Background/Objective Emerging adulthood (EA, age range between 18 to 29 years) is an important developmental stage that is characterized by marked social and psychological changes. Currently, its developmental features are quantified by the Inventory of the Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA) but a validated Chinese version of this questionnaire (IDEA-C) is lacking. Thus, this research, which consists of two consecutive studies, aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the translated IDEA in a Chinese sample of emerging adults. Method Firstly, a forward-backward translation of the IDEA-C scale was conducted. Item analysis and exploratory factor analysis were performed in Sample 1a (n = 2438), followed by structural validity test in Sample 1b (n = 2461). Concurrent validity and internal consistency were evaluated in Sample 1(n = 4899). Finally, test-retest reliability was tested in Sample 2 (n = 185). Then, the second study aimed to test the factor structure proposed by study 1 in the non-student sample (n = 2200) by confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, the second study also investigated whether the attainment of college education influenced the EA experience of non-student emerging adults in China. And the association was examined between the socioeconomic status of emerging adults and the subscales of IDEA. Results In the college sample, the IDEA-C scale presented a four-factor structure different from the original five-factor structure (χ2(190)=1116.84, p < 0.001; CFI = 0.97; TLI = 0.96; SRMR = 0.039; RMSEA = 0.050 [90%CI=0.047-0.052]). In addition, IDEA-C exhibited good internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha >0.77), test-retest reliability (r>0.49, p < 0.01) and concurrent validity. And the CFA in non-student sample also showed an adequate fit indices (χ2(158) =710.10, p < 0.001, TLI=0.93, CFI=0.94, SRMR=0.038, RMSEA=0.04 [90%CI=0.037-0.040]) and an adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.64) and test-retest reliability (r>0.43, p < 0.01). Conclusion The results of the present study confirmed that the Chinese version of the IDEA is found to be valid for measuring psychological characteristics of EA in Chinese-speaking samples of emerging adults.
This study investigates whether LinkedIn content in a business-to-business (B2B) service setting affects how firms generate engagement and sales revenue. Drawing on social media marketing theoretical underpinnings, we explain how a new post typology (sales, technical, and social) and customer engagement (likes, clicks, shares, and comments) are relevant to increase firm performance. We specify a VAR model with exogenous variables (VARX) using 106 weeks of data from a new, steadily growing B2B firm. We focus on the cumulative effects (i.e., short- and long-term effects) of the types of posts, website visits, new followers, and a composite of engagement behaviors over time and compute elasticities with impulse response functions (IRFs). Our findings indicate that followers and website visits positively affect the amount of sales revenue, and sales posts and website visits drive the number of followers. In addition, we find that social posts, new followers, and sales revenue positively influence engagement. These findings demonstrate the utility of LinkedIn at the firm level, preventing top management from perceiving social media as an ornamental accessory, and provide guidance for B2B marketers about what content to post on LinkedIn.
A family of eight compounds of the general formula [(C8H9NO)2MX2] or [(C8H9NO)2(H2O)2MX2], (M = Ni, Co, Cu, Zn; X = Cl, Br) has been prepared and the compounds characterized by combustion analysis, IR, single-crystal X-ray diffraction and variable temperature magnetization measurements. [[(C8H9NO)2(H2O)nMX2], (1, n = 0, M = Cu, X = Cl; 2, n = 0, M = Cu, X = Br; 3, n = 2, M = Ni, X = Cl; 4, n = 2, M = Ni, X = Br; 5, n = 2, M = Co, X = Cl; 6, n = 2, M = Co, X = Br; 7, n = 0, M = Zn, X = Cl; 8, n = 0, M = Zn, X = Br.) The eight compounds crystallize in three distinct space groups and have coordination number of either four (compounds 1, 2, 7, and 8) or six (compounds 3–6). Compounds 1 and 2 are slightly distorted square planar, compounds 3–6 are slightly distorted octahedral, and compounds 7 and 8 are slightly distorted tetrahedral. All eight compounds form chains either through bihalide interactions (1 and 2) or systems of hydrogen bonds (3–8). Chains are linked into layers through short halide…halide (1, 2, 7) and both traditional and non-traditional hydrogen bonds. The complexes have also been studied via variable temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements. Data for Cu(II) complexes 1 and 2 the 1D-Heisenberg uniform chain model with J/kB of −13.4(6) K and −14.3(4) K, respectively, with antiferromagnetic interchain interactions (θ = −4.1(5) K, −2.5(5) K, respectively) following the H=-J∑si∙sj Hamiltonian. The Ni(II) and Co(II) compounds showed temperature dependent moments which were well-modeled as arising due to single-ion anisotropy.
Ecosystem accounting is a statistical framework that aims to track the state of ecosystems and ecosystem services, with periodic updates. This framework follows the statistical standard of the System of Environmental Economic Accounting Ecosystem Accounting (SEEA EA). SEEA EA is composed of physical ecosystem extent, condition and ecosystem service supply-use accounts and monetary ecosystem service and asset accounts. This paper focuses on the potential use of the “Value Transfer” (VT) valuation method to produce the monetary ecosystem service accounts, taking advantage of experience with rigorous benefit transfer methods that have been developed and tested over many years in environmental economics. Although benefit transfer methods have been developed primarily for welfare analysis, the underlying techniques and advantages are directly applicable to monetary exchange values required for ecosystem accounting. The compilation of regular accounts is about to become a key area of work for the National Statistical Offices worldwide as well as for the EU Member States in particular, due to the anticipated amendment to regulation on European environmental economic accounts introducing ecosystem accounts. On this basis, accounting practitioners have voiced their concerns in a global consultation during SEEA EA revision, about three issues in particular: the lack of resources, the need for guidelines and the challenge of periodically updating the accounts. We argue that VT can facilitate empirical applications that assess ecosystem services in monetary terms, especially at national scales and in situations with limited expertise and resources available. VT is a low-cost valuation approach in line with SEEA EA requirements able to provide periodic, rigorous and consistent estimates for use in accounts. While some methodological challenges remain, it is likely that VT can help to implement SEEA EA at scale and in time to respond to the pressing need to incorporate nature into mainstream decision-making processes.
We examined whether emerging adults' sense of intimate safety with their parents and their adult attachment style would predict emerging adults' social connectedness. Additionally, we investigated whether their social connectedness would mediate the association between emerging adults' sense of intimate safety with their parents and their rumination and anger expression. Social connectedness is essential to the psychological and relational health of emerging adults, particularly during the renegotiation of their relationships with their parents. Two hundred sixteen emerging adults (80% female; 61% non‐Hispanic White) completed a survey of close relationship variables. The results suggest that emerging adults' adult attachment style mediated the relationship between emerging adults' intimate safety with their parents and social connectedness. Additionally, social connectedness mediated the relationship between emerging adults' intimate safety with their parents and their rumination and anger expression. This research highlights the importance of emerging adults' sense of safety to be their authentic and vulnerable selves in parent–child relationships on emerging adults' development of social connectedness and their mental and relational health.
Human c-Cbl is a RING-type ligase and plays a central role in the protein degradation cascade. To elucidate its conformational changes related to substrate binding, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of different variants/states of c-Cbl for a cumulative time of 68 μs. Our simulations demonstrate that before the substrate binds, the RING domain samples a broad set of conformational states at a biologically relevant salt concentration, including the closed, partially open, and fully open states, whereas substrate binding leads to a restricted conformational sampling. Phe378 and the C-terminal region play an essential role in stabilizing the partially open state. To visualize the allosteric signal transmission pathways from the substrate-binding site to the 40 Å apart RING domain and identify the critical residues for allostery, we have created a subgraph from the optimal and suboptimal paths. Redundant paths are seen in the SH2 domain where the substrate binds, while the major bottlenecks are found at the junction between the SH2 domain and the linker helix region as well as that between the SH2 domain and the 4H bundle. These bottlenecks separate the paths into two overall routes. The nodes/residues at the bottlenecks on the subgraph are considered allosteric hot spots. This subgraph approach provides a general tool for network visualization and determination of critical residues for allostery. The structurally and allosterically critical residues identified in our work are testable and would provide valuable insights into the emerging strategies for drug discovery, such as targeted protein degradation.
For undocumented students, the high school–to–college pipeline is filled with social, economic, and psychological stressors. Yet very little is known about the impact of legal status on the experiences of undocumented Latinx college students living in states without tuition equity policies. Using qualitative data from 37 interviews exploring undocumented college students’ educational trajectories in Massachusetts and North Carolina, the authors examine the impact of legal status on the emotional well-being of undocumented Latinx students, including those who benefited from Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals. The findings show that even when undocumented students gain access to higher education, barriers to legal status generate chronic feelings of despair and hopelessness that persist throughout their educational trajectories. Additionally, the authors find that academic motivation and persistence do not always equate with emotional resilience. The authors propose strategies to help facilitate emotional well-being for undocumented students.
Sexual Minority couples, those who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer or other (LGBTQ), have voiced a desire for LGBTQ-affirmative couple interventions, and researchers have suggested theoretical adaptations to address this need. However, to date no LGBTQ-affirmative adaptations of general couple interventions have been developed and assessed. The present study assessed the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of an LGBTQ-affirmative adaptation of a preventive, two-session relationship intervention, The Relationship Checkup (RC). In this pilot study, adaptations were made based on recommendations from existing literature, consultation with experts in the field, and conversations with LGBTQ-identified individuals. Data from eighteen couples who completed the intervention suggest that the LGBTQ-RC is feasible and acceptable to participants. Results indicate that the LGBTQ-RC improved both individual and relationship well-being and was viewed by participants as LGBTQ-affirmative. These findings support the effectiveness of utilizing an affirmative stance and addressing LGBTQ-specific issues in couple interventions.
This entry reviews research and theory about stereotyping and its connections to mental health and well-being. We review multiple theories and perspectives that understand stereotypes as cognitive generalizations about characteristics of groups, as taught and learned explicitly and implicitly through various social influences, and as tools to justify and sustain oppression. We consider evidence about interpersonal and intrapersonal mechanisms through which stereotyping harms mental health, including stereotyping leading to discrimination, stereotype threat, and internalization of stereotypes. We also highlight theory and research on decreasing stereotyping and addressing its harms, including through intergroup contact, critical consciousness and action, and clinical interventions.
Imaginary worlds are not a consequence of humans' exploratory tendencies as argued in the target article but a recent spinoff of a strong human tendency to create imaginary realities , that is, versions of how the world works that are fabricated (although we believe they are real) in order to allow us to believe we understand it and can control it.
People of different racial/ethnic backgrounds, demographics, health, and socioeconomic characteristics have experienced disproportionate rates of infection and death due to COVID-19. This study tests if and how county-level rates of infection and death have changed in relation to societal county characteristics through time as the pandemic progressed. This longitudinal study sampled monthly county-level COVID-19 case and death data per 100,000 residents from April 2020 to March 2022, and studied the relationships of these variables with racial/ethnic, demographic, health, and socioeconomic characteristics for 3125 or 97.0% of U.S. counties, accounting for 96.4% of the U.S. population. The association of all county-level characteristics with COVID-19 case and death rates changed significantly through time, and showed different patterns. For example, counties with higher population proportions of Black, Native American, foreign-born non-citizen, elderly residents, households in poverty, or higher income inequality suffered disproportionately higher COVID-19 case and death rates at the beginning of the pandemic, followed by reversed, attenuated or fluctuating patterns, depending on the variable. Patterns for counties with higher White versus Black population proportions showed somewhat inverse patterns. Counties with higher female population proportions initially had lower case rates but higher death rates, and case and death rates become more coupled and fluctuated later in the pandemic. Counties with higher population densities had fluctuating case and death rates, with peaks coinciding with new variants of COVID-19. Counties with a greater proportion of university-educated residents had lower case and death rates throughout the pandemic, although the strength of this relationship fluctuated through time. This research clearly shows that how different segments of society are affected by a pandemic changes through time. Therefore, targeted policies and interventions that change as a pandemic unfolds are necessary to mitigate its disproportionate effects on vulnerable populations, particularly during the first six months of a pandemic.
Caregiver characteristics (i.e., cognitions, affective responses) and factors of stress and support across developmentally salient ecological contexts (i.e., home, school, and community) are important contributors to caregiving quality. Using a qualitative methodology with intentional awareness to reflexivity and the positionality of the research team, the present study sought to examine relations between emergent caregiver characteristics and the ways that caregivers appraised their experiences across contexts. Sixteen biological parents (Mage = 38.8, SD = 6.2; 44% non-Hispanic White, 6% Hispanic White, 19% Black or African American, 12.5% Latinx 12.5% Asian, 6% Syrian; 94% Female) completed in-depth semi-structured interviews and data were analyzed using thematic analysis with an inductive approach. Results highlight the unique roles of caregiver distrust, emotion regulation, developmental history, and culture in the ways that caregivers appraise experiences of stress and support across home, school, and community contexts. Together, these findings provide awareness of the unique relations between caregiver characteristics and context-specific experiences of stress and support, which can enhance our ability to tailor intervention and advise recommendation and dosage of various supports for caregivers and their families.
Since price discounts are costly and can negatively affect consumers' perceptions of quality, it is crucial to identify the factors that make them effective in stimulating purchase behavior. Drawing on cue utilization theory, we examine price discount effectiveness in affecting consumers' reliance on the sale cue based on the provided product touch information as an intrinsic cue and individual consumer differences in sale proneness. Two experimental studies indicate that price discount information, product touch information, and sale proneness interact to determine consumers' responses. Perceived quality is the underlying mechanism behind the observed effects. For nonsale‐prone consumers, product touch information favorably influences responses to large price discounts by addressing product quality concerns and enhancing purchase confidence, but has no effect for regularly priced or low discounted products. For sale‐prone consumers, product touch information is not effective in increasing their responses regardless of the discount size. A qualitative study provides support for these results and highlights the role of perceived quality and purchase confidence. The research contributes to behavioral pricing, cue utilization theory, and sensory marketing and suggests that marketing managers should provide consumers with product touch information when implementing high discounts for products for which prepurchase touch is important.
Credibly estimating social-ecological relationships requires data with broad coverage and fine geographic resolutions that are not typically available from standard ecological surveys. Open and unstructured data from crowdsourced platforms offer an opportunity for collecting large quantities of user-submitted ecological data. However, the representativeness of the areas sampled by these data portals is not well known. We investigate how data availability in eBird, one of the largest and most popular crowdsourced science platforms, correlates with race and income of census tracts in two cities: Boston, MA and Phoenix, AZ. We find that checklist submissions vary greatly across census tracts, with similar patterns within both metropolitan regions. In particular, census tracts with high income and high proportions of white residents are most likely to be represented in the data in both cities, which indicates selection bias in eBird coverage. Our results illustrate the non-representativeness of eBird data, and they also raise deeper questions about the validity of statistical inferences regarding disparities that can be drawn from such datasets. We discuss these challenges and illustrate how sample selection problems in unstructured or semi-structured crowdsourced data can lead to spurious conclusions regarding the relationships between race, income, and access to urban bird biodiversity. While crowdsourced data are indispensable and complementary to more traditional approaches for collecting ecological data, we conclude that unstructured or semi-structured data may not be well-suited for all lines of inquiry, particularly those requiring consistent data coverage, and should thus be handled with appropriate care.
Payments for ecosystem services (PES) are designed to reduce the impact of human activities on eco-sensitive areas. PES programs often adopt economic-incentive and command-control strategies. Increasing the enthusiasm of farmers’ participation is crucial for the sustainability of PES programs and ecosystem restoration. The watershed ecological compensation in Xin’an River Basin is the first horizontal ecological compensation pilot in China. In this study, economic-incentive strategy and command-control strategies in living and farming are implemented simultaneously to improve water quality. Under the collective action framework, we analyze the drivers of farmers’ participation in three concurrent strategies using hierarchical linear models (HLM). The results show: (1) Overall, 81.79%, 76.26%, and 79.11% of farmers are willing to participate in economic-incentive strategy, command-control strategy in living, and command-control strategy in farming, respectively, while 18.21%, 23.74%, and 20.89% are from the village level. (2) Among statistically significant (p < 0.01) factors at the farmer level, social trust (β = 0.305), and social participation (β = 0.134) have positive effects on the economic-incentive strategy; the number of communication and entertainment equipment has a positive effect on the willingness to participate in command-control strategy in living (β = 0.287) and command-control strategy in farming (β = 0.336). (3) At the village level, village characteristics have a direct impact on the farmers’ willingness to participate in strategies. Village woodland area is positively correlated with strategies participation. In addition, village characteristics play a moderating role by influencing farmers’ sustainable livelihood capital. We conclude that different concurrent strategies and collective actions need to be considered in the design of PES programs, particularly in ecologically sensitive areas, which can enrich the theory of collective action and the connotation of PES.
As the largest video-sharing platform, YouTube has been known for hosting hate ideology content that could lead to between-group conflicts and extremism. Research has examined search algorithms and the creator-fan networks related to radicalization videos on YouTube. However, there is little grounded theory analysis of videos of hate groups to understand how hate groups present to the viewers and discuss social problems, solutions, and actions. This work presents a preliminary analysis of 96 videos using open-coding and affinity diagramming to identify common video styles created by the U.S. hate ideology groups. We also annotated hate videos' diagnostic, prognostic, and motivational framing to understand how the hate groups utilize video-sharing platforms to promote collective actions.
In this paper we study Dirac–Einstein equations on manifolds with boundary, restricted to a conformal class with constant boundary volume, under chiral bag boundary conditions for the Dirac operator. We characterize the bubbling phenomenon, also classifying ground state bubbles. Finally, we prove an Aubin-type inequality and a related existence result.
Given its utopian orientation, the anti-capitalist, decolonial notion of buen vivir understates how precarious life is for those who experiment with practicing its principles. Furthermore, climate change and climate mitigation will exacerbate precarity for the foreseeable future. In response, we develop a conceptual argument that integrates concepts from post-extractivism, climate adaptation, communitarian feminism, and prefigurative politics for a more accurate and more actionable, eutopian concept we term buen sobrevivir, or surviving well. We then illustrate the concept through Lenca women’s struggles to make alternatives possible in the face of violent extractivism, patriarchy, and climate change impacts in post-coup Honduras.
A pyrazine-2-carboxylate (pzCO2) complex of copper(II) has been synthesized, studied structurally and magnetically, and compared with structurally similar compounds. The structure of [CuCl(pzCO2)] (1) is reported and compared with the known structures of [Cu(pzCO2)2] (2) and [Cu(pzCO2)2(H2O)2] (3). Single-crystal X-ray diffraction measurements show that 1 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group Pc, with two crystallographically independent five-coordinate Cu(II) ions in a geometry close to square-pyramidal. It has a bilayer structure in the packing. Magnetic susceptibility data of 1 show that it exhibits weak ferromagnetic interactions (2 J = 2.26(7) K). In contrast, magnetic susceptibility data of 2 and 3 show weak antiferromagnetic interactions.
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