Intense urbanization alters the microclimate and ecology of cities by converting naturally vegetated and permeable surfaces into impervious built-up surfaces. These artificial impermeable surfaces re-balance the surface energy budget by storing solar heat due to their higher thermal conductivity, and consequently, increase the Land Surface Temperature (LST). The higher LST affects the city dwellers' Human Thermal Comfort (HTC). To address these issues, unlike most prior research, we assess not only the influence of Land Use and Land Cover (LULC) alterations on summer LST but also on winter LST in Chittagong City of Bangladesh between 1993 and 2020 by using Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Additionally, the study evaluates the impact of LULC changes on the HTC during summer as LST substantially affects HTC in summer. The LULC analysis shows an increase in built-up area by 204% from bare lands, vegetated lands, lowlands, and water bodies between 1993 and 2020. In contrast, bare lands were converted from naturally vegetated surfaces, followed by lowlands and water bodies because of anthropogenic activities. The LSTs of Chittagong city, derived from remote sensing data, show a strong upward trend, with summer (winter) ranges of 20.62–34.07 °C (7.50–27.52 °C), 22.82–37.62 °C (14.92–29.32 °C), and 22.32–43.52 °C (17.08–31.83 °C) for 1993, 2007, and 2020, respectively. Between 1993 and 2020, the spatial mean winter and summer LSTs increased by 4.04 °C and 6.45 °C, respectively, or 0.15 °C and 0.24 °C per year. Chittagong had the highest mean LST in built-up areas for all the years. In addition, the study area's HTC gradually shifted to intense heat stress. The summer LST strongly correlated with normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference built-up index (NDBI) and normalized difference water index (NDWI) while winter LST exhibited poor correlation with these indices.
The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hard scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.
Human‐made concrete structures require cutting‐edge inspection tools to ensure the quality of the construction to meet the applicable building codes and to maintain the sustainability of the aging infrastructure. This paper introduces a wall‐climbing robot for metric concrete inspection that can reach difficult‐to‐access locations with a close‐up view for visual data collection and real‐time flaws detection and localization. The wall‐climbing robot is able to detect concrete surface flaws (i.e., cracks and spalls) and produce a defect‐highlighted 3D model with extracted location clues and metric measurements. The system encompasses four modules, including a data collection module to capture RGB‐D frames and inertial measurement unit data, a visual–inertial navigation system module to generate pose‐coupled keyframes, a deep neural network module (namely InspectionNet) to classify each pixel into three classes (background, crack, and spall), and a semantic reconstruction module to integrate per‐frame measurement into a global volumetric model with defects highlighted. We found that commercial RGB‐D camera output depth is noisy with holes, and a Gussian‐Bilateral filter for depth completion is introduced to inpaint the depth image. The method achieves the state‐of‐the‐art depth completion accuracy even with large holes. Based on the semantic mesh, we introduce a coherent defect metric evaluation approach to compute the metric measurement of crack and spall area (e.g., length, width, area, and depth). Field experiments on a concrete bridge demonstrate that our wall‐climbing robot is able to operate on a rough surface and can cross over shallow gaps. The robot is capable to detect and measure surface flaws under low illuminated environments and texture‐less environments. Besides the robot system, we create the first publicly accessible concrete structure spalls and cracks data set that includes 820 labeled images and over 10,000 field‐collected images and release it to the research community.
Objective: The primary aim of the research was to compare the impact of post-ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke on brain connectivity and recovery using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI). Methods and procedures: We serially imaged 20 stroke patients, ten with ischemic (IS) and 10 with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), at 1, 3, and 12 months after ictus. Data from ten healthy volunteers were obtained from a publically available imaging dataset. All functional and structural images underwent standard processing for brain extraction, realignment, serial registration, unwrapping, and de-noising using SPM12. A seed-based group analysis using CONN software was used to evaluate the Default Mode (DMN) and the Sensorimotor Network (SMN) connections by applying bivariate correlation and hemodynamic response function (hrf) weighting. Results: In comparison to healthy controls (HC), both IS and ICH exhibited disrupted interactions (decreased connectivity) between these two networks at 1M. Interactions then increased by 12M in each group. Temporally, each group exhibited a minimal increase in connectivity at 3M as compared to 12M. Overall, the ICH patients exhibited a greater magnitude of connectivity disruption compared to IS patients, despite a significant intra-subject reduction in hematoma volume. We did not observe any significant correlation between change in connectivity and recovery as measured on the National Institute Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at any time point. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that the largest changes in functional connectivity occur earlier (3M) rather than later (12M) and show subtle differences between IS and ICH during recovery and should be explored further in larger samples.
Strong coupling between light and elementary excitations is emerging as a powerful tool to engineer the properties of solid-state systems. Spin-correlated excitations that couple strongly to optical cavities promise control over collective quantum phenomena such as magnetic phase transitions, but their suitable electronic resonances are yet to be found. Here, we report strong light–matter coupling in NiPS3, a van der Waals antiferromagnet with highly correlated electronic degrees of freedom. A previously unobserved class of polaritonic quasiparticles emerges from the strong coupling between its spin-correlated excitons and the photons inside a microcavity. Detailed spectroscopic analysis in conjunction with a microscopic theory provides unique insights into the origin and interactions of these exotic magnetically coupled excitations. Our work introduces van der Waals magnets to the field of strong light–matter physics and provides a path towards the design and control of correlated electron systems via cavity quantum electrodynamics.
To investigate effects of Lactobacillus plantarum and Bacillus subtilis as feed additives on the growth performance of near maturity yellow-feathered broilers. A total of 75 100-day-old hens were randomly divided into five groups. 1% of L.plantarum(P-group), B.subtilis (B-group), a 1:1 mixture of both strains(PB-group), or commercial probiotic production（M-group）were added into the drinking water at a concentration of 1.5x109 cfu/mL respectively. The control group was fed basal diet. Our results showed that L.plantarum could increase the intestinal enzyme activity of broilers, while decreasing the plasma MDA content, increasing the ALB and TP content, decreasing the plasma AST content, increasing the concentrations of plasma IgA and CD8 molecules, improving the jejunum structure. Meanwhile, B.subtilis increased the concentration of plasma AST and CD8 molecules of broilers. Additionally, B.subtilis also increases the plasma GSH-Px content, but not affecting the plasma biochemical indexes. And increases the plasma IgG and GSH-Px contents and the VCR ratio also improved in M-group. Additionally, the methionine content in thoracic muscle was increased in all groups. But only adding probiotics groups increase the relative abundance of broiler intestinal phylum Synechococcus and Phylum Firmicutes while decreasing the relative abundance of Enterococcus spp. Our results showed that adding probiotics could improve the meat output and quality. It might also be necessary to optimize the feeding conditions by selecting specific strains according to different effects of those probiotics, and to evaluate the best viable number of probiotics which survives in broiler guts to balance the cost and the effort.
Liquid–liquid phase separation of tropoelastin has long been considered to be an important early step in the complex process of elastin fiber assembly in the body and has inspired the development of elastin-like peptides with a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. Despite decades of study, the material state of the condensed liquid phase of elastin and its subsequent maturation remain poorly understood. Here, using a model minielastin that mimics the alternating domain structure of full-length tropoelastin, we examine the elastin liquid phase. We combine differential interference contrast (DIC), fluorescence, and scanning electron microscopy with particle-tracking microrheology to resolve the material transition occurring within elastin liquids over time in the absence of exogenous cross-linking. We find that this transition is accompanied by an intermediate stage marked by the coexistence of insoluble solid and dynamic liquid phases giving rise to significant spatial heterogeneities in material properties. We further demonstrate that varying the length of the terminal hydrophobic domains of minielastins can tune the maturation process. This work not only resolves an important step in the hierarchical assembly process of elastogenesis but further contributes mechanistic insight into the diverse repertoire of protein condensate maturation pathways with emerging importance across biology.
Field effect transistor (FET)-based nanoelectronic biosensor devices provide a viable route for specific and sensitive detection of cancer biomarkers, which can be used for early stage cancer detection, monitoring the progress of the disease, and evaluating the effectiveness of therapies. On the road to implementation of FET-based devices in cancer diagnostics, several key issues need to be addressed: sensitivity, selectivity, operational conditions, anti-interference, reusability, reproducibility, disposability, large-scale production, and economic viability. To address these well-known issues, significant research efforts have been made recently. An overview of these efforts is provided here, highlighting the approaches and strategies presently engaged at each developmental stage, from the design and fabrication of devices to performance evaluation and data analysis. Specifically, this review discusses the multistep fabrication of FETs, choice of bioreceptors for relevant biomarkers, operational conditions, measurement configuration, and outlines strategies to improve the sensing performance and reach the level required for clinical applications. Finally, this review outlines the expected progress to the future generation of FET-based diagnostic devices and discusses their potential for detection of cancer biomarkers as well as biomarkers of other noncommunicable and communicable diseases.
As Cities are increasing technological efficacy on greenhouse gas (GH) emissions reduction efforts, the surrounding urban ecosystems and natural resources maybe affected by these measures. In this research, climate indicators such as heat index, extreme hot events, intensified urban heat island (UHI) and sea-breeze are projected for mid and end of 21st century to understand the climate change signal on these variables with and without building energy mitigation measures. Cities amplify extreme heat and UHI impacts by concentrating large populations and critical infrastructure in relatively small areas. Here, we evaluate the combined climate and building energy mitigation impacts on localized climate metrics throughout the 21st century across extreme emissions scenarios (RCP8.5) for the tropical coastal city of San Juan. Analysis of statistically downscaled global circulation models outputs shows underestimation for uncorrected summer daily maximum temperatures, leading to lower extreme heat intensity and duration projections from present time which are corrected using bias corrected techniques. High resolution dynamical downscaling simulations reveal strong dependency of changes in extreme heat events at urban settings, however the intensities shift to lower level grassland and cropland with energy mitigation measures (combination of white roof, tilted photovoltaic and efficient heating ventilation and air conditioning system). The building energy mitigation measures have the potential of reducing the UHI intensities to 1 ⁰ C and 0.5 ⁰ C for 2050 and 2100 climate period, respectively.
GeoGateway ( http://geo-gateway.org ) is a web-based interface for analysis and modeling of geodetic imaging data and to support response to related disasters. Geodetic imaging data product currently supported by GeoGateway include Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) daily position time series and derived velocities and displacements and airborne Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) from NASA’s UAVSAR platform. GeoGateway allows users to layer data products in a web map interface and extract information from various tools. Extracted products can be downloaded for further analysis. GeoGateway includes overlays of California fault traces, seismicity from user selected search parameters, and user supplied map files. GeoGateway also provides earthquake nowcasts and hazard maps as well as products created for related response to natural disasters. A user guide is present in the GeoGateway interface. The GeoGateway development team is also growing the user base through workshops, webinars, and video tutorials. GeoGateway is used in the classroom and for research by experts and non-experts including by students.
Purpose of Review We show how psychoanalytic object-relations theory (PsyObjT) aligns with recent neuropsychological theories of delusions of misidentification (DMI), including the four-level model postulated by Feinberg (Conscious Cogn 20(1):75-81, 11), to enhance our understanding of these complex and fascinating delusions. Recent Findings We explain the mixed phenotypical expressions of DMI (Capgras, Fregoli, re-duplication, inter-metamorphosis, and mirrored-self misidentification) as combinations of disturbances of the fundamental attributes of the uniqueness, permanence, authenticity, and familiarity of mental representations of people and objects. Summary Delusions of misidentification (DMI) involve striking disruptions of essential mental processes, including the maintenance of stable mental representations of the self and others. We introduce this article with a brief report of a patient with features of both Capgras syndrome and delusions of re-duplication. After providing a brief overview of PsyObjT, which describes the psychological origins of mental representations of the self and others, we describe how the complimentary perspectives of neuropsychology and modern PsyObjT explain how the classic DMI syndromes take shape in the mind. The companion article in this issue (Leighton et al.) synthesizes neuropsychological models of DMI. We recommend it as an introduction to this contribution.
Purpose of Review This paper synthesizes the extensive psychological, psychiatric, and neurophysiological literature on delusions of misidentification (DMI), including the well-known Capgras and Fregoli delusions. Recent Findings By considering DMI from these many angles, this paper illuminates how disturbances in creating and maintaining mental representations of self and others, however varied the etiology, result in the wide range of phenotypic expression seen in this complex and fascinating set of delusions. The companion article in this issue (Garrett and Leighton) more fully elaborates the emerging alignment between recent neuropsychological models of DMI and modern psychodynamic theories, further enhancing our understanding of the striking nature of delusional misidentifications. Summary DMI violate some of the basic attributes of identity of people, objects, and places that allow humans to navigate the physical and social worlds. As such, DMI reveal much about the fundamental workings of human cognition and affect: sensation, perception, prediction, hierarchical inference, belief evaluation, and memory.
Background ADHD is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with a pediatric prevalence of 5.2%.While medication treatment for ADHD is effective, it does not address all symptoms and a small but notable subgroup does not respond to medications. Adverse effects limit its use and some parents and participants resist use of medication. Thus, limitations of medication treatment for ADHD motivate searching for other therapeutic options. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) has been suggested as a treatment for children with ADHD, with mixed results to date. Protocol variables employed, including combined use of cognitive training (CT) and scheduling of sessions, may explain diverse findings to date. The aim of this study was to examine safety, feasibility and efficacy of tDCS combined with CT provided three-times-per week for one-month to treat children with ADHD. Methods In a double blind, randomized, sham-controlled pilot study, 25 children with ADHD were randomized to receive 12 sessions of either anodal tDCS or sham-tDCS for 20 minutes combined with CT three-times-per-week for four weeks. The tDCS anode was over left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and cathode over vertex. Assessments were obtained prior to, after 6 sessions, 12 sessions and one-month after intervention. Results No significant post-intervention differences were found between those receiving tDCS or sham-tDCS. Both groups demonstrated significant improvement on questionnaire measures of ADHD and executive function with mixed results seen on computerized performance measures. Overall, adverse effects were mild with no significant difference between groups. However, three children, all from the tDCS group, experienced headaches with two requiring temporary cessation and one requiring removal from the study. Conclusions Anodal tDCS to the DLPFC using the above protocol in children with ADHD did not demonstrate additional treatment benefits beyond that of CT.
It is widely accepted that concentration polarization in liquid electrolytes promotes whisker growth during metal deposition, and therefore, high salt concentration is favored. Here, we report unexpected opposite behaviors in solid polymer electrolytes: concentration polarization can induce phase transformation in a polyethylene oxide (PEO) electrolyte, forming a new PEO-rich but salt-/plasticizer-poor phase at the lithium/electrolyte interface, as unveiled by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy. The new phase has a significantly higher Young’s modulus (∼1–3 GPa) than a bulk polymer electrolyte (<1 MPa). We hereby propose a design rule for PEO electrolytes: their compositions should be near the boundary between single-phase and two-phase regions in the phase diagram so that the applied current can induce the formation of a mechanically rigid PEO-rich phase to suppress lithium whiskers. LiFePO4/PEO/Li cells with concentration-polarization-induced phase transformation can be reversibly cycled 100 times, while cells without such transformation fail within 10 cycles, demonstrating the effectiveness of this strategy.
While we know a lot more about Long Covid today, patients who were infected with Covid-19 early on in the pandemic and developed Long Covid had to contend with medical professionals who lacked awareness of the potential for extended complications from Covid-19. Long Covid patients have responded by labeling their contentious interactions with medical professionals, organizations, and the broader medical system as “gaslighting.” We argue that the charge of medical gaslighting can be understood as a form of ontological politics. Not only do patients demand that their version of reality be recognized, but they also blame the experts who hold gatekeeping power over their medical care for producing a distorted version of said reality. By analyzing results from an online survey of Long Covid patients active on social media in the United States (n = 334), we find that experiences of contention and their reframing as “gaslighting” were common amongst our respondents. In short answer responses about their experience obtaining medical care for Long Covid, our respondents described encountering medical professionals who dismissed their experience, leading to lengthy diagnostic odysseys and lack of treatment options for Long Covid. Even though we are limited by characteristics of our sample, there is good reason to believe that these experiences and their contentious reframing as medical gaslighting are exacerbated by gender, class, and racial inequalities.
Excess in growth hormone (GH) levels, seen in patients with acromegaly, is associated with increases in fractures. This happens despite wider bones and independent of bone mineral density. We used the bovine GH (bGH) transgenic mice, which show constitutive excess in GH and insulin‐like growth factor‐1 (IGF‐1) in serum and tissues, to study how lifelong increases in GH and IGF‐1 affect skeletal integrity. Additionally, we crossed the acid labile subunit (ALS) null (ALSKO) to the bGH mice, to reduce serum IGF‐1 levels. Our findings indicate sexual dimorphic effects of GH on cortical and trabecular bone. Male bGH mice showed enlarged cortical diameters, but with marrow cavity expansion and thin cortices as well as increased vascular porosity that were associated with reductions in diaphyseal strength and stiffness. In contrast, female bGH mice presented with significantly smaller diameter diaphysis, with greater cortical bone thickness and with a slightly reduced tissue elastic modulus (by micro indentation), ultimately resulting in overall stronger, stiffer bones. We found increases in C‐terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen and pro‐collagen type 1 N pro‐peptide in serum, independent of circulating IGF‐1 levels, indicating increased bone remodeling with excess GH. Sexual dimorphism in response to excess GH was also observed in the trabecular bone compartment, particularly at the femur distal metaphysis. Female bGH mice preserved their trabecular architecture during aging, while trabecular bone volume in male bGH mice significantly reduced and associated with thinning of the trabeculae. We conclude that pathological excess in GH results in sexual dimorphic changes in bone architecture and gains in bone mass, that affect whole‐bone mechanical properties, as well as a sex‐specific differences in bone material properties. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
We report the first observation of the enhancement of Raman forbidden surface phonon modes (SO) of A2u symmetry in TiO2 nanoparticles on the adsorption of 2,2’-bipyridine and N-719 dye molecules. We identify the observed surface modes in conjunction with HREELS studies and attribute their enhancements to (Herzberg-Teller) vibronic coupling between the charge-transfer and the molecular transitions. We conclude that the vibronic coupling is responsible for the enhancements of the surface modes through intensity borrowing. Furthermore, using SERS selection rules, we examine possible orientations of the molecules relative to the surface confirming the Raman forbidden A2u symmetry of the surface modes.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.