We consider transferable utility cooperative games with infinitely many players. In particular, we generalize the notions of core and balancedness, and also the Bondareva–Shapley Theorem for infinite TU games with and without restricted cooperation, to the cases where the core consists of $$\kappa $$ κ -additive set functions. Our generalized Bondareva–Shapley Theorem extends previous results by Bondareva (Problemy Kibernetiki 10:119–139, 1963), Shapley (Naval Res Logist Q 14:453–460, 1967), Schmeidler (On balanced games with infinitely many players, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1967), Faigle (Zeitschrift für Oper Res 33(6):405–422, 1989), Kannai (J Math Anal Appl 27:227–240, 1969; The core and balancedness, handbook of game theory with economic applications, North-Holland, 1992), Pintér (Linear Algebra Appl 434(3):688–693, 2011) and Bartl and Pintér (Oper Res Lett 51(2):153–158, 2023).
Central European countries with a historically dominant Roman Catholic heritage belong to a particular cluster in respect to the governance of religion. This paper focuses on Hungary and Slovakia and addresses the effect of religious nationalism on the regimes of governance of religion in the two countries. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, there was a brief period of neutral stance towards religion, which was characterized by liberal values. With the introduction of the bilateral Concordat agreements with the Holy See, both countries started to treat traditional Christian Churches preferentially. By the 2010s legislation in both countries created restrictive entry barriers for “new” religions. This created two or multi-tiered systems for “old” and “new” religions, in which the former enjoyed closer relationship with the state. As a result, the separation of church and state has become blurred. Preferentially treated churches reappeared in the public space as providers of certain educational and social services. Preferentially treated churches and the state developed asymmetrically interdependent relationships, the state having the upper hand. Meanwhile, increasingly populist and nationalist parties instrumentalized religion by involving Christianity in their nationalistic political discourse. This helped create a normative space, in which the state is able to give further preferential treatment to certain religious groups over others. The emphasis on Christian national identity underpinned these governments’ narratives that conflates migration with security and Islam, which pushed those religious groups on the margins, which do not fit in the religious nationalist narrative of the increasingly right- and populism-leaning governing elite.
Businesses constantly strive to build organizational capacity to use data strategically. As a result, there is a growing demand for business analytics professionals. While higher education systems worldwide have been adapting to build competencies, they must meet employees' expectations. Curriculum design for delivering business analytics competencies remains a challenge due to the rapidly evolving nature of business analytics as a discipline. The paper aims to decode the industry expectations for the Business Analytics profile. This study investigates the skills employers value by analyzing job descriptions. We use a text-mining approach to understand the weightage of different skills and mine skill clusters within business analytics roles. The core skill clusters are hard skills related to Big data, Business Intelligence, and analytical techniques. Results also suggest that traditional machine learning (ML) skills, typically expected in a data science profile, are also being sought after in a business analytics role. Surprisingly soft communication and stakeholder management skills are also emerging as essential skills for business analytics roles. This study provides a better understanding by investigating the interplay between the demand for skills in the job market and curriculum development.
The participatory approach is becoming more widespread in the social sciences and is also starting to take hold in the study of language in society. However, there has been little research done on how critical sociolinguistics can be linked to research that is based on the involvement and engagement of as many participants as possible at a level they find relevant for themselves. We argue that the academic separation between the ‘researcher’ and the ‘researched’ is worth reexamining in sociolinguistic research, as all participants do ’ideologizing work’ that establishes the perspective from which they view language. We discuss this through a case study from Moldavia, the North-Eastern region of Romania, which aimed to explore the contemporary language practices of former students of a Hungarian-language revitalization program. We point out that being critical of language-related inequalities cannot be separated from being critical of participation in the research process, if we are to work together across a multiplicity of language ideologies.
Numerous studies indicate that in many particular cases, spatial 3D digital environments can offer more effective methods for information and knowledge sharing than 2D graphical user interfaces. This effectiveness arises from the unique ability of 3D spaces to present users with different types of content, such as written documents, web-based content, audio-visual materials, and even interactive 3D models, all at once and in a spatially meaningful arrangement. For instance, in a 3D virtual space, related documents can be placed closer to each other than those focusing on different topics. Similarly, content meant to convey key points can also be designed to appear relatively larger than less prominent documents. Such spatial arrangements help convey semantic relationships implicitly, allowing users to quickly understand the content and form more memorable impressions with less effort. However, it is not fully understood when and how these potential benefits of 3D environments can be fully realized. In this paper, we focus on this question, specifically in the context of desktop 3D environments, aiming to understand the conditions under which they can lead to improved performance and/or less cognitive load compared to 2D digital interfaces. In particular, we present the results of two experiments in which we compared user performance, eye tracking data (including pupil dilation), and a set of qualitative measures during a learning task carried out in a 2D environment and two different 3D virtual reality scenarios. The notable differences between these 3D scenarios -- as well as disparities in the corresponding results -- allowed us to draw two conclusions: first, that 3D spatial environments can indeed lead to the reduction of cognitive load compared to 2D interfaces, and second, such reductions in cognitive load are more effective in 3D spaces that require less (virtual) spatial locomotion, even at the expense of a greater number of camera rotations. Together, these results suggest that the ability of VR to reduce users' cognitive load may have more to do with the spatial qualities of the content arrangement than with the spatial situatedness of the users.
Digital technologies can augment civic participation by facilitating the expression of detailed political preferences. Yet, digital participation efforts often rely on methods optimized for elections involving a few candidates. Here we present data collected in an online experiment where participants built personalized government programmes by combining policies proposed by the candidates of the 2022 French and Brazilian presidential elections. We use this data to explore aggregates complementing those used in social choice theory, finding that a metric of divisiveness, which is uncorrelated with traditional aggregation functions, can identify polarizing proposals. These metrics provide a score for the divisiveness of each proposal that can be estimated in the absence of data on the demographic characteristics of participants and that explains the issues that divide a population. These findings suggest that divisiveness metrics can be useful complements to traditional aggregation functions in direct forms of digital participation.
Department heads are central in the university setting as an impor-tant buffer between university leadership and academic staff. However, taking on a middle management role can lead to signifi-cant disruptions in academic careers. To investigate the career trajectories of 31 academics in middle management roles, two waves of semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2015–16 (N = 31) and 2021 (N = 26). By exploring (dis)continuity in academic careers and (dis)engagement with participants’ managerial roles, we identified four types of trajectories that appeared to influence participants’ possibilities of future academic career development. We labelled these trajectories as follows: temporary managers, early managers, duty-served senior managers, and acclaimed managers. We argue that temporary managers, who are appointed to a fixed- term managerial position early in their academic careers, face the highest risk of disruptions in their academic career development, while duty-served senior managers, who are appointed to a fixed- term managerial position later in their careers, represent the most sustainable group. Free copies: https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/TKK2YYMIVSMKSYQM8KKR/full?target=10.1080/1360080X.2023.2276589
The current Systematic Literature Review (SLR) represents the first attempt to systematically classify the factors influencing consumers’ decision-making process to purchase green cosmetics, based on a review of 60 studies from 2007 to 2022. The factors were classified using the Stimulus-Organism-Response (SOR) paradigm as the theoretical framework. The findings of the SLR indicate that consumers’ decision-making process is primarily driven by socio-psychological stimuli, such as environmental concern, health consciousness, and social norms. These stimuli trigger internal states in consumers, which consist of cognitive and affective states. The internal states are represented by facilitators, such as attitude towards green cosmetics, perceived product quality, and product knowledge, as well as inhibitors, such as perceived high price, skepticism, and greenwashing. Among the final responses, purchase intention was found to be the most detected in the reviewed studies. Regarding socio-demographic characteristics, the segment of green cosmetic consumers is mainly characterized by women, employed individuals, with a high level of education and income. The study also highlights the core limitations of the existing literature and proposes a research agenda for future investigations.
Shortening food supply chains attracts increasing support from policymakers, to improve returns to farmers and stimulate rural development. However, there is a lack of empirical evidence regarding the impacts of short food supply chains on local economies. To address this, the article quantifies the impacts of short food supply chains on local economies, using the Keynesian-based Local Multiplier 3 method (LM3), applied to a unique dataset of 122 farm businesses from five European Union countries (France, Hungary, Italy, Poland and the United Kingdom). Estimations cover 305 market chains, comprising both short and long food supply chains, in which sampled farmers participate. The results indicate that the revenues from farm production remain largely within local economies, generating a substantial multiplier effect (LM3 > 2). This effect stems from purchases of farm inputs locally including, in the first instance, hiring local labour, as well as the expenditures of local suppliers that re-spend part of their revenues within the local area. The multiplier effects of short food supply chains are similar to long food supply chain equivalents as both use largely local labour and source tradable inputs locally. In shaping food chain policy a broader set of socioeconomic benefits to local development from selling through short food supply chains should be considered.
Green brand advocacy, a unique phenomenon wherein regular customers champion environmentally conscious businesses, constitutes a vital extension of pro-environmental goals. This research extends prior research in green marketing by investigating the interplay between environmental activists and brands. Specifically, this research delves into the influence of attributing human-like qualities to nature and specific emotions evoked by nature on green brand advocacy in the scope of environmental activism. The research adopts the Simulation Theory to frame five pivotal concepts: nature anthropomorphism, ecological injustice, nature love, green trust, and green brand advocacy. Employing purposive sampling, this research gathered data from 303 environmental activists in Indonesia. A two-step analysis, utilizing the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) via SPSS and AMOS software, was conducted to interpret the data. This research yields several theoretical contributions: firstly, nature anthropomorphism indirectly affects green brand advocacy through its positive relationship with ecological injustice and nature love. Secondly, this research uncovers that green trust negatively moderates the relationship between ecological injustice and green brand advocacy, emphasizing the need to effectively manage green trust to foster pro-environmental behaviors. The findings also carry noteworthy managerial implications: Businesses targeting environmental activists should customize their marketing content to align with activists’ anthropomorphic perspective of nature. However, businesses must also consider the potential adverse effects of green trust in their green marketing campaigns. Therefore, a balanced approach is advised, focusing on cultivating customer trust while promoting eco-friendly products. Overall, this research sheds light on the determinants influencing green brand advocacy in the context of environmental activism.
A sender wants to persuade multiple homogeneous receivers to vote in favor of a proposal. Before the vote sender commits to a signal which sends private, potentially correlated, messages to receivers that are contingent on the true state of the world. The best equilibrium for sender in the resulting incomplete information game is unappealing: all receivers vote in favor of sender's preferred outcome, irrespective of their message. We therefore focus on the equilibrium where receivers vote sincerely, that is they vote in favor of the outcome that is optimal given their posterior. We characterize the optimal public and the optimal private signal, both for the case where receivers are behavioral and vote sincerely as well as the case where such behavior is a Bayes–Nash equilibrium (BNE). For the optimal public signal, sincere voting is a BNE, but the optimal private signal is subject to the swing voter's curse. Imposing the constraint that sincere voting be a BNE leads to an optimal signal where receivers are never pivotal.
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