Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers
Recent publications
Background Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a highly contagious pathogenic bacterium that can cause gastrointestinal ulcers and may gradually lead to gastric cancer. H. pylori expresses the outer membrane HopQ protein at the earliest stages of infection. Therefore, HopQ is a highly reliable candidate as a biomarker for H. pylori detection in saliva samples. Materials and Methods: An H. pylori immunosensor is developed based on detecting HopQ as a biomarker in saliva by a screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) modified with MWCNT-COOH decorated with gold nanoparticles (AuNP). The HopQ antibodies are grafted on the SPCE/MWCNT/AuNP surface using EDC/S-NHS chemistry. The sensor performance is investigated by various methods and H. pylori detection performance in spiked saliva samples is evaluated by square wave voltammetry. Results: The sensor is suitable for HopQ detection with high sensitivity and excellent linearity in the 10 pg/mL - 100 ng/mL range and with a 10 pg/ml limit of detection. The sensor was tested in saliva at 10 ng/mL and returned an 107.6% recovery. The dissociation constant Kd for HopQ/HopQ antibody interaction, estimated from Hill's model, is calculated with a value of an order of 4.605 × 10−10 mg/mL. Conclusions: Due to the strategical choice of biomarker, the utilization of nanocomposite material to enhance the SPCE electrical performance, the intrinsic selectivity of the antibody-antigen interaction, and effective immobilization, the fabricated platform shows high selectivity, good stability, reproducibility, and cost-effectiveness for early H. pylori detection. Additionally, we provide insight into possible future aspects the researchers are recommended to focus on.
While prior consumer studies have adopted various theoretical perspectives to explain individuals’ reactions to disasters, scant attention has been paid to the role of ontological security in shaping those responses. This study attempts to fill this knowledge gap by qualitatively exploring ontological security in two contexts: man‐made and natural disasters. To this end, we conducted 35 focus groups in the UK, Germany, and France to address how people reacted to terrorist attacks and the COVID‐19 pandemic respectively. Through thematic analysis, three themes emerged: fear versus anxiety, oneself versus others, and materialistic versus experiential purchases. Man‐made disasters appear to elicit fear, concern for self, and a preference for materialistic purchases, whereas natural disasters seem to trigger anxiety, concern for others, and a preference for experiential purchases. Both types of disasters seem to evoke a desire to escape from reality. In closing, we discuss both transitory and prolonged threats to ontological security and how they shape individuals’ behaviors while restoring their security.
Asphalt mixtures mechanical properties often depend on the characteristics of its mastic. The latter includes the bitumen and small particles known as fillers. An analysis of bituminous scales (mastic or mortar) can predict the behaviour of its corresponding asphalt mix. This paper focuses on numerically computing and assessing the mechanical properties of bituminous materials i.e. complex modulus and fatigue. The purpose is to validate a numerical method able to assess fatigue damage via a heterogeneous multiscale approach. The modelling was realized based on finite element method and using the commercial ABAQUS software. The fatigue damage was presented through visual contour graphs as well as the local shear strain distribution. Applying the heterogeneous multiscale approach, it was possible to develop an effective numerical method to define the damage failure. The results showed that the values obtained numerically are similar to the experimental data with an error less than ten percent.
The events following the 15 January 2022 explosions of the Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha'apai volcano highlighted the need for a better understanding of ocean-atmosphere interactions when large amounts of energy are locally injected into one (or both). Starting from the compressible Euler equations, a two-way coupled (TWC) system is derived governing the long-wave behaviour of the ocean and atmosphere under isentropic constraint. Bathymetry and topography are accounted for along with three-dimensional atmospheric non-uniformities through their depth average over a spherical shell. A linear analysis, yielding two pairs of gravito-acoustic waves, offers explanations for phenomena observed during the Tonga event. A continuous transcritical regime (in terms of water depth) is identified as the source of large wave generation in deep water bodies, removing the singularity-driven Proudman-type resonance observed in one-way coupled models. The refractive properties, governing the interaction of the atmospheric wave with step changes in water depth, are derived to comment on mode-to-mode energy transfer. Two-dimensional global simulations modelling the propagation of the atmospheric wave (under realistic conditions on the day) and its worldwide effect on oceans are presented. Local maxima of water-height disturbance in the farfield from the volcano, linked to the atmospheric wave deformation (in agreement with observations), are identified, emphasising the importance of the TWC model for any daylong predictions. The proposed framework can be extended to include additional layers and physics, e.g. ocean and atmosphere stratification. With the aim of contributing to warning system improvement, the code necessary to simulate the event with the proposed model is made available.
Objectives To quantify the burden of COVID-19-related sick leave during the first pandemic wave in France, accounting for sick leaves due to symptomatic COVID-19 (‘symptomatic sick leaves’) and those due to close contact with COVID-19 cases (‘contact sick leaves’). Methods We combined data from a national demographic database, an occupational health survey, a social behaviour survey and a dynamic SARS-CoV-2 transmission model. Sick leave incidence from 1 March 2020 to 31 May 2020 was estimated by summing daily probabilities of symptomatic and contact sick leaves, stratified by age and administrative region. Results There were an estimated 1.70M COVID-19-related sick leaves among France’s 40M working-age adults during the first pandemic wave, including 0.42M due to COVID-19 symptoms and 1.28M due to COVID-19 contacts. There was great geographical variation, with peak daily sick leave incidence ranging from 230 in Corse (Corsica) to 33 000 in Île-de-France (the greater Paris region), and greatest overall burden in regions of north-eastern France. Regional sick leave burden was generally proportional to local COVID-19 prevalence, but age-adjusted employment rates and contact behaviours also contributed. For instance, 37% of symptomatic infections occurred in Île-de-France, but 45% of sick leaves. Middle-aged workers bore disproportionately high sick leave burden, owing predominantly to greater incidence of contact sick leaves. Conclusions France was heavily impacted by sick leave during the first pandemic wave, with COVID-19 contacts accounting for approximately three-quarters of COVID-19-related sick leaves. In the absence of representative sick leave registry data, local demography, employment patterns, epidemiological trends and contact behaviours can be synthesised to quantify sick leave burden and, in turn, predict economic consequences of infectious disease epidemics.
Although Ergonomic Workplace Analysis (EWA) practice is common in Brazil, some critics have asserted that it is not sufficient to bring about an effective change of the workplace. Although this criticism may be partly admissible in regard to Brazilian ergonomics, it cannot beconsidered to apply to France, where Activity-Centered Ergonomics was born. At the same time, it is important to not confuse EWA with the broader field of Activity-Centered Ergonomics. Against this background, this article seeks to analyze the elements that characterize contemporary ergonomics practices in Brazil so as to compare them to the modes of intervention developed in France. We also seek to investigate models, concepts and methods so as to expand the possibilities of ergonomic interventions in Brazil. To do so, we will start from a theoretical examination of the development of EWA in Brazil from its origins in France, presenting an intervention conducted at a French electricity company. Next, we will discuss the losses suffered by EWA during the transfer of EWA methodology from France to Brazil, as well as the need to cultivate social construction at all stages of these interventions. We conclude by showing the importance of developing this debate in the field of ergonomics and the need to continue it. Keywords: Ergonomic Workplace Analysis; Intervention; Social construction; Activity-centered ergonomics.
Purpose: Treatment options for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with inferior vena cava tumor thrombus (IVC-TT) are limited and carry substantial risks. Currently, there are no standard treatment options in the setting of recurrent or unresectable RCC with IVC-TT. Methods: We report our experience of treating an IVC-TT RCC patient with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Results: This 62-year-old gentleman presented renal cell carcinoma with IVC-TT and liver metastases. Initial treatment consisted of radical nephrectomy and thrombectomy followed by continuous sunitinib. At 3 months, he developed an unresectable IVC-TT recurrence. A fiducial marker was implanted into the IVC-TT by catheterization. New biopsies were performed at the same time, demonstrating a recurrence of the RCC. SBRT consisted of 5 fractions of 7 Gy to the IVC-TT with excellent initial tolerance. He subsequently received anti-PD1 therapy (nivolumab). At 4 years follow-up, he is doing well with no IVC-TT recurrence and no late toxicity. Conclusion: SBRT appears to be a feasible and safe treatment for IVC-TT secondary to RCC in patients who are not candidates for surgery.
This article aims to trace some of the key trends in the historical development of Occupational Accident and Disease Prevention in France. For this purpose, we have used the analytical concept of contradiction derived from the Cultural-Historical Activity Theory framework (CHAT). We consider prevention as a fragmented object shared by a network of Activity Systems (AS). We conduct a scoping review to identify contradiction hypotheses on how the French activity system of prevention of occupational accidents and diseases have evolved over time. This review includes 72 theoretical and empirical studies published between 1988 and 2019. The results obtained highlight five contradiction hypotheses related to (i) prevention and remediation, (ii) technological and occupational risks, (iii) employment and improvement of working conditions, (iv) workers’ participation or social dialogue and expertise, (v) individual and collective approaches. These contradictions have arisen over time and have emerged as symptoms of incompatibilities in the network of AS that have persisted. The paper ends with a discussion on future prospects and learning challenges for prevention.
Leveraging external control data, especially real-world data (RWD), has drawn particular attention in recent years for facilitating oncology clinical development and regulatory decision-making. Medical regulators have published guidance on accelerating the use of RWD and external controls. However, few systematic discussions have been conducted on external controls in cancer drug submissions and regulatory feedback. This study aimed to identify European oncology drug approvals using external control data to demonstrate clinical efficacy. We included 18 eligible submissions employing 24 external controls and then discussed the use of external control, data sources, analysis methods, and regulators' feedback. The external controls have been actively submitted to the European Medical Agency (EMA) recently. We found that 17% of the EMA-approved cancer drugs in 2016-2021 used external controls, among which 37% of the cases leveraged RWD. However, nearly one-third of the external controls were not considered supportive evidence by EMA due to limitations regarding heterogeneous patient populations, missing outcome assessment in RWD, and inappropriate statistical analysis. This study highlighted that proper use of external controls requires a careful assessment of clinical settings, data availability, and statistical methodology. For better use of external controls in oncology clinical trials, we recommend: prospective study designs to avoid selection bias, sufficient baseline data to ensure the comparability of study populations, consistent endpoint measurements to enable outcome comparison, robust statistical methodology for comparative analysis, and collaborative efforts of sponsors and regulators to establish regulatory frameworks.
Set-valued algorithms are designed in this work to compute rigorous bounds of the unknown inputs of uncertain discrete-time linear systems. First, based on the classical full-order and reduced-order unknown input observers, non-conservative numerical schemes are proposed to characterize the reachable set of the estimation error. Then, by using these results, set-membership estimators of the unknown inputs are presented. Moreover, the results of these estimators can be merged together via set-intersection operators to obtain more accurate estimates.
On 16 September 1987, the main chlorofluorocarbon-producing and -consuming countries signed the Montreal Protocol, despite the absence of a scientific consensus on the mechanisms of ozone depletion over Antarctica. We argue in this article that the rapid diffusion from late 1985 onwards of satellite images showing the Antarctic ozone hole played a significant role in this diplomatic outcome. Whereas negotiators claimed that they chose to deliberately ignore the Antarctic ozone hole during the negotiations since no theory was able yet to explain it, the images still loomed large for many of the actors involved. In Western countries, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) satellite visualizations were diffused through the general press and television stations. Other popular and mass media outlets followed quickly. In describing the circulation and appropriation processes of these images within and beyond the scientific and negotiation arenas, we show that the ozone hole images did play an important part in ozone diplomacy in the two years leading up to the signing of the Montreal Protocol, both in the expert and diplomatic arenas and as public diplomacy tools. We conclude by encouraging scholars to engage with new visual archives and to contribute to the development of the vibrant new field of research on visual diplomacy.
This article presents an experience of a participative approach prior to the implementation of NR-36, which regulates work in meat and meat byproduct companies. Although the regulations provide for worker participation in the processes of implementing job rotation, they do not explain how to do it. This study was developed in 2017 in the livestock slaughtering sector of a company with 79 workers, using two complementary methods: systematic and analytical observation of the real work (totaling 32 hours of observation) in order to select the jobs that were primarily eligible for rotation, together with a survey of the workers' perception of the level of acceptance of rotation in the selected jobs. At first, 72% of the workers refused to accept the rotation. After inclusion and participation in the implementation process, 86% of the workers in the dirty area and 64% in the clean area agreed to the rotation. The advantages of rotation that most stood out included: the variability in work (30%), learning and gaining experience (40%), changes in movements (35%), and physical rest (32%). By contrast, the disadvantages included: the fear of accidents (30%) and the fear of change and of the unknown (25%). It can therefore be concluded that the participatory approach prior to changes in organizational design contributes to the understanding and perception of workers about the advantages and disadvantages of the rotation process, indicating improvements that comply with legal requirements. Keywords: Participation; Job rotation; Slaughterhouse; Labor standard; Worker’s health
For a class of discrete-time high-order switched neural networks with time-varying delays, the global exponential synchronization (GES) problem and its application in audio encryption are addressed. In this work, the state feedback controllers are designed to ensure the GES of response and drive systems, and the controller gains are directly computed by the network parameters. Then, a numerical example is presented to explain the correctness of the synchronization theory. Moreover, a technique to audio encryption/decryption is proposed, and it is applied to a practical example to verify the applicability of the technique. The advantages of this paper are as follows: (i) GES criterion containing a group of simple matrix inequalities is established without the construction of a Lyapunov–Krasovskii functional (LKF), which is not always obvious; (ii) the controller gains are directly represented by the parameters in the network, and then it is easy to apply them to the audio encryption.
Tritium is released to the environment by nuclear industries in various forms, mainly HTO. In impact studies leading to estimated doses for the population, atmospheric discharges are mainly taken into consideration because they generally lead to values higher than those related to liquid discharges. However, the tritium released in liquid environments can be transferred to the atmosphere by evaporation and then be transported to terrestrial ecosystems by wind. This study was carried out in France near a fuel reprocessing plant (RP) which discharges tritium into the western English Channel. We highlighted the influence of a mass of water enriched with tritium on the HTO levels in atmospheric water vapour downwind through 18 field campaigns. A hydrodynamic model able to simulate tritium activity in the water was coupled with an evaporation an atmospheric transport model. It allows to reconstitute variations in atmospheric tritium on the coast, depending on liquid discharges of tritium from the reprocessing plant. On this basis, when seawater containing 20–100 Bq.L⁻¹ of tritium flows between 0 and 10 km off the coast, variations in atmospheric activity onshore can increase of 2–15 Bq.L⁻¹. Mean tritium quantities released by the sea into the atmosphere in the Western English Channel reached 130 TBq.y⁻¹ over the 2017–2020 period. Emissions were estimated at 0.9–11.3 GBq km⁻².y⁻¹ and depends principally on the distance from the liquid discharge point. If we compare the “marine” source term, in HTO form, with the direct source term for gaseous discharges, the marine source term is one order of magnitude greater for the marine region affected by liquid discharges. Finally, we estimate that approximately 1.1% of tritium stock discharged at sea (regulated and controlled) return to the atmosphere each year at the scale of the Western English Channel.
The gut microbiota is now recognized as a key parameter affecting the host’s anti-cancer immunosurveillance and ability to respond to immunotherapy. Therefore, optimal modulation for preventive and therapeutic purposes is very appealing. Diet is one of the most potent modulators of microbiota, and thus nutritional intervention could be exploited to improve host anti-cancer immunity. Here, we show that an inulin-enriched diet, a prebiotic known to promote immunostimulatory bacteria, triggers an enhanced Th1-polarized CD4+ and CD8+ αβ T cell-mediated anti-tumor response and attenuates tumor growth in three preclinical tumor-bearing mouse models. We highlighted that the inulin-mediated anti-tumor effect relies on the activation of both intestinal and tumor-infiltrating ɣδ T cells that are indispensable for αβ T cell activation and subsequent tumor growth control, in a microbiota-dependent manner. Overall, our data identified these cells as a critical immune subset, mandatory for inulin-mediated anti-tumor immunity in vivo, further supporting and rationalizing the use of such prebiotic approaches, as well as the development of immunotherapies targeting ɣδ T cells in cancer prevention and immunotherapy.
This study deals with the development of asphalt binder performance grading (PG) distribution maps of Morocco and the assessment of climate change effects on pavement design (structural impact), energy consumption, and CO2 emissions (environmental impact). The PG maps were made at the current time (2020) as well as at future times (2050 and 2080) considering climate change. To achieve this aim, the weather data of 30 cities, including maximum and minimum daily air temperatures, were analyzed for temperature zoning over the last 35 years (1985 to 2020). Prospective temperatures between 2050 and 2080 were estimated using a time series analysis. Pavement temperature was then determined using LTPP and SHRP models. Results revealed different asphalt binders PG from PG52-10 to PG76-10 and PG64-16 depending on the selected reliability. The diversity of climate in Morocco may explain this variety of asphalt binder PG. Furthermore, time series analysis showed no changes in the PG distribution map of 2050 compared with the 2020 map, while the map was changed in 2080. The structural and environmental investigations showed that the asphalt layer should be increased by 0.22 cm for each 1 °C temperature increase to maintain the same pavement performance. So, more than 1500 BTUs of energy will be consumed per meter square of the asphalt layer. In addition, ignoring the climate change effect on asphalt pavement decreases the lifetime of pavement by about 6.23 to 31.73% for 1 and 6 °C of temperature increase, respectively.
Campylobacter jejuni is the most prevalent bacterial foodborne pathogen in humans. Given the wide genetic diversity of C. jejuni strains found in poultry production, a better understanding of the relationships between these strains within chickens could lead to better control of this pathogen on farms. In this study, 14-day old broiler chickens were inoculated with two C. jejuni strains (103 or 107 CFU of D2008b and 103 CFU of G2008b, alone or together) that were previously characterized in vitro and that showed an opposite potential to compete for gut colonization in broilers. Liver samples and ileal and cecal contents were collected and used to count total C. jejuni and to quantify the presence of each strain using a strain specific qPCR or PCR approach. Ileal tissue samples were also collected to analyze the relative expression level of tight junction proteins. While a 103 CFU inoculum of D2008b alone was not sufficient to induce intestinal colonization, this strain benefited from the G2008b colonization for its establishment in the gut and its extraintestinal spread. When the inoculum of D2008b was increased to 107 CFU – leading to its intestinal and hepatic colonization – a dominance of G2008b was measured in the gut and D2008b was found earlier in the liver for birds inoculated by both strains. In addition, a transcript level decrease of JAM2, CLDN5 and CLDN10 at 7 dpi and a transcript level increase of ZO1, JAM2, OCLN, CLDN10 were observed at 21 dpi for groups of birds having livers contaminated by C. jejuni. These discoveries suggest that C. jejuni would alter the intestinal barrier function probably to facilitate the hepatic dissemination. By in vitro co-culture assay, a growth arrest of D2008b was observed in the presence of G2008b after 48 h of culture. Based on these results, commensalism and competition seem to occur between both C. jejuni strains, and the dynamics of C. jejuni intestinal colonization and liver spread in broilers appear to be strain dependent. Further in vivo experimentations should be conducted to elucidate the mechanisms of commensalism and competition between strains in order to develop adequate on-farm control strategies.
Introduction: We aimed to assess temporal changes in the presentation and survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the northern Egypt region, one of the regions reporting the highest incidence of the disease globally. Methods: We conducted a monocentric retrospective study. Patients presenting at the Damietta Oncology referral center between 2007 and 2019 with a diagnosed HCC were eligible. Individual, clinical and tumor characteristics at HCC diagnosis, including the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging, were retrieved from medical files and patients' final vital status was ascertained by combining various data sources. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on diagnosis period: pre- and post-2014. Survival was analysed based on Kaplan-Meier curves and differences in restricted mean survival time (RMST). Results: Data from 5097 patients (among 5210 eligible, 97.8%) were analyzed. We observed a significant trend toward HCC diagnosed at earlier stage in the post- vs pre-2014 period (BCLC stage 0/A or B: 37.2% vs 27.1%, p<10-3). Overall patient's survival after the HCC diagnosis was poor, with a median of 8.1 months. The BCLC staging system performed well in predicting survival. Despite a trend toward HCC diagnosed at earlier stages, we did not observe a significant improvement in survival over time. Overall, treatments offered in this medical center were in line with international guidelines, and 16.1% of the patients who received a curative treatment had an improved survival (30.7 months in median). However, HCC recurrence was frequent among patients cured for HCC, with a median time to recurrence of 22 months. Discussion: Overall survival after HCC diagnosis in Egypt remains poor but is significantly improved by curative therapy. Despite a trend toward earlier diagnosis of HCC, we did not observe a general improvement in survival over time, which remains to be clearly understood.
We investigate a specific type of group manipulation in two-tier elections, which involves pairs of voters agreeing to exchange their votes. Two-tier elections are modeled as a two-stage choice procedure. In the first stage, voters are distributed into districts, and district preferences result from aggregating voters’ preferences district-wise through some aggregation rule. Final outcomes are obtained in the second stage by applying a social choice function that outputs one or several alternatives from the profile of district preferences. Combining an aggregation rule and a social choice function defines a constitution. Voter preferences, defined as linear orders, are extended to complete binary relations by means of some extension rule. A constitution is swap-proof w.r.t. a given extension rule if one cannot find pairs of voters who, by exchanging their preferences get better off (w.r.t. their extended preference over sets). We consider four specific extension rules: Nehring, Kelly, Fishburn, and Gärdenfors. We establish sufficient conditions for the swap-proofness of a constitution w.r.t. each extension rule. Special attention is paid to majority constitutions, where both the aggregation rule and the social choice function are based on simple majority voting. We show that swap-proofness for majority constitutions pertains to a specific weakening of group strategy-proofness. Moreover, we characterize swap-proof majority constitutions w.r.t. each extension rule. Finally, we show that no constitution based on scoring methods is swap-proof.
In the present work attention is focused on the friction-yielding damper CAR1 (first prototype of Control-Absorb-Retain damper), which belongs to passive energy dissipation systems. This damper consists of very simple materials; it does not need to be accomplished in heavy industry so enables its use in both developing and undeveloped countries. This paper presents and compares two alternative solutions with the use of the CAR1 to seismic retrofit an existing two-story reinforced-concrete (RC) structure with a moment-resisting frame located in Greece and constructed in 1979 and no longer meets the requirements of current anti-seismic regulations. A nonlinear static pushover analysis is performed to assess the performance of the framed building under different levels of shaking (“Life Safety” and “Collapse”). The pushover analysis is carried out in both the x and y directions. The use of damper CAR1 in seismic retrofitting not only provides a base shear load of up to 149.2% and 135.6% for the first and second redesign solutions but also protects steel diagonal braces from buckling. The appropriate characteristics of the dampers CAR1 has been selected from a wide variety of choices and the strengthening level can be easily adjusted or modified during the years based to the appropriate selection or modification of the number, the dimensions, and the elastoplastic properties of the blades.
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Robert Morfin
  • Département Chimie, Alimentation, Santé, Environnement, Risque (CASER)
292 rue Saint Martin, 75003, Paris, France
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Olivier Faron
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