Past tasting experience with edible insects could influence food neophobia (FN) and disgust, and consequently, it could increase the intention to engage with entomophagy by influencing our food neophobia and disgust. Thus, this study aims to measure the effect of food neophobia and insect disgust on the willingness to engage in entomophagy (WTE) and to explore the differences between consumers who had previous experience eating insects and those who did not. An online cross-sectional survey was distributed in five countries (Belgium, China, Italy, Mexico, and the USA) and the total sample (n = 3421) was divided into two consumer groups: insects eaters vs non-insect eaters. A Multigroup structural equation model was implemented to analyse the relationship between the FN and the sub-dimension Disgust of the Entomophagy Attitude Questionnaire-EAQ towards the WTE. The main results showed that FNS and Disgust negatively influence the WTE towards whole and processed insects. In particular, for the total sample, the effect of EAQ-Disgust is a more powerful predictor to explain the WTE for both wholes and processed insects than the FNS. However, interestingly, while the disgust dimension of the EAQ negatively influences the WTE with the same magnitude for both insect eaters and non-insect eaters, the FNS is related to the WTE with a stronger explanatory power for insect eaters than non-insect eaters. Thus, overcoming negative attitudes towards direct entomophagy, especially driven by disgust reactions through promoting tasting sessions is paramount to reducing disgust and legitimating insects as a food source.
In addition to sound policies at the national level, the successful implementation of zero-emission vehicle goals requires commitments and actions at the regional level. This study quantified what the potential impact would be by 2050 of large-scale use of passenger electric vehicles (EVs) on air pollution (concentrations of fine particulate matter), public health, and associated economic gains across various metropolitan areas in the United States. Results were estimated and reported for 30 metropolitan areas. The study employed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency CMAQ air quality model and the BenMAP health impact assessment tool. Results indicated that a large-scale uptake in EV passenger travel can improve air quality and reduce mortality. The top five metropolitan areas that would benefit the most from such transportation electrification are Los Angeles (1163 prevented premature deaths annually, corresponding to $12.61 billion health benefits), New York (576, $6.24 billion), Chicago (276, $3.00 billion), the San Joaquin Valley (260, $2.82 billion), and Dallas (186, $2.02 billion). These results provide important scientific input to national and regional policymakers in support of decision-making towards clean transportation. This study examined the status quo and latest updates on EV transition policies across different regions given that California and several northeast states have already expressed explicit clean transportation goals. Interrelated policy, technology, and behavioral measures toward bringing down barriers to EV adoption were also examined. The wide differences that exist in the electricity mix across various regions suggests that varying strategies are needed down the road to achieve clean electric mobility.
Zinc (Zn) is a new class of bioresorbable metal that has potential for cardiovascular stent material, orthopedic implants, wound closure devices, etc. However, pure Zn is not ideal for these applications due to its low mechanical strength and localized degradation behavior. Alloying is the most common/effective way to overcome this limitation. Still, the choice of alloying element is crucial to ensure the resulting alloy possesses sufficient mechanical strength, suitable degradation rate, and acceptable biocompatibility. Hereby, we proposed to blend selective transition metals (i.e., vanadium-V, chromium-Cr, and zirconium-Zr) to improve Zn's properties. These selected transition metals have similar properties to Zn and thus are beneficial for the metallurgy process and mechanical property. Furthermore, the biosafety of these elements is of less concern as they all have been used as regulatory approved medical implants or a component of an implant such as Ti6Al4V, CoCr, or Zr-based dental implants. Our study showed the first evidence that blending with transition metals V, Cr, or Zr can improve Zn's properties as bioresorbable medical implants. In addition, three in vivo implantation models were explored in rats: subcutaneous, aorta, and femoral implantations, to target the potential clinical applications of bioresorbable Zn implants.
Lignification occurs in some vegetables and fruit after harvest and lowers their quality and commercial value. This study investigated the effects of melatonin (MT) on the energy metabolism of postharvest water bamboo shoots (WBS) and their relationship with lignification. We found that lignin accumulation could result in insufficient energy in postharvest WBS. The ATP content of the melatonin treatment group was 1.7 times higher than that of the control. Melatonin slowed down the decrease in the energy status by activating succinic dehydrogenase (SDH), cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), H⁺-ATPase, Mg²⁺-ATPase, and Ca²⁺-ATPase, as well as the transcription levels of their corresponding genes in WBS. Moreover, melatonin treatment increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced form (NADPH) content by promoting nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide kinase (NADK) activity as well as by maintaining lower nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced form (NADH) levels during storage. The correlation study revealed a negative relationship between lignin accumulation and energy metabolism in postharvest WBS. These findings supported the notion that the application of MT is a viable and effective method for alleviating lignification and supplying adequate energy to harvested WBS.
In this study, NiO thin films are prepared on Ni foil using thermal evaporation method and the effect of depo-sition conditions on structural, morphological and H 2 S gas sensing properties of NiO thin films is investigated. Structural analysis of the NiO films are conducted by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), and the films are found to have the FCC phase with preferred (111) and (200) Bragg reflections. Based on XRD and scanning electron microscopy results, it is shown that the crystallite size and the size of homogeneous nanoclusters on the surface of the films increase after increasing oxidation temperature. Also, the EDS patterns of NiO films demonstrate a rise in the intensity of O peak upon increasing the oxidation temperature due to the enhancement of oxygen in the NiO films. The Raman spectrum of NiO thin films several bands correspond to Ni-O vibrations. The obtained gas sensing results demonstrate the sensing response to 20 ppm of hydrogen sulfide at 700 • C. Upon increasing the amount of hydrogen sulfide gas to more than 20 ppm, the fabricated sensors show no significant change in their response, indicating that no additional active sites were exist to interplay with hydrogen sulfide molecules for the higher concentration of hydrogen sulfide. The response of the sensors, recorded 10 s after H 2 S gas exposure, depended on the deposition temperature. The current study shows that NiO thin films-based sensors prepared by a simple thermal evaporation method are potentially useful for the detection of H 2 S gas.
Completely precious metal-free alkaline polymer electrolyte fuel cells (APEFCs) are hindered by the lack of active non-precious metal hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR) catalysts. Up to now, few studies have focused on the APEFC performance of non-precious metal HOR catalysts. Herein, upon simply adjusting the H2/Ar ratio during calcination, we synthesized a Ni-core carbon-shell ([email protected]) catalyst that exhibits an electrochemical surface area (ECSA)-normalized exchange current density of 0.090 mA cm⁻², the highest among reported Ni-based HOR catalysts. More importantly, APEFC with the optimized catalyst, Ni-1% H2/Ar as anode catalyst, has achieved a peak power density of 670 mW cm⁻² (H2–O2) and 546 mW cm⁻² (H2-Air CO2-free), higher than the state-of-the-art APEFC with Ni-based HOR catalysts, and can to stably work for 100 h at 200 mA cm⁻². Characterization results show that H2 is able to affect the particle size and etch the carbon shell of the catalysts during synthesis, which can boost the apparent HOR catalytic activity. Further experiments reveal that proper H2 concentration during synthesis can lower the hydrogen binding energy (HBE), resulting in the enhanced intrinsic HOR catalytic activity of Ni-1% H2/Ar.
Agricultural intensification has increased crop productivity but simplified production and reduced cropping system diversity. In recent decades, the intensified wheat–maize rotation in the North China Plain has sharply decreased the groundwater table, with associated environmental and biodiversity issues. Understanding whether increasing cropping system diversity stabilizes productivity, improves resilience, and reduces adverse environmental impacts is critical. This study quantified the water requirements of nine staple crops from 1960 to 2020, established 15 alternative crop rotations, and evaluated the resilience of each rotation in the Cangzhou area, a typical groundwater deletion funnel area. The results showed that reducing cropping density (harvests per year) from 2 to 1.5 decreased the average annual water requirement and irrigation demand by 14 % and 33 %, respectively. Summer soybean alternated with maize and rotated with wheat did not reduce groundwater use but increased profitability and protein production. Spring mung bean–summer millet-based multi-rotations had higher precipitation coupling degrees (8 % in wet years, 17 % in normal years, and 56 % in dry years) and profitability (1.1–2.4 times) than the wheat–maize rotation. The spring potato–summer millet rotation in one year had the greatest profitability, the highest equivalent yield to wheat, and the highest water use efficiency (WUE), while spring maize rotated with winter wheat–summer soybean performed best for protein content, energy output, and WUEs. This study identified 11 alternative rotations with a higher comprehensive evaluation index than the conventional wheat–maize rotation based on entropy-TOPSIS considering 12 indicators. Spring mungbean is not suitable for inclusion in the crop rotation when solely cultivated in one year due to mismatched rainfall. Beyond wheat and maize, soybean, millet, and potato are promising crops for innovative multi-year multi-crop rotations to enhance crop diversification, maximize system outputs, and minimize groundwater and energy depletion. This study’s analysis could be extended to develop robust and diverse crop rotations with multiple co-benefits in other water-stressed agricultural regions.
The Regulation National Market System (Reg NMS) links fragmented stock exchanges by routing orders to the National Best Bid and Offer (NBBO). As the NBBO ignores exchange fees, 62% of routings lead to worse net prices. An increase in fee differences increases the market share captured by orders that refuse Reg NMS routings, particularly for stocks whose fees account for a large portion of transaction costs. Heterogeneous opportunity costs rationalize routing choices: non-routable orders entail lower non-execution costs than routable orders. Our results indicate that fees and clientele segmentation drive the proliferation of order types in the Reg NMS era.
- Andrew Slade
- Andy White
- Peter W.W. Lurz
- Joshua P. Twining
Invasive species pose a major threat to native species, both through direct interactions, such as competition for resources, and indirect interactions, such as when the invasive species acts as a reservoir host for a virulent pathogen. Recent research has indicated that the recovery of native predators can benefit native prey species that compete with invasive prey, in circumstances where predation is more pronounced on the naïve invasive species. We use the native red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris), invasive grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) and shared squirrelpox virus (SQPV) system in North Wales, UK, as a case study system to assess the impact of a recovering, native predator of both squirrel species, the pine marten (Martes martes), on community structure. We develop a stochastic, spatial model that represents the habitat structure, distribution, and connectivity in North Wales and models the interactions of red and grey squirrels, SQPV, and pine marten to examine the indirect effect of native predator recovery on competitively linked native-invasive prey species and a viral pathogen. Our model demonstrates the potential role of native predators in reversing the replacement of a threatened native prey through the regulation of the invasive prey species due to sustained predation, and the resultant extirpation of a viral pathogen, which otherwise catalyses the replacement of the native red squirrel by the invasive grey squirrel. Our findings have system specific applied conservation implications, but moreover demonstrate the critical role of native predators in mitigating the impacts of invasive species and, indirectly, the infectious diseases they harbour.
- Jocelyn M. Kluger
- Maha N. Haji
- Alexander H. Slocum
With many countries planning to significantly increase grid renewable energy penetration levels, we consider the role of wave energy in supply–demand matching. We investigate how incorporating wave power into an offshore wind farm affects farm power predictability, smoothness, required energy storage capacity, and cost. In this paper, we do a first-order cost analysis of an offshore farm comprised of floating wind turbines and wave energy converters that are both standalone and combined and onshore compressed air energy storage. Then, we do a parameter sweep investigation of an isolated power network supplied by varied grid renewable energy penetration levels supplemented by natural gas, varied distribution of renewable energy between wind and wave power, and varied power capacity of a compressed air energy storage system supplying power to a shoreline community. For each parameter set, we consider the historical hourly electricity demand and wind-sea data of a coastal California community over a year, and optimize the energy storage schedule to reduce curtailed power, stored energy, and base gas plant operational cost. We show that a co-located wind-wave farm has smoother power supply, less energy curtailment, and higher farm-to-grid efficiency than a solely wind farm. That is, a 50%–50% wind-wave farm has a 15% smaller coefficient of variation in the power supply, 6% less curtailed power, and 2% higher farm-grid efficiency than a 100% wind farm when the grid is 100% renewable energy. These benefits of wave power potentially decrease the need for interconnecting regional transmission lines to match power supply with demand. The intent of this paper is to provide baseline system technical results to help future researchers and policy makers make decisions about offshore hybrid wind-wave-storage farms.
The kosher dietary laws provide spiritual health to those of the Jewish faith who observe these Biblical mandates. The major aspects of these laws are the allowed animals for food, the prohibition of blood, the avoidance of mixing of milk and meat, and the special laws for the holiday of Passover. These rules limit the foods that can be cooked and eaten, and also what can be eaten with what at a particular time. Some of the special preparation of meat and poultry may have public health significance, especially the salting and soaking of meat.
Due to deep uncertainties associated with climate change and socioeconomic growth, managing bridge networks faces the challenge to perform optimization for different scenarios. There exist a large number of scenarios when various sources of uncertainties, such as population growth and the increasing magnitude and frequency of natural hazards due to climate change, are compounded. Traditionally, scenarios are analyzed sequentially. However, when optimization for one single scenario is time-consuming, only a limited number of scenarios can be considered. To accelerate scenario analysis, this paper proposes a novel scheme through knowledge transfer between scenarios. Specifically, after finishing the optimization of a certain number of scenarios, the analyses of any new scenarios are accelerated by utilizing the knowledge obtained from optimization of previous scenarios. To implement the novel scheme, a proper definition of similar scenarios for adaptation of bridge networks under deep uncertainties is first given to stipulate the situation when knowledge transfer can occur. Then an approach based on surrogate modeling and meta-learning is used to realize the concept of knowledge transfer and perform the optimization. A bridge network is used as an illustrative example to demonstrate the computational efficiency of the proposed novel scheme.
Agricultural production has improved with the development of water deficit (WD) irrigation technology, but the impact of the application of WD irrigation on product quality is still understudied. The effects of WD irrigation on the transcriptome and metabolome of fruit have been investigated by treating tomato plants with control or WD irrigation during the growing period. WD irrigation promoted the accumulation of reducing sugars, total acids, vitamin C (VC) and soluble solid content (SSC) of the fruit, which increased the sweetness and enriched their taste. Transcripts of genes involved in fruit quality including color, texture and flavor, as well as plant hormones were affected by WD irrigation. Also, a combined analysis of multiple omics revealed that the genes and metabolites involved in galactose metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism were affected by WD. This study provides insights into the effects of WD irrigation techniques on tomato fruit quality, which will provide new directions for the improvement of other fruit quality in the future.
Natural revegetation has been reported to play a very active role in ecosystem carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) sinks in degenerated ecosystems. However, the responses of C and N sequestration and stabilization in soil organic matter (SOM) to natural revegetation remain inadequately understood. In this study, we analyzed C and N contents and δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N values of SOM, free light fraction (FLF), intra-aggregate particulate organic matter (IPOM) and mineral-associated organic matter (MAOM) along ∼ 160 years of natural revegetation on the Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that natural revegetation significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced soil C and N contents in FLF, IPOM, MAOM, SOM in the surface soil (0–20 cm) during the later stages of revegetation, which exhibited smaller impact on the deeper soil (20–60 cm). Natural revegetation significantly increased distribution proportions of C and N in FLF (i.e., 18.00–36.00%, 8.46–22.57%, respectively), and that in IPOM (i.e., from 11.60 to 25.38%, 10.89–26.92%, respectively), while it decreased that in MAOM (i.e., from 56.25 to 37.00%, 67.69–50.24%, respectively) in the surface soil, thereby altering C and N stabilization in SOM (0–20 cm). The climax Quercus liaotungensis forest exhibited the highest C distribution proportion in FLF and IPOM, and the lowest C distribution proportion in MAOM in the surface soil. The δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N were enriched with the decomposition of SOM and soil profile depths at each revegetation stage. The highest δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N values (0–60 cm) and the lowest C:N ratio (0–20 cm) of SOM, FLF, and IPOM were found in the farmland. In conclusion, ∼160 years of natural revegetation substantially promoted C and N sequestration in SOM, whereas altered C and N stabilization in SOM of the surface soil through shifting C and N towards more non-protected and pure physically protected SOM fractions rather than the most stable MAOM. Meanwhile, soil δ¹³C and δ¹⁵N in SOM and its fraction were changed along with natural revegetation. The most enriched soil δ¹⁵N in the farmland implied that soil N cycle in the farmland was more open to N losses relative to the other revegetation stages.
Activities such as singing or playing a wind instrument release respiratory particles into the air that may contain pathogens and thus pose a risk for infection transmission. Here we report measurements of the size distribution, number, and volume concentration of exhaled particles from 31 healthy musicians playing 20 types of wind instruments using aerosol size spectrometry complemented with in-line holography in a strictly controlled cleanroom environment. We find that playing wind instruments carries a lower risk of airborne disease transmission than speaking or singing. We attribute this to the fact that the resonators of wind instruments act as filters for particles >10 µm in diameter, which were found in high abundance right after a brass mouthpiece but very rarely at the instrument bell end. We have also measured the size-dependent filtering properties of different types of filters that can be used as instrument masks. Based on these measurements, we calculated the risk of airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in different near- and far-field scenarios with and without masking and/or distancing. We conclude that in all cases where there is a possibility that the musician is infectious, the only safe measure to prevent airborne transmission of the disease is the use of well-fitting and well-filtering masks for the instrument and the susceptible person.
Binary polynomial optimization is equivalent to the problem of minimizing a linear function over the intersection of the multilinear set with a polyhedron. Many families of valid inequalities for the multilinear set are available in the literature, though giving a polyhedral characterization of the convex hull is not tractable in general as binary polynomial optimization is NP-hard. In this paper, we study the cardinality constrained multilinear set in the special case when the number of monomials is exactly two. We give an extended formulation, with two more auxiliary variables and exponentially many inequalities, of the convex hull of solutions of the standard linearization of this problem. We also show that the separation problem can be solved efficiently.
As a Nature-Based Solution, roadside green infrastructure (also known as roadside barriers) can potentially mitigate traffic-related air pollution by increasing dispersion and promoting pollutant deposition. For new and existing roadside barriers, the vegetation’s physical and ecological attributes (dimensions and density) are dynamic in nature, and thus affect the barriers’ pollution reduction capabilities. In this study, we first synthesized the results from existing field measurements characterizing the properties of coniferous vegetation, which show that its growth over time was characterized by an increase in height and a decrease in density. Motivated by this finding, a total of 75 simulations was conducted using a coupled aerodynamics and deposition model to investigate how the growth patterns of roadside vegetation barriers (e.g., heights from 2 to 10 m, and leaf area index (LAI) from 4 to 11) affects air pollutant reduction under different urban conditions (wind speeds 1–5 ms⁻¹). The results indicated that the ideal stage of maturity for the vegetation barrier to achieve the most pollutant reduction is from heights of 4–6 m. In this scenario, the vegetation barrier enhances pollutant deposition, has a moderate wake region, and generates a high level of turbulence that promotes downwind pollutant dispersion. It is imperative to account for growth patterns when selecting vegetation as roadside barriers to ensure that it can be maintained through pruning to achieve an ideal barrier height and optimal air pollutant reduction. Based on our findings, we provide five recommendations for implementing roadside vegetation barriers in a landscape and urban planning context.
The Chinese government has declared a determination at the 75th United Nations General Assembly that China will improve its independent contribution and adopt more powerful measures to peak the carbon emissions before 2030. However, such strict implementation of carbon reduction policies is bound to bring the cost of sacrificing economic development. In such a context, this paper tries to use shadow price to measure the average social cost of emission reduction, marginal abatement cost to depict the pressure to reduce carbon emissions based on non-radial distance function, and provides an optimal scheme for provincial emission reduction to minimize the national cost of emission reduction based on variable-coefficient model. Results show that: First, the average value of shadow price is 15.91 and varies widely among regions, which means on average reducing one unit of carbon emissions will sacrifice 15.914 yuan RMB of economic output, and there exists possibility of carbon transactions across regions; Second, on the one hand, marginal abatement cost of carbon emission for most regions presents an upward tendency over time, which means greater economic costs have to be sacrificed with economic development in the future; On the other hand, marginal abatement cost is much higher in regions with high economic level than that in the economically undeveloped areas, which indicates reducing carbon emissions is becoming increasingly difficult and would pay more economical cost in economically developed regions; Third, the optional allocation scheme of CO2 reduction derived from this research is better than administrative ways of Grandfathering and Benchmarking in terms of minimizing emission reduction cost. Results of this paper indicate that larger carbon trading market can be implemented in China to economically fulfill the commitment of peaking carbon emissions.
Introduced in the early 2000s, the concept of carbon “lock-in” has been widely adopted by think tanks, academics, and civil society trying to break away from the consequences of fossil-fuel induced carbon emissions and climate change. The concept has been instrumental to energy economic policy, energy transitions, and automobile transportation and urban mobility. It has parallels with “path dependency” across sectors, including water governance, fisheries, farmer tenure, and debt. Yet its use has also fallen short in applying it to nontechnical settings beyond infrastructure. In this review article, we argue that the “lock-in” concept is relevant to a much broader range of multi-scalar socio-environmental challenges to development. We expand lock-in to consider granular issues that tend to slip out of macro-level technological and institutional path dependencies, without falling into the ‘naturalizing trap’ in systems thinking. Broadening and re-engaging the concept of lock-in strengthens our analytical ability to address a range of structurally uneven environmental and societal lock-ins.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.