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ABSTRACT: Objective: To determine the association of cord arterial blood pH with neonatal outcome in cases of intrapartum fetal hypoxia. Study design: Descriptive analytical study. Place and duration of study: Gynaecology Unit-II, Civil Hospital, Karachi, from September 2011 to November 2012. Methodology: All singleton cephalic fetuses at term gestation were included in the study. Those with any anomaly, malpresentation, medical disorders, maternal age < 18 years, multiple gestation and ruptured membranes were excluded. Patients with abnormal cardiotocography and/or meconium stained liquor were enrolled as index case and immediate next delivery with no such signs as a control. Demographic characteristics, pH level < or > 7.25, neonatal outcome measures (healthy, NICU admission or neonatal death), color of liquor and mode of delivery recorded on predesigned proforma. Statistical analysis performed by SPSS 16 by using independent-t test or chi-square test and ANOVAtest as needed. Results: Atotal of 204 newborns were evaluated. The mean pH level was found to be significantly different (p=0.007) in two groups. The pH value 7.25 had significant association (p < 0.001) with the neonatal outcome. However, the association of neonatal outcome with severity of acidemia was not found to be significant. Grading of Meconium Stained Liquor (MSL) also did not relate positively with pH levels as 85.7% of grade I, 68.9% of grade II and 59.4% of grade III MSLhad pH > 7.25. Majority (63.6%) cases needed caesarean section as compared to 31.4% controls. Conclusion: There is a significant association of cord arterial blood pH at birth with neonatal outcome at pH < or > 7.25; but below the level of pH 7.25 it is still inconclusive.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the factors associated with asthma in children. The case-control study was conducted in the paediatrics clinic of Lyari General Hospital, Karachi, from May to October 2010. Children 1-15 years of age attending the clinic represented the cases, while the control group had children who were closely related (sibling or cousin) to the cases but did not have the symptoms of disease at the time. Data was collected through a proforma and analysed using SPSS 10. Of the total 346 subjects, 173(50%) each comprised the two groups. According to univariable analysis the risk factors were presence of at least one smoker (odds ratio: 3.6; 95% confidence interval: 2.3-5.8), resident of kacha house (odds ratio: 16.2; 95% confidence interval: 3.8-69.5),living in room without windows (odds ratio: 9.3; 95% confidence interval: 2.1-40.9) and living in houses without adequate sunlight (odds ratio: 1.6; 95% confidence interval: 1.2-2.4).Using multivariable modelling, family history of asthma (odds ratio: 5.9; 95% confidence interval: 3.1-11.6), presence of at least one smoker at home (odds ratio: 4.1; 95% confidence interval: 2.3-7.2), people living in a room without a window (odds ratio: 5.5; 95% confidence interval: 1.15-26.3) and people living in an area without adequate sunlight (odds ratio: 2.2; 95% confidence interval: 1.13-4.31) were found to be independent risk factors of asthma in children adjusting for age, gender and history of weaning. Family history of asthma, children living with at least one smoker at home, room without windows and people living in an area without sunlight were major risk factors of childhood asthma.
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