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ABSTRACT: Background: Obesity is a risk factor for the development of gout. An increased incidence of early gouty attacks after bariatric surgery has been reported, but the data is sparse. The effect of weight loss surgery on the behavior of gout beyond the immediate postoperative phase remains unclear. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pre- and postoperative frequency and features of gouty attacks in bariatric surgery patients. Methods: Charts were reviewed to identify patients who had gout before bariatric surgery. Demographic and gout-related parameters were recorded. The comparison group consisted of obese individuals with gout who underwent nonbariatric upper abdominal procedures. Results: Ninety-nine morbidly obese patients who underwent bariatric surgery had gout. The comparison group consisted of 56 patients. The incidence of early gouty attack in the first month after surgery was significantly higher in the bariatric group than the nonbariatric group (17.5% versus 1.8%, P = .003). In the bariatric group, 23.8% of patients had at least one gouty attack during the 12-month period before surgery, which dropped to 8.0% during postoperative months 1-13 (P = .005). There was no significant difference in the number of gouty attacks in the comparison group before and after surgery (18.2% versus 11.1%, P = .33). There was a significant reduction in uric acid levels 13-months after bariatric surgery compared with baseline values (9.1±2.0 versus 5.6±2.5 mg/dL, P = .007). Conclusion: The frequency of early postoperative gout attacks after bariatric surgery is significantly higher than that of patients undergoing other procedures. However, the incidence decreases significantly after the first postoperative month up to 1 year.
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ABSTRACT: Background: The number of times an article has been cited reflects its influence in a specific field. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the most highly cited articles published on bariatric and metabolic surgery. Methods: The 50 most frequently cited articles in bariatric and metabolic surgery were identified from the Scopus database in December 2013. Results: The median number of citations was 383.5 (range 275-2482). Most of the articles were published from 2000-2012 (n = 35), followed by 1990-1999 (n = 12), then before 1990 (n = 3). These citation classics came from 8 countries, with the majority originating from the United States (n = 34), followed by Sweden (n = 4) and Australia (n = 4). The 50 articles were published in 20 journals, led by New England Journal of Medicine (n = 9) and Annals of Surgery (n = 9). Only 10 of the articles were published in obesity-specific journals. The level of evidence of the 49 clinical publications and 1 animal study consisted of level I (n = 5), II (n = 11), III (n = 9), IV (n = 19), and V (n = 6). Meta-analyses were 16% of the total citations. Metabolic (n = 12) and survival (n = 6) effects of surgery were among the most common fields of study. Conclusion: Extending from the early 1950s through the voluminous growth period of the early 2000s, the field of bariatric and metabolic surgery led to the emergence of many top-cited scientific articles. These articles have provided the scientific basis for the only currently effective treatment for severe obesity. Articles published in high-impact journals, innovative observational studies, meta-analyses, survival analyses, and research on postoperative metabolic changes are most likely to be cited in the field of bariatric surgery.
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