European policies aim to simultaneously address the biodiversity and climate crises, partially through the implementation of nature-based solutions (NbS). In parallel, the 2021-2030 United Nations decade on Ecosystem Restoration and an increasing scientific community call for prioritising native species in ecological restoration programmes. In particular, the use of native plant material of wild and local provenance yields important benefits for agroecology, ecological restoration and urban environment management and fulfills five fundamental IUCN NbS criterias. Following a growing European initiative for the production and use of native plant material of wild and local provenance, the “Végétal local” trademark was created in 2015 in France. As part of its initiation, 11 bioregions were designed to guarantee the wild and local origin through controls on the traceability of plant material throughout its supply chain, i.e., from collection to trade. Such plant material has already been mainstreamed into NbS-related programmes and this article describes how this has helped deliver a range of NbS-related environmental and societal outputs. Project managers should continue to rely on native plant material of wild and local provenance to roll out further NbS programmes and meet their objectives.
The impact of ongoing climate change on plant communities varies according to vegetation type and location across the globe. Snowbed flora count among the most sensitive vegetation due to their dependence on long-lasting snow patches. This is especially the case toward their rear distribution edge, where warming has already induced a marked decrease in snow deposition. Thus, analysing the dynamics of snowbed plant communities is crucial for understanding the ecological processes that condition their persistence under new environmental conditions. The Pyrenees represent the southern distribution limit of several eurosiberian snowbed species. We surveyed eight snowbeds based on permanent plots, where the presence of each taxon was recorded annually between 2012 and 2019. We analysed vegetation patterns between sites and plots, related them to environmental gradients, and assessed temporal trends of community dynamics. We detected important between-site differences regarding species composition. However, these differences were not supported by species' biogeographical patterns, which suggests that local abiotic factors filter species with distinct autecology. In parallel, temporal community turnover was observed through the expansion of widespread grassland species, which supports the hypothesis of colonisation of snowbeds by common alpine taxa. Such changes could be related to a decrease in snow cover over recent times, which releases extreme environmental constraints to plant growth. Therefore, it is crucial to characterise fine-scale ecological conditions to forecast plant community dynamics and provide reliable information for conserving snowbed vegetation across the Palearctic.
Over millennia, human intervention has transformed European habitats mainly through extensive livestock grazing. “Dehesas/Montados” are an Iberian savannah-like ecosystem dominated by oak-trees, bushes and grass species that are subject to agricultural and extensive livestock uses. They are a good example of how large-scale, low intensive transformations can maintain high biodiversity levels as well as socio-economic and cultural values. However, the role that these human-modified habitats can play for individuals or species living beyond their borders is unknown. Here, using a dataset of 106 adult GPS-tagged Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) monitored over seven years, we show how individuals breeding in western European populations from Northern, Central, and Southern Spain, and Southern France made long-range forays (LRFs) of up to 800 km to converge in the threatened Iberian “dehesas” to forage. There, extensive livestock and wild ungulates provide large amounts of carcasses, which are available to scavengers from traditional exploitations and rewilding processes. Our results highlight that maintaining Iberian “dehesas” is critical not only for local biodiversity but also for long-term conservation and the ecosystem services provided by avian scavengers across the continent.
Machine levelling for the creation or maintenance of ski slopes is a major source of disturbance in high elevation ecosystems. Traditional, exogenous seed mixtures can help restoring plant cover and mitigate soil erosion, but they comprise species that are not ecologically adapted to high elevation conditions. Here, the use of local seed mixtures, harvested at nearby sites, was compared to that of exogenous seed mixtures for revegetation of three machine-graded ski runs with different soil conditions in the French Pyrenees. The plant cover, biomasses and associated soil microbial activity were recorded for four years following seeding. The results showed that the establishment of the plant cover was highly dependent of the soil conditions and strongly differed between paired plots that had received local or exogenous seed mixtures. In both seed treatments, some Poaceae dominated the plant cover, allowing the settlement of several spontaneous native species. But the plant cover established more rapidly and more densely, and included a larger cover of target, native species after seeding with local compared to exogenous seed mixtures.
Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Algeria , Phaeoacremonium adelophialidum from Vitis vinifera . Antarctica , Comoclathris antarctica from soil. Australia , Coniochaeta salicifolia as endophyte from healthy leaves of Geijera salicifolia , Eremothecium peggii in fruit of Citrus australis , Microdochium ratticaudae from stem of Sporobolus natalensis , Neocelosporium corymbiae on stems of Corymbia variegata , Phytophthora kelmanii from rhizosphere soil of Ptilotus pyramidatus , Pseudosydowia backhousiae on living leaves of Backhousia citriodora , Pseudosydowia indooroopillyensis , Pseudosydowia louisecottisiae and Pseudosydowia queenslandica on living leaves of Eucalyptus sp. Brazil , Absidia montepascoalis from soil. Chile , Ilyonectria zarorii from soil under Maytenus boaria . Costa Rica , Colletotrichum filicis from an unidentified fern. Croatia , Mollisia endogranulata on deteriorated hardwood. Czech Republic , Arcopilus navicularis from tea bag with fruit tea, Neosetophoma buxi as endophyte from Buxus sempervirens , Xerochrysium bohemicum on surface of biscuits with chocolate glaze and filled with jam. France , Entoloma cyaneobasale on basic to calcareous soil, Fusarium aconidiale from Triticum aestivum , Fusarium juglandicola from buds of Juglans regia . Germany , Tetraploa endophytica as endophyte from Microthlaspi perfoliatum roots. India , Castanediella ambae on leaves of Mangifera indica , Lactifluus kanadii on soil under Castanopsis sp., Penicillium uttarakhandense from soil. Italy , Penicillium ferraniaense from compost. Namibia , Bezerromyces gobabebensis on leaves of unidentified succulent, Cladosporium stipagrostidicola on leaves of Stipagrostis sp., Cymostachys euphorbiae on leaves of Euphorbia sp., Deniquelata hypolithi from hypolith under a rock, Hysterobrevium walvisbayicola on leaves of unidentified tree, Knufia hypolithi and Knufia walvisbayicola from hypolith under a rock, Lapidomyces stipagrostidicola on leaves of Stipagrostis sp., Nothophaeotheca mirabibensis (incl. Nothophaeotheca gen. nov.) on persistent inflorescence remains of Blepharis obmitrata , Paramyrothecium salvadorae on twigs of Salvadora persica , Preussia procaviicola on dung of Procavia sp., Sordaria equicola on zebra dung, Volutella salvadorae on stems of Salvadora persica . Netherlands , Entoloma ammophilum on sandy soil, Entoloma pseudocruentatum on nutrient poor (acid) soil, Entoloma pudens on plant debris, amongst grasses. New Zealand , Amorocoelophoma neoregeliae from leaf spots of Neoregelia sp., Aquilomyces metrosideri and Septoriella callistemonis from stem discolouration and leaf spots of Metrosideros sp., Cadophora neoregeliae from leaf spots of Neoregelia sp., Flexuomyces asteliae (incl. Flexuomyces gen. nov.) and Mollisia asteliae from leaf spots of Astelia chathamica , Ophioceras freycinetiae from leaf spots of Freycinetia banksii , Phaeosphaeria caricis-sectae from leaf spots of Carex secta . Norway , Cuphophyllus flavipesoides on soil in semi-natural grassland, Entoloma coracis on soil in calcareous Pinus and Tilia forests, Entoloma cyaneolilacinum on soil semi-natural grasslands, Inocybe norvegica on gravelly soil. Pakistan , Butyriboletus parachinarensis on soil in association with Quercus baloot . Poland , Hyalodendriella bialowiezensis on debris beneath fallen bark of Norway spruce Picea abies . Russia , Bolbitius sibiricus on а moss covered rotting trunk of Populus tremula , Crepidotus wasseri on debris of Populus tremula , Entoloma isborscanum on soil on calcareous grasslands, Entoloma subcoracis on soil in subalpine grasslands, Hydropus lecythiocystis on rotted wood of Betula pendula , Meruliopsis faginea on fallen dead branches of Fagus orientalis , Metschnikowia taurica from fruits of Ziziphus jujube , Suillus praetermissus on soil, Teunia lichenophila as endophyte from Cladonia rangiferina . Slovakia , Hygrocybe fulgens on mowed grassland, Pleuroflammula pannonica from corticated branches of Quercus sp. South Africa , Acrodontium burrowsianum on leaves of unidentified Poaceae , Castanediella senegaliae on dead pods of Senegalia ataxacantha , Cladophialophora behniae on leaves of Behnia sp., Colletotrichum cliviigenum on leaves of Clivia sp., Diatrype dalbergiae on bark of Dalbergia armata , Falcocladium heteropyxidicola on leaves of Heteropyxis canescens , Lapidomyces aloidendricola as epiphyte on brown stem of Aloidendron dichotomum , Lasionectria sansevieriae and Phaeosphaeriopsis sansevieriae on leaves of Sansevieria hyacinthoides , Lylea dalbergiae on Diatrype dalbergiae on bark of Dalbergia armata , Neochaetothyrina syzygii (incl. Neochaetothyrina gen. nov.) on leaves of Syzygium chordatum , Nothophaeomoniella ekebergiae (incl. Nothophaeomoniella gen. nov.) on leaves of Ekebergia pterophylla , Paracymostachys euphorbiae (incl. Paracymostachys gen. nov.) on leaf litter of Euphorbia ingens , Paramycosphaerella pterocarpi on leaves of Pterocarpus angolensis , Paramycosphaerella syzygii on leaf litter of Syzygium chordatum , Parateichospora phoenicicola (incl. Parateichospora gen. nov.) on leaves of Phoenix reclinata , Seiridium syzygii on twigs of Syzygium chordatum , Setophoma syzygii on leaves of Syzygium sp., Starmerella xylocopis from larval feed of an Afrotropical bee Xylocopa caffra , Teratosphaeria combreti on leaf litter of Combretum kraussii , Teratosphaericola leucadendri on leaves of Leucadendron sp., Toxicocladosporium pterocarpi on pods of Pterocarpus angolensis . Spain , Cortinarius bonachei with Quercus ilex in calcareus soils, Cortinarius brunneovolvatus under Quercus ilex subsp. ballota in calcareous soil, Extremopsis radicicola (incl. Extremopsis gen. nov.) from root-associated soil in a wet heathland, Russula quintanensis on acidic soils, Tubaria vulcanica on volcanic lapilii material, Tuber zambonelliae in calcareus soil. Sweden , Elaphomyces borealis on soil under Pinus sylvestris and Betula pubescens . Tanzania , Curvularia tanzanica on inflorescence of Cyperus aromaticus . Thailand , Simplicillium niveum on Ophiocordyceps camponoti-leonardi on underside of unidentified dicotyledonous leaf. USA , Calonectria californiensis on leaves of Umbellularia californica , Exophiala spartinae from surface sterilised roots of Spartina alterniflora , Neophaeococcomyces oklahomaensis from outside wall of alcohol distillery. Vietnam , Fistulinella aurantioflava on soil. Morphological and culture characteristics are supported by DNA barcodes.
Molecular phylogenies in the past decade have demonstrated that the described diversity of Cortinarius is still underestimated, especially outside continental and boreal ecoregions where the genus has been historically investigated. We tackled this issue by revisiting the so far unresolved subgenus Leprocybe, and focused on the largely unexplored Mediterranean hotspot of biodiversity. The sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 161 vouchered collections from Austria, Cyprus, France, Germany, Italy and Spain, including 16 types, allowed for the delineation of 11 species in this lineage, three of them recognised as new to science and formally introduced as C. jimenezianus, C. selinolens and C. viridans spp. nov., respectively. Interestingly, the newly described species exhibit a strict Mediterranean distribution, and one of them is putatively endemic to the island of Cyprus, highlighting the remarkable potential of this neglected ecoregion to uncover further undescribed diversity of Cortinarius in the future. The present work also unveils 23 synonymies in this subgenus, as well as previously undetected crypticism within C. venetus. Next Generation Sequencing carried out on three old and contaminated holotypes, successfully decrypts their phylogenetic identity, including that of C. leproleptopus, finally settling the long-standing controversy over the taxonomic status of this species. A brief overview of each species in the subgenus is lastly provided and a key is proposed to facilitate the identification of presently known European taxa of Leprocybe in the field.
La transition agroécologique des systèmes d’élevage en zone herbagère nous amène à mieux concilier deux disciplines complémentaires que sont l’écologie et l’agronomie. Le fort recul de la prairie permanente, malgré les enjeux environnementaux qu’elle représente, ont amené le Conservatoire botanique national des Pyrénées et de Midi-Pyrénées (CBNPMP) et l’Institut national de recherche pour l’agriculture, l’alimentation et l’environnement (INRAE) de Toulouse à rassembler, dans une base de données régionale, des traits de vie d’espèces prairiales, nécessaires au calcul d’indices agroécologiques. Cette base de données regroupe, pour chacune des espèces (768), des attributs issus de la phytosociologie et de l’écologie d’une part et d’une approche fonctionnelle des végétations pour l’agronomie d’autre part. À partir d’un relevé phytosociologique, ces attributs permettent de calculer des indices nécessaires à une meilleure gestion agroécologique des prairies permanentes. Initialement conçus pour le territoire de Midi-Pyrénées, ces indices sont pour la plupart d’entre eux suffisamment génériques pour être utilisés dans d’autres régions françaises. Cette base de données est évolutive et nous donnons les règles de construction de chaque attribut afin que les futurs utilisateurs puissent compléter la liste pour renseigner de nouvelles espèces. Elle est accessible sous licence ouverte et dans un format Excel.
Le Conservatoire botanique national des Pyrénées et de Midi-Pyrénées (CBNMP) et l’Institut national de recherche pour l’agriculture, l’alimentation et l’environnement de Toulouse (INRAE) ont produit en accès libre une base de données des 768 espèces prairiales de Midi-Pyrénées avec leurs attributs : FlorealData ( https://doi.org/10.15454/ADCQHT ). Nous présentons ici une feuille de calcul « FlorealIndices », qui permet, en utilisant le relevé phytosociologique de la station, de calculer automatiquement une dizaine d’indices agronomiques et écologiques. La production de ces indices permet aux botanistes, qu’ils soient agronomes ou plus généralement écologues, de s’approprier des concepts issus de ces deux disciplines afin d’en faciliter l’hybridation.
Copolymere aus Acrylsäure (AA) und Butylacrylat (BA) mit gleichmäßiger Zusammensetzung (1:1 AA:BA) und kontrollierten Zusammensetzungsprofilen zeigen, im Gegensatz zu den kinetisch gehemmten Mizellen, die durch Poly(AA‐block‐BA)‐Blockcopolymere gebildet werden, ein dynamisches, pH‐responsives Selbstassemblierungsverhalten mit reversiblen Änderungen bezüglich der Größe und Bildung von Kugel‐, Wurm‐ und Vesikelmorphologien. Abstract Eine Serie von Copolymeren, die 50 % Acrylsäure (AA) und 50 % Butylacrylat (BA) enthielten, jedoch unterschiedliche Zusammensetzungsprofile aufwiesen, wurden synthetisiert und ihr pH‐abhängiges Selbstassemblierungsverhalten untersucht. Dabei reichten die synthetisierten Profile von einem AA‐BA‐Diblockcopolymer bis zu einem Poly(AA‐grad‐BA)‐Copolymer mit linearem Gradienten. Während assemblierte Gruppen des AA‐BA‐Diblockcopolymers kinetisch gehemmt waren, zeigten die gradientenartigen Kompositionen reversible Änderungen der Größe und Morphologie als Reaktion auf Veränderung des pH‐Werts. Im Speziellen bildete ein Diblockcopolymer, das aus zwei ungeordneten Copolymersegmenten gleicher Länge (16 % bzw. 84 % AA‐Gehalt) bestand, kugelförmige Mizellen bei einem pH‐Wert >5, eine Mischung aus kugelförmigen und wurmartigen Mizellen bei pH 5 und Vesikel bei pH 4. Diese Anordnungen wurden durch dynamische Lichtstreuung (DLS), Kryo‐Transmissionselektronenmikroskopie (Kryo‐TEM) und Kleinwinkelneutronenstreuung (SANS) charakterisiert.
A series of copolymers containing 50 mol% acrylic acid (AA) and 50 mol% butyl acrylate (BA) but with differing composition profiles ranging from an AA‐BA diblock copolymer to a linear gradient poly(AA‐ grad ‐BA) copolymer were synthesized and their pH‐responsive self‐assembly behavior was investigated. While assemblies of the AA‐BA diblock copolymer were kinetically frozen, the gradient‐like compositions underwent reversible changes in size and morphology in response to changes in pH. In particular, a diblock copolymer consisting of two random copolymer segments of equal length (16 mol% and 84 mol% AA respectively) formed spherical micelles at pH > 5, a mix of spherical and worm‐like micelles at pH 5 and vesicles at pH 4. These assemblies were characterized by dynamic light scattering, cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and small angle neutron scattering.
The Mesopotamian Region is often recognised as the origin of the Western European (W European) segetal plants that have been coevolving with winter cereals since the emergence of agriculture. This eastern origin assumption is based on the close association between cereal domestication and arable weed occurrence. However, it has never been properly tested and the debate of their biogeographical origin continues. Here, we conducted a comparative floristic analysis of the complete French segetal plant list to provide a global comprehension vision on their hypothetic Mesopotamian origin. We found a total of 58 of the 102 segetal French taxa that occur both in the fields and in primary natural habitats in the Upper Mesopotamian Region. In contrast, in France, only 39 species are facultative weeds under the Mediterranean bioclimate while they are obligatory weeds under Temperate bioclimate. A significant part of them is endemic to W Europe occurring in primary natural habitats, and thus contributing to enrich the local segetal assemblage. Contrary to the general belief of their eastern origin, these French segetal taxa are originated from various biogeographical regions (Eurasiatic, European, Eury-Mediterranean, Mediterranean, Mediterranean-Touranian and W-Asiatic) and not only from the Upper Mesopotamian Region. Hence, we propose a hypothetical scheme to illustrate the various segetal assemblages as the result of an accumulative local colonization/extinction process alongside the cereal migration routes. Therefore, primary natural source versus secondary field sink habitats have considerably contributed to the segetal assemblage and thus represent crucial new contributions to our knowledge of their various biogeographical origin.
Multilayer crossbar junctions composed of ITO/[Fe(HB(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)3)2]/M (with M = Al or Ca) were fabricated and investigated for their resistance switching properties. Current-voltage-temperature maps revealed ON/OFF resistance ratios as high as 400, with the ON and OFF states defined, respectively, as the low-resistance, low spin state and the high-resistance, high spin state of the spin crossover layer. Similar results were obtained with Al and Ca cathodes indicating that the charge transport in the insulating spin crossover film is at the origin of the resistance switching instead of electron injection at the electrodes. The reproducibility and stability of the device properties were also studied.
The study deals with the last unexplored morphological group of the genus Hodophilus defined by absence of distinct odours, absence of yellow colours and absence of darker dots on the stipe. The phylogenetic reconstruction of the whole genus based on nrITS, nrLSU and RPB2 sequences placed all European members having these morphological characters in a monophyletic group defined here as a new section H. sect. Phaeophylli. The remaining European members of the genus are placed in two additional groups classified as section H. sect. Hodophilus and the new section H. sect. Micacei. Five species are recognised within section Phaeophylli which is typified by H. phaeophyllus that is lecto- and epitypified. Three new species belonging to this section are described: H. carpathicus, H. decurrentior and H. stramineus. Hodophilus decurrentior is the only species showing distinct morphological differences under the microscope. The identification of other species of the section depends mainly on the colour of basidiomata. An updated key to all European members of the genus is provided.
The present study investigated the natural recovery of the Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) in France. The otter was widely distributed in France at the dawn of the 20th century, but then its range considerably shrank and became highly fragmented until the early 1970s, just before it was legally protected. However, for more than 25 years, the otter has been reconquering several parts of its original range and is now considered to be in expansion in France. We investigated the genetic differentiation and diversity of several populations from western and central France and northern Spain to gain insight into the recolonisation dynamics of this elusive species. The present study, based on the use of 14 microsatellite markers, revealed that otter populations seem to be split into five distinct groups. The distribution of samples in those five clusters was closely correlated with suspected refugia where the otter probably survived during the 20th century. Admixture was observed between genetic lineages, possibly enhancing their genetic diversity and thus increasing the recolonisation dynamics of these populations. This phenomenon resembles the genetic pattern noted in many invasive exotic species derived from multiple sources and introduction events. Finally, a demographic approach revealed the probable link between historical human pressure and otter population fragmentation patterns.
A unique series of six biaryl natural products displaying four different coupling types (5,10 , 7,10 , 7,80 , and 5,80) were isolated from the roots of the West African liana Ancistrocladus abbreviatus (Ancistrocladaceae). Although at first sight structurally diverse, these secondary metabolites all have in common that they belong to the rare group of naphthylisoquinoline alkaloids with a fully dehydrogenated isoquinoline portion. Among the African Ancistrocladus species, A. abbreviatus is so far only the second one that was found to produce compounds with such a molecular entity. Here, we report on four new representatives, named ancistrobreveines A–D (12–14, and 6). They were identified along with the two known alkaloids 6-O-methylhamateine (4) and entdioncophylleine A (10). The two latter naphthylisoquinolines had so far only been detected in Ancistrocladus species from Southeast Asia. All of these fully dehydrogenated alkaloids have in common being optically active despite the absence of stereogenic centers, due to the presence of the rotationally hindered biaryl axis as the only element of chirality. Except for ent-dioncophylleine A (10), which lacks an oxygen function at C-6, the ancistrobreveines A–D (12–14, and 6) and 6-O-methylhamateine (4) are 6-oxygenated alkaloids, and are, thus, typical ‘Ancistrocladaceae-type’ compounds. Ancistrobreveine C (14), is the first – and so far only – example of a 7,80-linked fully dehydrogenated naphthylisoquinoline discovered in nature that is configurationally stable at the biaryl axis. The stereostructures of the new alkaloids were established by spectroscopic (in particular HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR) and chiroptical (electronic circular dichroism) methods. Ancistrobreveine C (14) and 6-O-methylhamateine (4) exhibited strong antiproliferative activities against drug-sensitive acute lymphoblastic CCRF-CEM leukemia cells and their multidrugresistant subline, CEM/ADR5000.
Changes in phenology and in body size are two of the three main consequences of global warming on organisms. We investigated whether living in a warm artificial habitat would induce changes in the phenology and body size of dragonflies. We monitored in natura the emergence pattern of three protected and red-listed dragonfly species in three geographically close systems which differ in thermal profiles: a medium-sized river, one of its tributaries and an artificial lake fed by the water of the tributary. We also investigated the morphological variability of one of the species between the three systems. We showed an asynchrony of emergence for the three species, as well as morphological variability between the lake and the two rivers. Individuals from the lake emerged earlier and were smaller than those from the two rivers. These results are in agreement with a temperature-induced response hypothesis as the lake is warmer than the two rivers. Asynchrony of emergence between neighbouring populations triggers questions related to metapopulation functioning and about the fitness and the fate of the early-emerging individuals. Understanding the response of these species to local thermal conditions will help to improve population monitoring and conservation.
Buxbaumia viridis is a bryophyte whose gametophyte is highly reduced, while its sporophyte is relatively large, present all year round in its different phenological stages. In the Pyrenees, where the species is present in humid forests, especially pure Abies alba or mixed A. alba and Fagus sylvatica forests, the sporophytes mature in spring, losing their winter green colour. Herbivory has been detected on young capsules in spring. Observed damages are mainly of two types: cut setae, where capsule is completely lost and whose responsible organism has not been identified; and more frequently, torn capsules where sporal mass is partly gone, sometimes only part of the theca at the base of the capsule remains. The responsible organisms in the second type are young slugs (genus Arion), what have been observed in situ twice. The animal tears the capsule and scrapes with its radula the sporal mass from the inside. Between 1999 and 2014, we visited 40 localities with Buxbaumia viridis populations, located in Navarra and Huesca on the southern versant of the Pyrenees, and Pyrénées-Atlantiques and Hautes-Pyrénées on the northern versant, aiming to estimate the number of individuals. Grazing on B. viridis capsules has been detected in 28 of these localities (70%), proving that this consumption is not accidental. Regarding the grazing rate, 10 localities showed consumption less than 20% of the total sporophyte number, 14 a consumption ranging from 21 to 59%, and finally, 4 were over 60% of grazed sporophytes. This sporophyte consumption is so high that it might have an important incidence on the species conservation.
This paper presents experimental results about transport of dilute suspensions of nano-objects in silicon-glass micrometric and sub-micrometric channels. Two kinds of objects are used: solid, rigid latex beads and spherical capsule-shaped, soft polymersomes. They are tracked using fluorescence microscopy. Three parameters are studied: confinement (ratio between particle diameter and channel depth), Brownian diffusion and particle nature. The aim of this work is to understand how these different parameters affect the transport of suspensions in narrow channels and to understand the different mechanisms at play. Concerning the solid beads we observe the appearance of two regimes, one where the experimental mean velocity is close to the expected one and another where this velocity is lower. This is directly related to a competition between confinement, Brownian diffusion and advection. These two regimes are shown to be linked to the homogeneity of particles distribution in the channel depth, which we experimentally deduce from velocity distributions. This inhomogeneity appears during the entrance process into the sub-micrometric channels, as for hydrodynamic separation or deterministic lateral displacement. Concerning the nature of the particles we observed a shift of transition towards the second regime likely due to the relationships between shear stress and polymersomes mechanical properties which could reduce the inhomogeneity imposed by the geometry of our device.
Objective: To evaluate whether sedation with intramuscular butorphanol can interfere with different variables of the ocular examination in dogs. Animals: Twenty-two beagles without ophthalmic abnormalities. Procedures: Each dog was examined 20 min prior to and again just before administration of butorphanol to establish baseline data. The globe and nictitating membrane position was evaluated, and the following were recorded: menace response, dazzle reflex, corneal blink reflex, phenol red thread tear test (PRT), Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1), pupil size (PS) measurement, and rebound tonometry. Then, butorphanol was injected intramuscularly at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg and these procedures were repeated 10, 20, 30, and 45 min postadministration. A sedation score graded 0 to 3 was also established at these time points. Statistical analyses were performed on quantitative data using ANOVA. Results: The sedative effect was not associated with any changes in globe and nictitating membrane position; did not affect the results of the menace response, dazzle reflex, and corneal blink reflex; and had no significant effect on PRT values. However, butorphanol administration was associated with a statistically significant decrease in STT-1 and PS values (P < 0.005), and a statistically significant increase in IOP (P < 0.05). All these variations remained in the range of normal values. Conclusions and clinical relevance: Butorphanol administered intramuscularly at 0.2 mg/kg provided a degree of sedation allowing eye examination, but was found to interfere with STT-1, PS, and IOP values among the diagnostic tests studied. However, these values remained within normal limits.
Ecological restoration has developed greatly over recent decades. Promoting harmonious relationships between scientists and practitioners, between restoration ecology and ecological restoration, is essential to improving restoration projects. These relationships are difficult to achieve at a global scale, although international action remains essential. Therefore, regional and national networks are attempting to take up the challenge. With several European countries planning to create their own network in the coming years, insights from current practice are helpful. Here, we (1) describe the context in which ecological restoration is developing in France and (2) present the French restoration network, Réseau d'Echanges et de Valorisation en Ecologie de la Restauration (REVER). Most public policies related to restoration in France are derived from European Union (EU) directives, such as those on water, ecological networks, biodiversity, and protected species and natural habitat. Restoration can also be undertaken through Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) or subsequent to damage. Following the model of the International Society for Ecological Restoration, the French network for ecological restoration (REVER) aims at accompanying and promoting restoration by facilitating relationships between the various stakeholders: practitioners, scientists, site managers, etc. To encourage exchange of knowledge and experience, REVER manages a website, organizes workshops, and provides links with SER-Europe and Society for Ecological Restoration International (SERI). This article provides information that will be of interest to other countries trying to meet the Aichi targets of the convention on biological diversity: the restoration of 15% of degraded ecosystems by 2020.
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