Although researchers have investigated the association between education and crime, few studies have studied Sub-Saharan Africa, which has the lowest rate of youth enrolled in high school. Notwithstanding, some countries are paying attention to high school education, whereby specific policies often termed “cost elimination” are designed to facilitate free education. At the micro-to-micro level, it is argued that enrolling and completing high school reduces the rate of criminal engagement. Against this backdrop, we investigate the effect of high school enrolment on the crime rate using macro-to-macro-level panel data about Sub-Saharan Africa countries from 2003 to 2018. Using theft and homicide rates as proxies for property and violent crime, respectively, our results show that an increase in enrolment has a significant negative effect on property crime. We find no evidence of a significant effect on violent crime. When addressing endogeneity bias using cost elimination as an instrument for enrolment, we find that the magnitude of the negative effect on the rate of theft is significantly greater and robust than the baseline estimates. These findings support the assumption that interventions that support access to education improve social structures and have the additional benefit of reducing the rate of theft, giving credence to social support theory. In a region where a majority of theft is committed by youth without a high school education, policymakers need to make concerted efforts to raise participation in high school as one of the means of reducing crime, rather than focusing exclusively on crime control.
This article offers an overview of the evolution of Hungarian futures studies via a systematic literature review of articles with at least one Hungarian futurist (co-)author, published in high-ranking international or English-language Hungar-ian journals. The review reveals how researchers from a relatively small European country, where central planning had been applied for decades, have made their way to the pages of prestigious international journals and disseminated their results in a diverse range of articles to the global research community. The number of these publications has increased decade by decade. Results of statistical-based literature review demonstrate that research period and research topic are in strong association with the quality of journal articles, yet scientometric features of Hungarian futurist (co-)authors are not significant in this aspect. However, spectacular clustering of articles can be accomplished based on the citation statistics of Hungarian futurist (co-)authors.
Background Measuring and understanding the level of health literacy serves as a starting point for developing various policies in health care. The consequences of weak health literacy competencies are severe; they result in riskier health behaviour, poorer health status, more frequent emergency visits and hospitalizations. This research has three aims: i ) measure the level of health literacy in the populations of Latvia and Lithuania; ii ) investigate which demographic and socioeconomic determinants are associated with it; and iii ) discuss the means of improving its current level. Methods We employ a validated survey tool, the 47-item European Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q). In addition to the 47 questions in the domains of health care, disease prevention, and health promotion, the participants’ demographic and socioeconomic characteristics are assessed. Face-to-face paper-assisted surveys are conducted with randomly selected residents from Latvia and Lithuania. The level of health literacy is measured by the health literacy index. Spearman correlation analyses and multiple regressions models are employed for investigating the association between the health literacy level and its determinants. The survey tool is complemented with in-depth interviews with six healthcare industry experts in order to assess the most promising ways to improve the level of health literacy. Results The stratified random sampling with quota elements assured a representative sample in terms of gender, urban/rural distribution and regions. In Latvia, 79% of the population possesses weak health literacy competencies. In Lithuania, 73% of the population can be characterized with inadequate or problematic level of health literacy. The most important determinants of the health literacy level include age, financial situation, social status, and ethnicity. In particular, elderly (aged 76 and over) and the Latvian-speaking population are less health literate, while those having better financial situation and higher social status are more health literate. The three most promising ways to improve the level of health literacy, as suggested by the healthcare industry experts, include health education in schools, provision of structured health-related information in Latvian and Lithuanian, and guidelines for the most common health problems. Conclusions The proportion of population with inadequate or problematic level of health literacy is higher in Latvia and Lithuania than in several other European countries. There is an urgent need to develop policies to improve it.
The motivation behind this paper is threefold. Firstly, to study, characterize and realize operator concavity along with its applications to operator monotonicity of free functions on operator domains that are not assumed to be matrix convex. Secondly, to use the obtained Schur complement based representation formulas to analytically extend operator means of probability measures and to emphasize their study through random variables. Thirdly, to obtain these results in a decent generality. That is, for domains in arbitrary tensor product spaces of the form A⊗B(E), where A is a Banach space and B(E) denotes the bounded linear operators over a Hilbert space E. Our arguments also apply when A is merely a locally convex space.
The paper discusses the strategy-proofness of sports tournaments with multiple group stages, where the results of matches already played in the previous round against teams in the same group are carried over. These tournaments, widely used in handball and other sports, are shown to be incentive incompatible in the sense that a team can be strictly better off by not exerting full effort in a game. Historical examples are presented when a team was ex ante disinterested in winning by a high margin. We propose a family of incentive compatible designs. Their main characteristics are compared to the original format via simulations. Carrying over half of the points scored in the previous round turns out to be a promising policy.
This research was carried out from the perspective of downward price-based brand extensions with the aim to discover its effects on customer perceptions regarding luxury brands and brand extensions and consequences on buying intention and luxury brand loyalty. The conceptual framework is based on both previous qualitative and quantitative research. A five factors model is tested in a judgemental sample of 158 premium luxury brands consumers using Partial Least Squares (PLS). Findings confirm that extension in new segments could negatively affect the brand concept perception of the parent luxury brand. These results indicate that (a) the brand concept consistency is affected by down-price brand extension, (b) due to brand concept changes then brand personality also changes, (c) this variations affect the fit between brand personality and consumer self-image and, (d), as a consequence, the purchase intention and brand loyalty are affected in a negative way. From a managerial point of view, this type of brand extension can be less positive than expected, generating negative effects against the extension and the parent brand itself. This work contributes to rethink the use of downward price-based brand extensions as an strategic alternative for brand managers.
Governments increasingly tend to involve or rely on various societal actors to address social challenges and develop cost-effective and high-quality public services. This paper identifies the major themes of social innovation relating to this type of collaborative governance, by carrying out a conceptual analysis of the scientific and grey literature on social innovation in five European countries. Depending on the country, different emphases of social innovation are found. One theme that appears common to all countries is social entrepreneurship. This paper provides a mapping of these major themes on social innovation. It discusses the nexus of collaborative governance and social innovation by theme, and the impact that the history of the national welfare state has on social innovation initiatives and forms of collaborative governance.
Previous research in sustainable fashion has placed a strong emphasis on transitioning to eco-friendly clothing that in turn contributes to a consumerist lifestyle. Meanwhile, there has been little emphasis placed on second-hand clothing consumption practices, which are not particularly popular among Asian consumers. The purpose of this research is to investigate factors influencing second-hand clothing purchases in Indonesia. Several key concepts are proposed in this research, namely hedonism, guilt, ecological concern, price consciousness, purchase intention, and actual purchase. Purposive sampling via an online questionnaire yielded a total of 225 buyers of second-hand clothing. The data were analysed using the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) method with SPSS and AMOS software. The findings reveal that: (1) hedonism has a positive relationship with the purchase intention of second-hand clothing (2) guilt has a positive relationship with the purchase intention of second-hand clothing (3) ecological concern has a negative relationship with the purchase intention of second-hand clothing and lastly, (4) purchase intention has a positive relationship with the actual purchase of second-hand clothing.
Many countries have secured larger quantities of COVID-19 vaccines than their population is willing to take. The abundance and the large variety of vaccines created not only an unprecedented intensity of vaccine related public discourse, but also a historical moment to understand vaccine hesitancy better. Yet, the heterogeneity of hesitancy by vaccine types has been neglected in the existing literature so far. We address this problem by analysing the acceptance and the assessment of five vaccine types. We use information collected with a nationally representative survey at the end of the third wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Hungary. During the vaccination campaign, individuals could reject the assigned vaccine to wait for a more preferred alternative that enables us to quantify revealed preferences across vaccine types. We find that hesitancy is heterogenous by vaccine types and is driven by individuals’ trusted source of information. Believers of conspiracy theories are more likely to evaluate the mRNA vaccines (Pfizer and Moderna) unacceptable. Those who follow the advice of politicians are more likely to evaluate vector-based (AstraZeneca and Sputnik) or whole-virus vaccines (Sinopharm) acceptable. We argue that the greater selection of available vaccine types and the free choice of the individual are desirable conditions to increase the vaccination rate in societies.
Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are suitable substrate materials for soft neural interfaces due to their tunable elastic characteristics. The stability and biocompatibility of intracortical SMP probes are demonstrated. In this work, a SMP‐based cortical implant capable of recording high‐density micro‐electrocorticography is utilized in a multimodal neuroimaging scheme. The transparent nature of thiol‐ene/acrylate substrate is exploited, and the feasibility of measuring intracranial electroencephalogram and fluorescent GCaMP6 signals with two‐photon imaging through the device is presented in mice. The potential influence of the optical properties of the microdevice is investigated using fluorescent microbeads, hippocampal brain slices, and awake animals. It is found that neurites and cell soma can be efficiently detected with sufficient resolution to follow changes in the calcium signal. These chronically implanted devices do not suppress the quality of optical signals exceeding 22 weeks after implantation. These results indicate that thiol‐ene/acrylate ECoG is an appropriate tool to combine electrophysiology with two‐photon imaging while leveraging the inherent tissue‐friendly properties of SMPs. Soft, transparent thiol‐ene/acrylate‐based neural microimplant is utilized to concurrently record cortical electrophysiology and optical signals with two‐photon calcium imaging. Ca signals of individual neurons can be recorded for at least 22 weeks in awake animals at high spatial resolution. Integrated gold and iridium‐oxide electrodes provide stable signal‐to‐noise ratio during the long‐term in vivo experiment.
Social workers may play an important role in the implementation of welfare policies targeted at the poor. Their norms, beliefs, and attitudes form local anti-poverty programmes and affect discretionary practices with their clients. Despite this, we know little about how social workers’ exposure to poverty shapes their attitudes towards poverty and their causal attributions for poverty. This study investigates social workers’ poverty explanations and the extent to which they depend on the level of local poverty. Data from a survey conducted among Hungarian social workers were analysed using multilevel linear regression models. To measure local poverty, we used a composite index of poverty, as well as a subjective measure of exposure to poverty. Our analysis revealed that most social workers explained poverty with structural causes, but individual blame was also frequent. Contrary to our hypothesis, the level of local poverty did not significantly increase the adoption of structural explanations but did raise the occurrence of individualistic ones. However, the effect of local poverty was non-linear: social workers tended to blame the poor for their poverty in the poorest municipalities, where multiple disadvantages are concentrated, while moderate poverty did not lead to such opinions. Our results suggest that efforts should be made to improve the poverty indicator framework to better understand the phenomenon of spatial concentration of multiple disadvantages and its consequences for the poor.
Autonomous vehicles are expected to shape mobility and tourism. This paper introduces an extension to the TAM to better understand the adoption of self-driving cars for tourism purposes. The new model (TAMAT) confirms some under-explored impacts of tourism-related variables, such as Openness to Tourism Usage and Unusual Surroundings, and the Adherence to Conventional Use on the Intention to Use self-driving cars. The research is based on online data collection (n = 646) and applies Covariance-Based Structural Equation Modelling. Findings indicate that the opportunity of using self-driving cars for tourism and unusual environments has a positive impact, while adherence to conventional car use has a negative impact on the intention to use self-driving cars.
The pathomechanism of various autoimmune diseases is known to be associated with the altered function of programmed cell death 1/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) axis. We aimed to investigate the role of this pathway and inflammatory cell markers in subtypes of cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE): discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE), subacute CLE (SCLE) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN)-like lupus, a hyperacute form of acute CLE (ACLE). Ten skin biopsy samples from 9 patients were analyzed with immunohistochemistry regarding the following markers: CD3, CD4, CD8, Granzyme B, CD123, CD163, PD-1, PD-L1. Our group consisted of 4 SCLE (2 idiopathic (I-SCLE) and 2 PD-1 inhibitor-induced (DI-SCLE)), 4 DLE and 1 TEN-like lupus cases. From the latter patient two consecutive biopsies were obtained 1 week apart. Marker expression patterns were compared through descriptive analysis. Higher median keratinocyte (KC) PD-L1 expression was observed in the SCLE group compared to the DLE group (65% and 5%, respectively). Medians of dermal CD4, Granzyme B (GB), PD-1 positive cell numbers and GB+/CD8+ ratio were higher in the DLE group than in the SCLE group. The I-SCLE and DI-SCLE cases showed many similarities, however KC PD-L1 expression and dermal GB positive cell number was higher in the former. The consecutive samples of the TEN-like lupus patient showed an increase by time within the number of infiltrating GB+ cytotoxic T-cells and KC PD-L1 expression (from 22 to 43 and 30%–70%, respectively). Alterations of the PD-1/PD-L1 axis seems to play a role in the pathogenesis of CLE.
Plain English Summary Firms that increase their sales quickly are responsible for a large part of industry-level productivity growth, but only during their high-growth phase. In contrast, firms that increase their employment quickly often experience falling productivity. This paper quantifies the contribution of high-growth firms (HGFs) to industry-level productivity growth, using Hungarian data. We find that i) the contribution depends strongly on the way growth is measured: firms growing in terms of revenue tend to contribute more than firms growing in terms of employment, ii) HGFs contribute to productivity growth mainly through their high-growth period, but not afterwards, iii) these contributions are not strongly associated with industry characteristics, though they tend to be larger in industries with more young firms. Our results are relevant for policymakers who are interested in the productivity effects of HGFs not only job creation, and suggest that expected productivity effects i) depend on the type of high growth, ii) are concentrated to the high-growth period, and iii) might not be enhanced by industry targeting.
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