College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry
Recent publications
Background: The cardiovascular crisis is advancing rapidly throughout the world. A large number of studies have shown that plant polyphenols affect major mechanisms involved in cardiovascular events through their action on the antioxidant system, signaling, and transcription pathways. D-limonene, a monocyclic monoterpene obtained from citrus fruits, is reported to possess many pharmacological activities. Methods: The experiment was designed to determine the protective effect of D-limonene against cardiac injury induced by CCl4 in Wistar rats. Rats were treated with two doses of D-limonene against cardiac injury induced by CCl4. Serum toxicity markers, cardiac toxicity biomarker enzymes, inflammatory mediators, anti-oxidant armory, lipid peroxidation, lipid profile, and histology were done. Results: CCl4 intoxication resulted in a substantial rise in FFA, TC, TG, PL, LDL, VLDL, and a reduction in HDL, restoring these changes with the administration of D-limonene at a dosage of 200 mg/kg. CCl4 administration also resulted in lipid oxidation and decreased antioxidant activity. At the same time, D-limonene at a dosage of 200 mg/kg body weight inhibited LPO and restored in vivo antioxidant components to normal. CCl4 intoxication also resulted in a significant increase in inflammatory markers like IL-6, TNF-α, high sensitivity Corticotropin Releasing Factor (Hs-CRF), and biomarkers of cardiac toxicity like alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase MB (CKMB), and Troponin I & troponin-t activities. D-limonene reversed all these changes to normal. Histology further confirmed our obtained results. Conclusion: These findings indicate that D-limonene can ameliorate cardiac injury at a 200 mg/kg body weight dosage. Henceforth, D-Limonene intervenes in mediating CCl4 induced toxicity by various signaling pathways. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Present study was conducted to undermine the wound healing potential of mangiferin vis a vis its molecular dynamics in immunocompromised excisional rat model. 120 rats were randomly and equally divided into five groups viz. group I (Healthy control), group II (Immunocompromised control), group III (Immunocompromised group treated with silver sulphadiazine), group IV (Immunocompromised group treated with 2.5 %Mangiferin) and group V (Immunocompromised group treated with 5 %Mangiferin). Immuno compromised state was achieved following intramuscular injection of Hydrocortisone @ 80 mg/kg body weight. Study was conducted for a period of 28 days. Six animals from each group were humanely sacrificed at weekly interval till day 28th of study. Planimetric analysis, biochemical studies viz. hydroxyproline assay, total protein and DNA content, antioxidative potential through LPO assay was done along with molecular studies involving expression profiling of IL1β, TNFα and COX-2 and Immunohistochemistry of angiogenic marker i.e. VEGF was performed to undermine the pharmacodynamics of mangiferin. Histopathological studies including H&E and Masson’s Trichome was also performed to study histoarchitectural changes in wound healing and reparative process following application of mangiferin ointment. Study revealed significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in wound area measurement and significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in wound contraction (%) following mangiferin administration in immunocompromised rats. Hydroxyproline, DNA and total protein showed significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase in skin tissues of mangiferin treated immunocompromised rats. LPO assay revealed significant (P ≤ 0.05) reduction in mangiferin treated animals. Histopathological studies of skin tissues revealed complete restoration advocating grade III of healing in 2.5% mangiferin treated group. Higher expression and strong signal intensity of VEGF was noticed in 2.5% mangiferin treatment group along with significant (P ≤ 0.05) upregulation IL1β and TNFα on day 7 in 2.5% mangiferin treatment group with significant (P ≤ 0.05) down regulation of COX-2 in mangiferin treatment group as compared to other groups i.e. group II and III. It is concluded from our study that mangiferin facilitates wound healing through improved wound closure, organized deposition of collagen deposition and granulation matrix formation.
Amid the global health threats of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, recent re-emergence of rising cases of monkeypox posing public health emergency of international concern, and very recent re-emergence of Marburg virus disease in Ghana, another zoonotic disease as a febrile illness in humans has been reported from China as per one report published most recently in first week of August 2022 that attracted global attention, with its causative agent identified as Langya virus (LayV), a new Henipavirus. Mainly people of Shandong and Henan provinces of the Eastern China have been affected by this new zoonotic virus, and 35 cases of Langya virus infected persons with a recent history of animal exposure have been investigated till date from 2018 to 2022. In this correspondence piece, we have highlighted the newly identified Langya virus (Henipavirus) in China. It is a novel report and provides novel information about the virus. The report will help to understand more about the virus and to provide encounter the strategies against the virus.
The decrease in insulin sensitivity during the transition of preruminant calves into ruminant animals is the common denominator. Meanwhile, this adaptation predisposes dairy calves towards various health issues and metabolic disorders that occur in later life. Chromium (Cr) has been shown to potentiate insulin functioning and is thereby helpful in reducing the risk of these metabolic disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Cr supplementation on the insulin sensitivity and health status in Hariana calves during their transition period. A total of 24 preruminant Hariana calves were randomly allocated into four groups (6 calves per group) for a period of 90 days. Calves either received a basal diet devoid of supplemental Cr (control; Cr0.0 group) or were supplemented with 0.05 mg (Cr0.05 group), 0.10 mg (Cr0.10 group), and 0.15 mg (Cr0.15 group) of Cr per kg BW0.75 as Cr-picolinate (Cr-Pic). To determine the effect of Cr supplementation on the insulin response, glucose-insulin-non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) kinetics was studied during the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A rapid glucose disappearance (p < 0.05) with unaltered insulin kinetics during IVGTT and OLTT indicates greater insulin sensitivity in calves supplemented with 0.10 and 0.15 mg of Cr per kg BW0.75. Improved insulin sensitivity in the Cr0.10 and Cr0.15 groups was further confirmed by higher (p < 0.05) values of the insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI), and lower (p < 0.05) values of the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) during IVGTT. Mean serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAm), and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) levels were the highest (p < 0.05) and cortisol concentrations were the lowest (p < 0.05) in the Cr0.15 groups. Unlike IVGTT, there was no effect of treatment, period, and treatment × period interaction on mean serum glucose and insulin levels during OGTT. However, Cr-supplemented calves had a higher (p < 0.05) glucose clearance rate (gCR). Serum IRS-1 concentrations during OGTT were also higher (p < 0.05) in the Cr0.10 and Cr0.15 groups than in the other groups. Serum Cr levels increased dose dependently and were the highest (p < 0.05) in calves fed a diet supplemented with 0.15 mg Cr per kg BW0.75. There was no effect of treatment on average daily gain (ADG) and body condition score (BCS) while frequency and duration of diarrhea were lower and fecal score was better in Cr-supplemented calves. The current findings show that Cr supplementation improved glucose utilization and health status in calves during their transition period by improving insulin sensitivity.
Low-fat spread (LFS) is the product harmonizing with the idea of healthy nutrition. At the same time, it has a good taste and flavour, as well as very good spreadability at refrigerator temperature. The present investigation studied the effect of method of cooling on the properties of cow and buffalo milk ghee, and comparative evaluation of LFS prepared from them. Slowly pre-cooled cow ghee had intense yellow colour than rapidly pre-cooled cow ghee, whereas slowly pre-cooled buffalo ghee has creamish white colour and rapidly pre-cooled buffalo ghee had white colour. Rapidly pre-cooled cow ghee had a very smooth and pasty texture than rapidly pre-cooled buffalo ghee. The LFS of cow ghee had shown maximum sensory scores for colour and appearance, body and texture, spreadability, and overall acceptability, as compared to buffalo ghee LFS. Chemically it was observed that both the LFS differs in FFA content, while they had similar fat, protein, carbohydrate, ash and total solids content, as well as pH. Oiling off and wheying off was found higher in cow ghee LFS over buffalo ghee LFS. Colour, appearance and flavour score were found improved by the addition of butter annatto colour and diacetyl flavour respectively. Color and appearance, body and texture, spreadability, as well as overall acceptability scores were higher for cow ghee LFS when subjected to 35 °C for 10, 20, and 30 minutes. It was found that after 10 minutes of exposure to 35 °C, the physical qualities of both LFS were unchanged, but the sensory properties diminished as time passed.
Lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) is the causative agent of lumpy skin disease (LSD) which is a member of Capripoxvirus. It is an economically critical transboundary disease affecting cattle. This study records an LSD outbreak in Ganjam district of Odisha, India during August 2020. The epidemiological data were analysed and LSDV was genetically characterized. Out of the 452 animals clinically examined (59 farms), 63 animals were clinically affected with LSD, with a total morbidity rate of 13.93%. The morbidity rates in the surveyed villages (n = 10) varied from 5.55 to 21.62%. The multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that grazing of animals (P = 0.013; OR: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.16–3.57) and age of cows > 3 years old (P = 0.001; OR: 2.90; 95% CI: 1.65- 5.07) were potential risk factors for the presence of LSD. Out of the 53 clinically suspected animals’ samples, 18 samples (33.96%) were found positive for both the P32 and F genes of Capripoxvirus by PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the P32 gene of LSDV (MW147486) showed 100% similarity with other isolates from India, Bangladesh, Egypt and Saudi Arabia. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis of the F gene of LSDV (MW147485) revealed a similarity of 97.99%, with Odisha India (MT074110) isolate and located in the same cluster with other Indian isolates.
Experts in infectious diseases have long cautioned that climate change and the destruction of nature will raise the likelihood of "zoonotic spillovers," or the transmission of viruses from animals to people (Santana, 2020). Recently, a new animal virus, called the Langya henipavirus (LayV), has been identified in humans in the Eastern China amid global efforts to combat the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and monkeypox virus (MPXV) outbreak. Although the scientists have stated that the risk for spread among human beings is low, the virus is closely related to two other henipaviruses known to infect people- Hendra virus and Nipah virus, which results in serious respiratory infections and can be lethal. Similarly, LayV can cause respiratory symptoms such as fever, cough, and fatigue, but none of the affected individuals have died to date.
Abstract The present study evaluated the antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of MHIR in combination with amoxicillin and clindamycin against biofilm‐forming MRSA isolated from milk samples of mastitic cows. Microdilution susceptibility testing and microtiter plate assays were used to evaluate the in‐vitro efficacy of MHIR and antibiotic combinations against MRSA (n=12). Furthermore, in‐vitro findings were validated in a murine model. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration of amoxicillin and clindamycin in combination with MHIR were significantly (P<0.05) lower than when used alone against MRSA. In terms of antibacterial activity, MHIR showed additive interaction (Fractional inhibitory concentrationindex>0.5‐4) with amoxicillin and clindamycin against all the MRSA isolates, whereas MHIR synergizes (Fractional biofilm inhibitory concentrationindex ≤0.5) the antibiofilm activity of amoxicillin and clindamycin against 58.33% and 83.33% of the MRSA isolates, respectively. Amoxicillin/clindamycin in combination with MHIR significantly (P<0.05) reduced disease activity score, and,; bacterial load and Gram‐positive spots in kidney and liver of MRSA infected mice. The combined efficacy of MHIR and amoxicillin/clindamycin was comparable to clindamycin alone but superior to amoxicillin alone. Hence, the combination of MHIR with amoxicillin/clindamycin is advocated in the treatment of MRSA‐associated infections.
Salmonella, one of the major infectious diseases in poultry, causes considerable economic losses in terms of mortality and morbidity, especially in countries that lack effective vaccination programs. Besides being resistant to diseases, indigenous chicken breeds are also a potential source of animal protein in developing countries. For understanding the disease resistance, an indigenous chicken line Kashmir faverolla, and commercial broiler were selected. RNA-seq was performed after challenging the chicken with Salmonella Typhimurium. Comparative differential expression results showed that following infection, a total of 3153 genes and 1787 genes were differentially expressed in the liver and spleen, respectively. The genes that were differentially expressed included interleukins, cytokines, NOS2, Avβ-defensins, toll-like receptors, and other immune-related gene families. Most of the genes and signaling pathways involved in the innate and adaptive immune responses against bacterial infection were significantly enriched in the Kashmir faverolla. Pathway analysis revealed that most of the enriched pathways were MAPK signaling pathway, NOD-like receptor signaling pathway, TLR signaling pathway, PPAR signaling pathway, endocytosis, etc. Surprisingly some immune-related genes like TLRs were upregulated in the susceptible chicken breed. On postmortem examination, the resistant birds showed small lesions in the liver compared to large necrotic lesions in susceptible birds. The pathological manifestations and RNA sequencing results suggest a balancing link between resistance and infection tolerance in Kashmir faverolla. Here we also developed an online Poultry Infection Database (, the first publicly available gene expression resource for disease resistance in chickens. The available database not only shows the data for gene expression in chicken tissues but also provides quick search, visualization and download capacity.
Schistosomiasis is caused by a group of trematode parasites belonging to genus Schistosoma and is a waterborne disease affecting large populations in Africa, Asia, and South America. The important human pathogens include Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni, and Schistosoma japonicum apart from some animal schistosomes which can cause human infection. Freshwater snails act as the intermediate hosts while humans and animals such as cattle, rodents are the definitive hosts. The parasite resides in the vesical and intestinal venous plexuses, and the pathology is primarily due to the eggs produced by the adult worms in the intestine or the urinary bladder. The clinical manifestations depend on the site of infection, the infecting species, and the parasite load. This condition is commonly diagnosed by detection of eggs in urine or stool after concentration, but serological tests and molecular assays are also available. Praziquantel is the drug of choice for all forms of schistosomiasis. In the absence of a vaccine, prevention of water pollution and eradication of snails remain the only viable methods for prevention .
Turkey arthritis reovirus (TARV) has been established as a cause of lameness in meat type turkeys in the past decade. However, no information is available on the age susceptibility of TARV or its transmission dynamics. We conducted this study to determine the age at which turkey poults are susceptible to TARV infection and whether infected birds can horizontally transmit the virus to their non-infected pen mates (sentinels). Five groups of turkeys were orally inoculated with TARV (∼10⁶ TCID50/ml) at 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of age (DOA). Two days after each challenge, four uninfected sentinel turkeys of equal age were added to the virus-inoculated groups. At one- and two-weeks post infection, turkeys from each group, including two sentinels, were euthanized followed by necropsy. Inoculated birds in all age groups had TARV replication in the intestine and gastrocnemius tendon with no statistically significant variation at p < 0.5. Furthermore, the inoculated birds at different age groups showed consistently high gastrocnemius tendon histologic lesion scores while birds in the 28-days-old age group had numerically lower lesion scores at 14 days post inoculation (dpi). The sentinels, in turn, also showed virus replication in their intestines and tendons and histologic lesions in gastrocnemius tendons. The findings indicate that turkeys at the age of 28 days or less are susceptible to infection with TARV following oral challenge. It was also found that TARV-infected birds could transmit the infection to naïve sentinel turkeys of the same age.
Very recently, another plausible threat from the world of zoonotic viruses became the hot topic of the news when a new virus namely Langya virus (LayV), a Henipavirus, was reported to be identified in patients with febrile illness during July month of 2022 from China (Zhang et al., 2022). The genus Henipavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae contains five viruses, the Hendra virus (HeV), Nipah virus (NiV), Cedar virus, Ghanaian virus and the Mojiang virus. All these are pleomorphic, enveloped, single-stranded RNA viruses. Of these five identified viruses, only Hendra and Nipah viruses are highly virulent, which were discovered in 1990s following a serious disease outbreak in horses, pigs and humans in Australia and Malaysia.These two viruses pose a constant threat to livestock and humans, and in the current times are reported periodically from India and Bangladesh. Both the Nipah and Hendra viruses are zoonotic in nature and known to cause lethal infection in humans with fatality rate ranging from 40-75%. As a result, both viruses are considered as category C select agents by USDA-HHS and bio-safety level 4 (BSL-4) pathogens. Pteropid bats commonly known as flying foxes have been recognized as the main natural reservoir of infection although henipaviruses have been found in non-pteroid bats and shrews too.
Tacrine is a drug used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease as a cognitive enhancer and inhibitor of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). However, its clinical application has been restricted due to its poor therapeutic efficacy and high prevalence of detrimental effects. An attempt was made to understand the molecular mechanisms that underlie tacrine and its analogues influence over neurotherapeutic activity by focusing on modulation of neurogenesis, neuroinflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis, and regulatory role in gene and protein expression, energy metabolism, Ca 2+ homeostasis modulation, and osmotic regulation. Regardless of this, analogues of tacrine are considered as a model inhibitor of cholinesterase in the therapy of Alzheimer's disease. The variety both in structural make-up and biological functions of these substances is the main appeal for researchers' interest in them. A new paradigm for treating neurological diseases is presented in this review, which includes treatment strategies for Alzheimer's disease, as well as other neurological disorders like Parkinson's disease and the synthesis and biological properties of newly identified versatile tacrine analogues and hybrids. We have also shown that these analogues may have therapeutic promise in the treatment of neurological diseases in a variety of experimental systems.
Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] has emerged as a prevailing environmental and occupational contaminant over the past few decades. However, the knowledge is sparse regarding Cr(VI)-induced neurological aberrations, and its remediation through natural bioactive compounds has not been fully explored. This study intended to probe the possible invigorative effects of nutraceuticals such as coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), biochanin A (BCA), and phloretin (PHL) on Cr(VI) intoxicated Swiss albino mice with special emphasis on Nrf2/HO-1/NQO1 gene expressions. Mice received potassium dichromate (75 ppm) through drinking water and were simultaneously co-treated intraperitoneally with CoQ10 (10 mg/kg), BCA, and PHL (50 mg/kg) each for 30-day treatment period. The statistics highlight the elevated levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyl content (PCC) with a concomitant reduction in the superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), total thiols (TT), catalase (CAT), and cholinesterase activities in the Cr(VI)-exposed mice. The collateral assessment of DNA fragmentation, DNA breakages, and induced histological alterations was in conformity with the above findings in conjugation with the dysregulation in the Nrf2 and associated downstream HO-1 and NQO1 gene expressions. Co-treatment with the selected natural compounds reversed the above-altered parameters significantly, thereby bringing cellular homeostasis in alleviating the Cr(VI)-induced conciliated impairments. Our study demonstrated that the combination of different bioactive compounds shields the brain better against Cr(VI)-induced neurotoxicity by revoking the oxidative stress-associated manifestations. These compounds may represent a new potential combination therapy due to their ability to modulate the cellular antioxidant responses by upregulating the Nrf2/HO-1/NQO1 signaling pathway against Cr(VI)-exposed population. Highlights Cr(VI)-associated heavy metal exposure poses a significant threat to the environment, especially to living organisms. Cr(VI) exposure for 30 days resulted in the free radical’s generation that caused neurotoxicity in the Swiss albino mice. Natural compounds such as coenzyme Q10, biochanin A, and phloretin counteracted the neurotoxic effect due to Cr(VI) exposure in scavenging of free radicals by enhancing Nrf2/HO-1/NQO1 gene expressions in maintaining the cellular homeostasis. Graphical abstract
Vaccines are vital for prevention and control of mycoplasma diseases. The exploration of a vaccine candidate for the development of a vaccine is imperative. The present study envisages the evaluation of immune and oxidative response against an adjuvanted, sonicated antigen of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumonia in male Angora rabbits (1 year old, 2 Kg) divided in four groups, each having six animals. Group 1 was the healthy control and received 1 mL PBS via subcutaneous route. Group 2 was administered 1 mL of saponin-adjuvanted and -sonicated antigen, Group 3 was given 1 mL of montanide ISA 50-adjuvanted and-sonicated antigen, and Group 4 was given 1 mL of standard vaccine via subcutaneous route. Animals were evaluated for cellular and humoral immune response and oxidative parameters at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of the study. Total leukocytic, neutrophilic, and basophilic counts showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in vaccinated groups compared to the healthy group on most of the intervals. TNF-α levels were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in the Group 2 than the Group 1 at all the time intervals and more comparable to Group 4 than Group 3. IL-10 levels were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in vaccinated groups compared to the healthy group on days 14, 21, and 28, but were lower in Group 3 than in Group 2 and Group 4. More hypersensitivity as inflammation and histopathological cellular infiltration in the ear was produced in Group 2 and Group 4 than in Group 3. IgG levels were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in Group 2 and Group 4 than in Group 3 on days 14 and 21. Antibody titers were comparatively higher in Group 4, followed by Group 2 and 3, than Group 1. Significantly (p < 0.05) higher oxidant and lower antioxidant values were noted in Group 2 and 4 compared to Group 3 and Group 1 on most of the intervals. The TLC and antibody titer showed increasing trend throughout the trial, whereas TNF-α, IgG, L, M and E started decreasing from day 14, and IL-10, N and B started decreasing from day 21. This study concludes that the saponin-adjuvanted and-sonicated antigen induces comparatively higher immune response than montanide but is associated with oxidative and inflammatory reactions.
The current study was devised to develop alternative, nonantibiotic, and economically viable treatments for bovine mastitis. The concentration of 6.25 μg/mL (25 nm) CuNPs was selected as intramammary (IM) treatment in S. aureus-induced mastitis in rats as this concentration showed a significant zone of inhibition through the in vitro sensitivity test and minimal cell toxicity on fibroblast cell lines. After, this in vivo study was conducted, and rats were divided into four groups of 6 rats each: group I (healthy control/deionized water), group II (disease control), group III (CuNPs), and group IV (gentamicin). Injection of gentamicin IM for 5 days was selected on the basis of an antibiotic sensitivity test. The therapeutic efficacy of CuNPs was assessed on the basis of clinical signs, mammary gland architecture, bacterial load, oxidative stress parameters, and histopathology of mammary glands. The clinical signs of mastitis in group III ameliorated within 3 days of treatment while in group IV clinical signs ameliorated within 4 days of initiation of treatment. On the 5th day after randomization, bacterial load, mammary gland weights, TOS (Total Oxidant Status), and OSI (oxidative stress index) were significantly lower in the CuNPs group compared to the disease control group and commercial antibiotic group. Similarly, TAS of group III was significantly higher compared to that of groups II and IV indicating that CuNPs have better ameliorative efficacy in mastitis. Treatment with IM, CuNPs @ 6.25 μg/mL showed early recovery, reduced bacterial loads, and amelioration of oxidative stress indices henceforth resulting in marked amelioration in histopathological changes compared to rats in group IV. From this study, it may be concluded that CuNPs may provide a potential alternative therapeutic regimen for the treatment of bovine mastitis.
Exploring genetic variability by microsatellite markers is essential for genetic improvement, preservation of indigenous breeds and production of high quality offspring. Lack of information on microsatellite profiling of indigenous duck of Tripura has endorsed interest for this present study. Genomic DNA from randomly selected thirty six (36) native ducks was analysed at twenty five duck specific microsatellite loci, alleles were separated on 3.4% MetaPhore™ agarose and their sizes were determined by Image Lab software. Allelic data were analyzed by POPGENE version 1.31. All the studied loci demonstrated polymorphic patterns resolving 112 alleles. Allele number varied from 2 to 15 and average number of allele (N a ) was 4.480 ± 0.659. Allele sizes and allele frequency ranged from 96 to 357 bp and 0.014 to 0.819, respectively. Average Nei’s heterozygosity, effective number (N e ) of alleles and Shannon’s Information index (I) were 0.617 ± 0.036, 3.538 ± 0.527 and 1.184 ± 0.112, respectively. The estimated Botstein’s polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.252 (CAUD020) to 0.911 (CAUD019) with an average of 0.562 ± 0.040 and sixteen loci were moderate to highly polymorphic and informative (PIC˃0.5). N e was less than N a at all the loci, indicating prevalence of heterozygosity. Chi-square and G-square statistics revealed Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium at all the loci. Moderate to high level of polymorphism at all analyzed microsatellite loci indicated that these markers might be helpful for genetic characterization and adoption of appropriate conservation strategies to exploit optimum genetic potentiality of indigenous duck of Tripura.
Acellular scaffold from buffalo diaphragm was prepared by continuously stirring of tissues in 0.5, 1, 2, 3, and 4% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution, respectively. The tissue was continuously agitated at a rate of 250 rpm for 12, 24, 48, and 72 h at room temperature. They were evaluated based on gross, histological, scanning electron microscopic observations, DNA content evaluation, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, 4′,6-diamino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining, agarose gel electrophoresis, and in vitro study of matrix metalloproteinases. Treatment of the diaphragm with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate solution for 4 h revealed orderly arranged collagen fibers. The prepared acellular matrix was extensively rinsed with sterile phosphate-buffered solution to remove the residual detergent and stored in phosphate-buffered solution containing 1% amikacin at 4 °C. The prepared matrices were tested in clinical cases of abdominal wall defects of different species of animals.
Africa carries a high burden of infectious diseases. Every year, millions of Africans contract tuberculosis, malaria and many other diseases. Malaria kills hundreds of thousands of children under the age of five annually. More than 11,000 people died during the 2014-2016 Ebola outbreak in West Africa; still, occasional cases of Ebola, as well as monkeypox, periodically appear in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Since most of the African countries gained their independence during the 1960s, the continent has relied heavily on the outside world for diagnostics, medicines, vaccines, personal protective equipment and other medical supplies. Africa consumes nearly 25% of the globally produced vaccines but imports 99% and 95% of its vaccines and medicines, respectively. The 55 African countries were not able to ensure the health of 1.3 billion Africans during the COVID-19 pandemic but had to rely on other global initiatives and other countries for help and support. However, the pandemic and the shortage of vaccines may have been the much-needed trigger for this situation to change. “When misfortunes increase, they erase each other.” Naguib Mahfouz (1911 – 2006)
Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) is of great economic significance to porcine industry worldwide. PCV-2 variants and genotypes, alternating world over, are the etiological agent of several clinical syndromes such as porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome (PDNS), post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) and others in pigs. This study is reporting an atypical manifestation of PDNS in twelve grower pigs, 3- to - 4.5 months age and either sex, died of the disease, with predominant lesions of nephropathy and no obvious clinical lesions in skin. Necropsy examination of pigs showed lesions of petechial -to- ecchymotic hemorrhages in the kidneys and in the right auricular musculature of the hearts. Microscopic lesions in H & E sections of the kidneys showed acute glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, and vasculitis, but the skin morphology and architecture remained unaltered in contrast to the pathognomonic lesions of PDNS described in the literature. Other syndromic associations of PDNS in these cases included-perimyocarditis, interstitial pneumonia, depleted lymphoid tissues, tonsillitis, enteritis, and meningo-encephalitis. The lesional sites in duplicate paraffin tissue sections of kidneys, heart, lungs, spleen, lymph nodes, intestine, and brain demonstrated PCV-2 antigen in the cytoplasm of cells as highlighted by the intense immunolabeling on IHC staining. The PCV-2 positive organs reconfirmed by PCR, targeting ORF2 gene, which yielded 481bp size of products. The sequencing results of 481bp products on phylogenetic analysis showed 94% similarity with that of PCV-2 sequences in the database that grouped into PCV2d-2 genotype. The present report confirms, probably for the first time, the atypical PDNS cases due to PCV2d-2 genotype in naturally affected grower pigs of India.
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32 members
Subas Parija
  • Pharmacology &Toxicology
Rahul Singh Arya
  • Department of Veterinary Pathology
Ishwar Datta
  • Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry (Retired Prof and Head)
O.P. Choudhary
  • Department of Veterinary Anatomy and Histology
Tridib Rajkhowa
  • Department of Veterinary Pathology
Aizawl, India