no variation in how measures of thinking style related to types of supernatural beliefs. In Study 2, we replicated Study 1 with participants from the United States, Canada, and Brazil (N = 802), and found similar results, with the Brazilian participants showing a reduced emphasis on analytical thinking. We conclude that our new design, task, and scale may be particularly useful for dual-processing research on supernatural belief.
This chapter provides a narrative synthesis of the research findings on the well-being of asylum-seeking and refugee children in the United Kingdom. The authors identified 36 research articles published in peer-review journals and thematically analyzed them to document these children’s negative experiences that could impact their well-being. The reported studies also explained the support mechanisms and interventions needed to sustain and improve child welfare and the challenges encountered in supporting their well-being. The research findings suggest that asylum-seeking and refugee children have diverse socioemotional and behavioral challenges, needs, expectations, psychological resources, and coping mechanisms that require schools to develop socioemotionally, culturally, or/and religiously sensitive responses for a more inclusive school environment.
Pesticides applied to agricultural land have been shown to decrease the quality of water entering the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. This issue is addressed by the Reef 2050 Water Quality Improvement Plan which includes a pesticide reduction target. As part of a wider educational strategy, one method that could help meet the target is to provide stakeholders with information that assists in the selection and use of pesticide active ingredients (PAIs) that pose a lower risk to aquatic environments compared to those currently used. This study developed a Pesticide Decision Support Tool (PDST) in collaboration with stakeholders for the sugar cane industry. The PDST covers all PAIs registered and applied to sugar cane in Australia and four additional PAIs registered for use on crops grown in rotation with sugar cane. The PDST incorporates both the measure of mobility and persistence of a PAI and the measure of effect, which is based on the PAI application rate and ecotoxicity threshold value. The aquatic risk, which is the product of the measure of effect and the measure of mobility and persistence, is a measure of the likelihood that a PAI will reach the aquatic environment and cause harmful effects. Insecticide active ingredients (e.g., cadusafos, chlorpyrifos) posed the greatest aquatic risk, followed by herbicide active ingredients (e.g., MSMA, metolachlor), while fungicide AIs typically had a lower aquatic risk. An interactive spreadsheet allows characteristics, including application rate and tank mixes, to be considered when assessing the potential risk. While focusing on sugar cane, the results are equally appropriate to other crops that use the same PAIs provided the application rates are corrected to the new crop. In addition, the approach used in the PDST can be applied internationally and to any PAIs with sufficient toxicity, mobility, and persistence data.
Background and Objective One in five preschool children are overweight/obese, and increased weight status over time increases the risks of poorer future health. Motor skill competence may be a protective factor, giving children the ability to participate in health-enhancing physical activity. Yet, we do not know when the relationship between motor competence and weight status first emerges or whether it is evident across the body mass index (BMI) spectrum. This study examined the association between motor skill competence and BMI in a multi-country sample of 5545 preschoolers (54.36 ± 9.15 months of age; 50.5% boys) from eight countries. Methods Quantile regression analyses were used to explore the associations between motor skill competence (assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development, Second/Third Edition) and quantiles of BMI (15th; 50th; 85th; and 97th percentiles), adjusted for sex, age in months, and country. Results Negative associations of locomotor skills, ball skills, and overall motor skill competence with BMI percentiles (p < 0.005) were seen, which became stronger at the higher end of the BMI distribution (97th percentile). Regardless of sex, for each raw score point increase in locomotor skills, ball skills, and overall motor skill competence scores, BMI is reduced by 8.9%, 6.8%, and 5.1%, respectively, for those preschoolers at the 97th BMI percentile onwards. Conclusions Public health policies should position motor skill competence as critical for children’s obesity prevention from early childhood onwards. Robust longitudinal and experimental designs are encouraged to explore a possible causal pathway between motor skill competence and BMI from early childhood.
This article explores the use of a pedagogic approach that utilises critical discourse theories to examine how people construct the social work identity while navigating the neoliberal landscape. The approach adopts an interventionist stance to engage individuals in a type of conversation that exposes dominant discourses within social work and what these represent, as well as their effects. It provides practitioners with ways in which to reconsider competing and contradictory aspects of the social work identity, and, more crucially, it facilitates a conversation where the more marginalised, competing and coexisting discourses can be interwoven alongside the contemporary challenges of practice. Based on reclaiming a professional identity as a way of resisting hegemonic discourses, this method aims to provide ways to recontextualise language practices surrounding social work’s occupational mission and identity. Here, it is assumed that professional identities are never complete but instead viewed as shifting, changing and contradictory.
Study aim : This study aimed to determine and compare the ‘optimum power load’ in the hexagonal (HBDL) and straight (SBDL) bar deadlift exercises. Material and methods : Fifteen novice strength-trained males performed three repetitions of the HBDL and SBDL at loads from 20–90% of their one-repetition maximum (1RM). Peak power, average power, peak velocity, and average velocity were determined from each repetition using a velocity-based linear position transducer. Results : Repeated measures ANOVA revealed a significant effect of load for HBDL and SBDL (all p < 0.001). Post-hoc analyses revealed peak power outputs for HBDL were similar across 50–90% 1RM, with the highest peak power recorded at 80% 1RM (1053 W). The peak power outputs for SBDL were similar across 40–90% 1RM, with the highest peak power recorded at 90% 1RM (843 W). A paired sample t-test revealed that HBDL showed greater peak power at 60% (Hedges’ g effect size g = 0.53), average power at 50–70%, (g = 0.56–0.74), and average velocity at 50% of 1RM (g = 0.53). However, SBDL showed greater peak velocity at 20% (g = 0.52) and average velocity at 90% of 1RM (g = 0.44). Conclusion : Practitioners can use these determined loads to target peak power and peak velocity outputs for the HBDL and SBDL exercises (e.g., 50–90% 1RM in HBDL). The HBDL may offer additional advantages resulting in greater peak power and average power outputs than the SBDL.
Identifying sustainable alternatives and addressing the environmental impacts of cement production are becoming increasingly vital. Alternative materials, such as fly ash, can be used as a partial replacement for cement in concrete and mortar. This study will examine the impact of early-age heat of hydration on compressive strength of mortar when cement is partially replaced by fly ash. The mix proportion used in this study was 1:3 (cement: fine aggregate) with a w/b ratio of 0.4. Furthermore, the replacement of cement with fly ash was calculated based on weight percentage proportions, ranging from 10, 30, and 50% of the cement weight. Fly ash can be effectively used as a substitute for cement to reduce thermal hydration and maintain acceptable levels of compressive strength. As the fly ash substitution rate increased, the thermal hydration of the samples decreased. Nevertheless, the increased strength level may serve as a counterbalance for the initially reduced strength of the mortar that contains fly ash.
This study determined the contributors to soccer technical skills in grassroots youth soccer players using a machine learning approach. One hundred and sixty-two boys aged 7 to 14 (mean ± SD = 10.5 ± 2.1) years, who were regularly engaged in grassroots soccer undertook assessments of anthropometry and maturity offset (the time from age at peak height velocity (APHV)), fundamental movement skills (FMS), perceived physical competence, and physical fitness and technical soccer skill using the University of Ghent dribbling test. Coaches rated player's overall soccer skills for their age. Statistical analysis was undertaken, using machine learning models to predict technical skills from the other variables. A stepwise recursive feature elimination with a 5-fold cross-validation method was used to eliminate the worst-performing features and both L1 and L2 regularisation were evaluated during the process. Five models (linear, ridge, lasso, random forest, and boosted trees) were then used in a heuristic approach using a small subset of suitable algorithms to achieve a reasonable level of accuracy within a reasonable time frame to make predictions and compare them to a test set to understand the predictive capabilities of the models. Results from the machine learning analysis indicated that the total FMS score (0 to 50) was the most important feature in predicting technical soccer skills followed by coach rating of child skills for their age, years of playing experience and APHV. Using a random forest, technical skills could be predicted with 99% accuracy in boys who play grassroots soccer, with FMS being the most important contributor.
This chapter examines the impact that the experience of volunteering can have upon volunteers responding to poverty by drawing on the experience of volunteers at a food project (‘Lunch’), which the author ran each school holiday from July 2015 to August 2016 in response to holiday hunger. Holiday hunger is when children are at risk of not having enough to eat in the school holidays. ‘Lunch’ provided primary school aged children with play time and a hot, healthy meal and was delivered in a church hall. The chapter concludes that the impact of volunteering upon volunteers is important to understand in order to problematise the binary of the giver and receiver in responding to poverty.
This chapter examines Christian engagement in tackling poverty in the UK over the last decade. We draw on three years of research which included interviews with 16 national UK Church leaders, an online survey with over 100 regional Church leaders, and six ethnographic case studies in Birmingham, London, and Manchester. We examine the different ways that Christians are responding to poverty in the UK—including caring, campaigning and advocacy, enterprise, and self-reliance—and explore the theological and ethical values that underpin their social action. We show that a key challenge facing both society and the Church is whether the Church is willing to use its social capital to resource campaigns seeking to transform structural injustice, rather than confining itself to welfare-based responses to poverty.
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29,100 members
Djordje Jakovljevic
  • Institute for Health and Wellbeing - Research Centre (CSELS) - Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Julia M Carroll
  • Centre for Research in Psychology, Behaviour and Achievement
Aftab Alam
  • Faculty of Health and Life Sciences
Martin Weigel
  • Applied Mathematics Research Centre
Rahat Iqbal
  • Faculty of Engineering and Computing
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