City University of New York - John Jay College of Criminal Justice
Recent publications
Background Despite the increased attention paid to the separate effects of cumulative stress and protection on offending, the extent to which distinct clusters of risk and protective factors exist and have unique effects on justice-related outcomes is under-studied. Objective The current study examines for unique clustering of Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Positive Childhood Experiences (PCE) and the extent to which they predict juvenile recidivism. Participants and setting The sample consists of a cohort of youth adjudicated delinquent in Florida who received a community-based sanction. Methods The study first utilized latent-class analysis to identify distinct classes based upon the youths' ACE and PCE exposures. Next, two sets of regression models were estimated; the first investigated correlates of class membership and the second assessed whether class membership predicted recidivism. Results Seven distinct classes of ACE/PCE clusters were found, composing 9.9 % to 20.5 % of the sample each. Relative to the class with low ACE and low PCE, those with low ACEs and high PCE evidenced 27.5 % lower rearrest rates, as did the Moderate Risk/Moderate Protection group. Conclusions Not only do distinct groupings of ACE and PCE exposures exist, but these groups have different likelihoods of future offending, where a youth's cumulative protection appears to be more important than their risk level. This has important policy implications as it offers further support for the use of strength-based treatment approaches.
The term sexual grooming has become synonymous with the concept of child sexual abuse, yet there has yet to be a definition of sexual grooming that is widely adopted across fields. This chapter addresses the many obstacles to defining sexual grooming and highlights the importance of defining the construct in order to better understand it. Next, we describe the many prior definitions of sexual grooming that have been identified in the literature. This is followed by a proposed definition of sexual grooming by Winters et al. (2021) that is based on the commonalities and limitations of prior definitions, as well as a content-validated model. We conclude with recommendations for research to explore the validity of the proposed definition.
Child sex trafficking has become a pervasive problem across the world, with many of those engaging in sex trafficking using recruitment and maintenance tactics that are analogous to the concept of sexual grooming. In this chapter, we provide an overview of proposed models of the tactics used by sex traffickers to recruit and maintain the compliance of their victims. We then argue that there is significant overlap between these models and what is known about the sexual grooming of those seeking to commit child sexual abuse. The chapter then describes a recent model of sex trafficking—the Sexual Grooming Model-Child Sex Trafficking—that is based on prior models and empirical literature of tactics used by both sex traffickers and those who commit child sexual abuse. We provide concluding remarks about bridging the fields of sex trafficking and child sexual abuse, in order to adequately inform prevention, investigation, and treatment of sex trafficking cases.KeywordsSexual abuseSexual groomingSexual Grooming ModelSexual Grooming Model-Child Sex TraffickingSex traffickingRecruitmentMaintenanceManagementPersuasionEntrapmentCoercive controlEnmeshmentMethods of controlPimpModelVictim selectionGaining accessIsolationTrust developmentDesensitizationPost-abuse maintenance
Instances of sexual abuse often go unreported, but there are some cases of child sexual abuse that are formally reported to law enforcement and subsequently processed through the courts. This chapter describes how knowledge of sexual grooming can be helpful in guiding law enforcement investigations, such as through evidence gathering and interviewing. Furthermore, we suggest that if the case is prosecuted, courts can incorporate sexual grooming into the guilt and sentencing phase; however, we caution that the use of this content has been questioned in some court appeals. We argue that the more empirical and valid research that law enforcement, court personnel, expert witnesses, treatment providers, and probation/parole officers have on the subject of sexual grooming, the more effective and accurate the processing of these cases in the criminal justice system will be.KeywordsSexual abuseSexual groomingSexual Grooming ModelLaw enforcementInvestigationCriminal justice systemFunnel effectArrestProsecutionSentencingForensic interviewCourtAdjudicationAdmissibility of EvidenceAggravating FactorMitigating factorProbationParole
Assessment and treatment of individuals who commit sexual offenses are vital in efforts to prevent future offending, and sexual grooming may help inform these clinical tasks. While there have been some proposed measures to assess for sexual grooming from the perspective of those who committed an offense or who were victimized, they have limitations and further validation is needed. As such, this chapter will describe the existing assessment measures that have been developed to measure sexual grooming, including the Sexual Grooming Scale-Victim Version (SGS-V) that has preliminary psychometric support. We further describe how sexual grooming can be used in the treatment of those who commit sexual offenses in order to better understand the offense process and develop relapse prevention plans. Also, we address how victims who engage in treatment may benefit from psychoeducation on sexual grooming in order to reduce feelings of guilt and shame.KeywordsSexual abuseSexual groomingSexual grooming modelAssessmentTreatmentEvaluationModus OperandiModus Operandi QuestionnaireThe Sex Offender Grooming AssessmentComputer Assisted Maltreatment InventorySexual Grooming ScaleVictim versionRisk need responsibility modelGood lives modelCognitive behavioral therapyRelapse preventionSelf-regulation modelDistorted thinkingMotivation for offendingManaging behaviorsVictimizationPsychoeducation
It has been theorized that those who abuse children may also engage in a process that has been termed self-grooming, which permits a motivated individual to abuse a child by justifying their behavior or denying the harm to the child. The construct of self-grooming appears to be similar other constructs and theories described in the general sexual offending literature such as neutralizations, cognitive distortions, and the implicit theories of sexual offending. This chapters reviews the existing research on cognitive processes related to sexual offending, culminating in the proposal of a model of self-grooming which encompasses preparation, justification, and maintenance phases.KeywordsSexual abuseSexual groomingSexual grooming modelSelf-groomingNeutralizationCognitive distortionsJustificationDenialImplicit theoriesInternal barriersPreparationMaintenanceTreatmentPreventionMinor-attracted person
It has been well established in the research literature that there are many negative long-term consequences of childhood sexual abuse. This chapter reviews the psychological, physical, psychosocial, and economic impact to those who have experienced childhood sexual abuse. However, there is almost no research specifically examining whether those who have experienced sexual grooming-based child sexual abuse may have differential outcomes. As such, we present some preliminary findings and hypotheses on how sexual grooming specifically may impact individuals, families, communities, and institutions.KeywordsChild sexual abuseSexual groomingSexual Grooming ModelConsequencesGuiltShameDepressionPost traumatic stress disorderPsychologicalPhysicalPsychosocialEconomicDisclosureSocioecologicalManipulation
In order to prevent child sexual abuse before it occurs, laws must be in place to intervene before the sexual abuse begins. Despite there being many challenges to defining sexual grooming, this chapter reviews current United States Federal and State Enticement statutes as well as international sexual grooming legislation designed to criminalize sexual grooming before the abuse occurs. Sexual grooming as it may be applied in civil cases of sexual abuse will also be examined. Next, additional laws that can be used to prevent sexual grooming such as mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse, mandatory background checks, and “pass the trash” legislation will be described. The chapter concludes with a discussion of the development of future legislation and policies directed at the prevention of sexual grooming.KeywordsSexual abuseSexual groomingSexual Grooming ModelFederal enticement statuteState enticement statutesInternational sexual grooming legislationCriminalCivilDaubertFryemandatory child abuse reportingBackground checksPass the trash legislationLawyersProsecutionCrimeInvestigationEvidenceIntent
Despite the global impact of child sexual abuse, it has been dubbed a problem that is 100% preventable. Given that many cases of childhood sexual abuse involve sexual grooming behaviors and tactics, this chapter focuses on prevention strategies specific to child sexual grooming. To situate prevention within context, the chapter begins with a review of the history and the current state of child abuse prevention. Next, efforts that have been made to specifically address in-person and online sexual grooming will be examined. The chapter concludes with a discussion of how child sexual grooming behaviors should be integrated into sexual abuse prevention.KeywordsSexual abuseSexual groomingSexual Grooming ModelPreventionLegal protectionHistoryBattered child syndromeChild Abuse and Treatment ActThe Public Health ModelSocio-Ecological ModelPrimary preventionSecondary preventionTertiary preventionIndividualCommunityRelationshipSocietalCenters for Disease ControlOnline sexual grooming
Over the last twenty years, researchers have noted the range of violent and financial crimes performed by racial and ethnically-motivated actors. There is also substantial evidence demonstrating the ways that these actors utilize the Internet and various online communications platforms as a resource to recruit others and coordinate criminal activities. As virtually all aspects of modern interpersonal communication, commerce, and government depend on the Internet, these resources are a likely target for ideologically-motivated attacks. There is, however, little research considering the extent to which these resources have been targeted by racial and ethnically-motivated actors. This study attempted to address this gap in the literature through an analysis of the Extremist CyberCrime Database (ECCD), a unique open-source repository of cyberattacks performed against U.S. targets from 1998 to 2020. The findings demonstrate that cyberattacks performed by these actors are performed with less frequency than offline crimes. The implications of this analysis for our understanding of extremism are explored in depth.
Research suggests that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can decrease recidivism for those who sexually offend. The use of CBT for the treatment of those who sexually offend is recommended as part of the responsivity principle of the risk-needs-responsivity model. However, in recent years there has been a movement in the field to incorporate elements of positive psychology and strengths-based approaches such as the Good Lives Model into correctional treatment to increase motivation, retention, and program engagement. This article will explore how to effectively integrate strengths-based approaches into CBT interventions for individuals who have sexually offended.
White-collar criminality continues to be a significant issue in countries with differing levels of economic development. This paper provides a comparative analysis of white-collar crime and crises through an examination of the recent peer-to-peer (P2P) online lending crash in China. It considers criminological findings from major United States crises in light of China’s P2P online lending market failure through the lens of white-collar crime theory and research. The findings show that fraud was a main contributor to the P2P online lending crash and that various structural factors facilitated financial crimes that caused the collapse of the P2P online lending market. This study indicates that, similar to the U.S. experience, crime-facilitative environments allowed for endemic fraud in China’s online lending industry. It suggests that a primarily reactive approach to financial crime is less effective than a proactive system of compliance that includes more comprehensive and transparent financial regulation and law enforcement.
The 21st century rise of culturally omnivorous tastes and classifications proffers a new dilemma for how markets create attachments and achieve trust for global consumers. Consumer entities must be both globally circulatable and offer a sense of localized authenticity without compromising either. Drawing from research on market trust and attachment, this article introduces the concept of mobile trust regimes to account for how sets of actors and repertoires attempt to address this tension. Through two case studies from gastronomic industries—food halls and natural wine—we investigate the devices of mobility used to facilitate the global circulation of the local. These include standardized aesthetic and affective templates communicated through physical décor, recurrent narratives, and social media curation. We argue that the concept of mobile trust regimes helps clarify two key issues in contemporary consumer culture: tensions between homogenization and heterogenization and how the symbolic value of omnivorous tastes becomes institutionalized and even banal.
This article explores how a semiotics of the artistic aesthetics of New York City storefronts is deployed as activism against processes of gentrification and redevelopment. We examine how this creative endeavor by two local photographers compares to our own ethnographic and linguistic interventions uncovering and addressing storefront signage in gentrifying Brooklyn. We also compare this art activism to the ways in which developers and nations use art in various ways in the service of their placemaking goals. In doing so, we highlight both the innovative power of artistic framing to preserve and protect storefronts as salvage anthropology as well as the limits of this effort. We conclude with a discussion of how ethnography and activist art can yield different, yet critical mobilizations in the pursuit of maintaining multicultural communities and diversity in the neo-liberalizing city.
Existing urban studies literature contends that middle-class white populations gentrify neighborhoods as part of an economic strategy, but this depiction neglects the role of this process in contributing to achieving their social and psychological goals. After discussing gentrification historically as a racializing practice, the paper outlines “dissociation” and “splitting” as two dynamics endemic to these white populations and that are substantiated in the production of gentrification. This analysis is then elaborated through an explanation that links gentrification to establishing and securing the white identity of its practitioners.
Blindfolded Lady Justice with her scales rarely features in modern representations of medieval European justice. Instead, it is the female sexual sinner bound to the stake for burning who dominates modern imaginings. This reflects a widespread perception of medieval criminal justice as committed to the fierce judicial repression of women, and of women’s sexual activity in particular; an idea that persists in scholarly circles as well as in popular imagination despite a growing body of evidence to the contrary. Working primarily from the records of late medieval northern France, this article demonstrates that this idea is in fact a medievalism, a modern imagining about the Middle Ages. It attributes to medieval judicial authorities the disciplining and punishing of female bodies and female sexuality that instead emerged only with modern patriarchies. Heeding this difference allows us to recognise in Medieval Europe a patriarchal darkness of another kind: a world able to maintain stark gender and sexual inequity without any such use of judicial powers.
The current research conducted a three-level meta-analysis with a total of 159 journal articles on the other-race bias in facial identification, which had been published between 1969 and 2021. The effect size analysis yielded moderate pooled effect sizes of the other-race bias on face identification—people showed higher hit rates and discriminability, lower false alarm rates, and more stringent criteria for own-race faces than for other-race faces. Results from the sensitivity analysis and publication bias analysis also supported the robustness of the other-race bias. In moderation analyses, participant race (White vs. non-White) and retention interval between the study and test phases produced stable moderating effects on estimates of the other-race bias. Despite an increase in racial diversity for decades in our society, the current meta-analysis still demonstrated robust effects of the other-race bias in facial identification, replicating findings from the previous meta-analyses.
Aim Our aim was to develop and validate a fast, sensitive, and specific method determining 17 designer benzodiazepines (adinazolam, clobazam, clonazolam, delorazepam, deschloroetizolam, diclazepam, etizolam, flualprazolam, flubromazepam, flubromazolam, flunitrazolam, N-desmethylclobazam, nifoxipam, nitrazolam, meclonazepam, pyrazolam and zolazepam) in hair by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Introduction In recent years, identification and analysis of designer benzodiazepines have become a challenge in forensic toxicology. These substances are analogues of the classic benzodiazepines, but their pharmacology is not well known, and many of them have been associated with overdoses and deaths. As a result, there has been a surge in efforts to develop analytical methods to determine these compounds in different biological samples. Most publications have been focused on blood and urine; however, publications concerning alternative matrices, such as hair, are scarce. Method Hair samples were decontaminated, pulverized, and a 20 mg aliquot was incubated in methanol in an ultrasonic bath (1 h, 25 °C). The supernatant was evaporated and reconstituted in 200 μL of mobile phase composed of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile (95:5). The extracts were filtered before injection into the LC-MS/MS. Chromatographic separation was performed in reversed phase using a C18 column in gradient mode. All analytes eluted from the chromatographic column in 8 min. Two multiple-reaction monitoring transitions in positive mode were used to identify each compound. The method was validated based on the AAFS Standards Board (ASB) Standard Practices for Method Validation in Forensic Toxicology and applied to authentic cases as proof of concept. Results The best calibration model for all analytes was a linear model with 1/x weighting. The limits of quantification were 5 or 25 pg/mg, depending on the analyte, and calibration functions were linear up to 200 pg/mg. Imprecision was < 20% (n = 15) and bias was from −13 to 18% (n = 15). All the analytes yielded high extraction efficiencies > 70% but displayed ion suppression between −63% and −24% (n = 10). No carryover was observed. All samples showed good stability after 48 h at 10 °C in the autosampler, except for nifoxipam, etizolam, flubromazepam and diclazepam, which showed significant loss in signal. The method was applied to 19 authentic cases. Five 3-cm segments from three different cases were positive for flualprazolam (< LOQ – > 200 pg/mg) and/or etizolam (47.4–88.5 pg/mg). Few publications have focused on the analysis of a limited number of designer benzodiazepines in hair. As a result, limited information is available regarding hair concentrations of these type of substances. The present method is the most comprehensive method to date including 17 analytes. In the analysis of authentic cases, etizolam concentrations were within the range of previous reports; however, no hair concentrations for flualprazolam have been previously described in the literature. Conclusion The present validated method has proven to be fast, sensitive, specific, and capable of determining 17 designer benzodiazepines in hair using LC-MS/MS.
This analysis probes the relationship between individuals' preferences for redistribution and their economic self-interest. We analyze personal finance and preferences data from 30 countries included in the 2009 ISSP to analyze whether respondents’ personal income, financial wealth, or housing wealth are related to their opinions about economic redistribution, poor aid, and unemployment support. We find evidence of a relationship between income and preferences in English-speaking OECD countries, and between home equity, financial wealth, and preferences in Nordic countries. However, that linkage varies by policy attitude and asset type, and is also non-existent in some countries.
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Lila Kazemian
  • Department of Sociology
William Gottdiener
  • Department of Psychology
Marta Concheiro
  • Department of Sciences
Peggilee Wupperman
  • Department of Psychology
Jeff Mellow
  • Department of Criminal Justice
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