City University of New York City - Lehman College
Recent publications
Background : Exercise with blood-flow restriction (BFR) is being increasingly used by practitioners working with athletic and clinical populations alike. Most early research combined BFR with low-load resistance training and consistently reported increased muscle size and strength without requiring the heavier loads that are traditionally used for unrestricted resistance training. However, this field has evolved with several different active and passive BFR methods emerging in recent research. Purpose : This commentary aims to synthesize the evolving BFR methods for cohorts ranging from healthy athletes to clinical or load-compromised populations. In addition, real-world considerations for practitioners are highlighted, along with areas requiring further research. Conclusions : The BFR literature now incorporates several active and passive methods, reflecting a growing implementation of BFR in sport and allied health fields. In addition to low-load resistance training, BFR is being combined with high-load resistance exercise, aerobic and anaerobic energy systems training of varying intensities, and sport-specific activities. BFR is also being applied passively in the absence of physical activity during periods of muscle disuse or rehabilitation or prior to exercise as a preconditioning or performance-enhancement technique. These various methods have been reported to improve muscular development; cardiorespiratory fitness; functional capacities; tendon, bone, and vascular adaptations; and physical and sport-specific performance and to reduce pain sensations. However, in emerging BFR fields, many unanswered questions remain to refine best practice.
Democracy: A Very Short Introduction shows the distinction between the shared concept of democracy and different conceptions or instances of democracy. The key idea of democracy is that those governed—the demos—have a say in the government. However, until the 19th century, different conceptions of democracy did not extend to democratic society, resulting in the exclusion of many groups and individuals. The ideas of social and political thinkers including Plato, Aristotle, J. S. Mill, Marx, Rawls, and Sen provide the intellectual history of democracy. This VSI explores past and present forms of democratic government and considers traditional and inclusive historical approaches to democracy.
Background Deloading is a ubiquitous yet under-researched strategy within strength and physique training. How deloading should be integrated into the training programme to elicit optimal training outcomes is unknown. To aid its potential integration, this study established consensus around design principles for integrating deloading in strength and physique training programmes using expert opinion and practical experience. Methods Expert strength and physique coaches were invited to an online Delphi consisting of 3 rounds. Thirty-four coaches completed the first round, 29 completed the second round, and 21 completed the third round of a Delphi questionnaire. In the first round, coaches answered 15 open-ended questions from four categories: 1: General Perceptions of Deloading; 2: Potential Applications of Deloading; 3: Designing and Implementing Deloading; and 4: Creating an Inclusive Deloading Training Environment. First-round responses were analyzed using reflexive thematic analysis, resulting in 138 statements organized into four domains. In the second and third rounds, coaches rated each statement using a four-point Likert scale, and collective agreement or disagreement was calculated. Results Stability of consensus was achieved across specific aspects of the four categories. Findings from the final round were used to develop the design principles, which reflect the consensus achieved. Conclusions This study develops consensus on design principles for integrating deloading into strength and physique sports training programmes. A consensus definition is proposed: “Deloading is a period of reduced training stress designed to mitigate physiological and psychological fatigue, promote recovery, and enhance preparedness for subsequent training.” These findings contribute novel knowledge that might advance the current understanding of deloading in strength and physique sports.
Diminazene aceturate (DIZE) is an FDA-listed small molecule known for the treatment of African sleeping sickness. In vivo studies showed that DIZE may be beneficial for a range of human ailments. However, there is very limited information on the effects of DIZE on human cancer cells. The current study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic responses of DIZE, using the human carcinoma Hela cell line. WST-1 cell proliferation assay showed that DIZE inhibited the viability of Hela cells in a dose-dependent manner and the observed response was associated with the downregulation of Ki67 and PCNA cell proliferation markers. DIZE-treated cells stained with acridine orange-ethidium and JC-10 dye revealed cell death and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψm), compared with DMSO (vehicle) control, respectively. Cellular immunofluorescence staining of DIZE-treated cells showed upregulation of caspase 3 activities. DIZE-treated cells showed downregulation of mRNA for G1/S genes CCNA2 and CDC25A, S-phase genes MCM3 and PLK4, and G2/S phase transition/mitosis genes Aurka and PLK1. These effects were associated with decreased mRNA expression of Furin, c-Myc, and FOXM1 oncogenes. These results suggested that DIZE may be considered for its effects on other cancer types. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the effect of DIZE on human cervical cancer cells.
Diterpenoid alkaloids (DAs) have been often utilized in clinical practice due to their analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. Natural DAs are prevalent in the family Ranunculaceae, notably in the Aconitum genus. Nevertheless, the evolutionary origin of the biosynthesis pathways responsible for DA production remains unknown. In this study, we successfully assembled a high-quality, pseudochromosome-level genome of the DA-rich species Aconitum vilmorinianum (5.76 Gb). An A. vilmorinianum-specific whole-genome duplication event was discovered using comparative genomic analysis, which may aid in the evolution of DA biosynthesis pathway. We identified several genes involved in DA biosynthesis via integrated genomic, transcriptomic, and metabolomic analyses. These genes included enzymes encoding target ent-kaurene oxidases and aminotransferases, which facilitated the activation of diterpenes and insertion of nitrogen atoms into diterpene skeletons, thereby mediating the transformation of diterpenes into DAs. The divergence periods of these genes in A. vilmorinianum were further assessed, and it was shown that two major types of genes were involved in the establishment of the DA biosynthesis pathway. Our integrated analysis offers fresh insights into the evolutionary origins of DAs in A. vilmorinianum as well as suggestions for engineering the biosynthetic pathways to obtain desired DAs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Although chatbots such as ChatGPT can facilitate cost-efective text generation and editing, factually incorrect responses (hallucinations) limit their utility. This study evaluates one particular type of hallucination: fabricated bibliographic citations that do not represent actual scholarly works. We used ChatGPT-3.5 and ChatGPT-4 to produce short literature reviews on 42 multidisciplinary topics, compiling data on the 636 bibliographic citations (references) found in the 84 papers. We then searched multiple databases and websites to determine the prevalence of fabricated citations, to identify errors in the citations to non-fabricated papers, and to evaluate adherence to APA citation format. Within this set of documents, 55% of the GPT-3.5 citations but just 18% of the GPT-4 citations are fabricated. Likewise, 43% of the real (non-fabricated) GPT-3.5 citations but just 24% of the real GPT-4 citations include substantive citation errors. Although GPT-4 is a major improvement over GPT3.5, problems remain.
Substance use disorder (SUD) arises from the initiation to subsequent regular, irregular and harmful use of substances such as alcohol, tobacco/nicotine and cannabis. While thousands of genetic variants have been identified from recent large‐scale genome‐wide association studies (GWAS), understanding their functions in substance involvement and investigating the mechanisms by which they act in the addiction circuits remains challenging. In this study, we re‐analysed the brain regional transcriptome data from the most comprehensive postmortem transcriptomic study, with a focus on up‐ or down‐regulation of substance‐associated protein‐coding genes in the addiction circuit‐related brain regions (AddictRegions), including six cortical and 11 subcortical regions. We found that substance‐associated genes were overrepresented in AddictRegions. Interestingly, we observed a greater degree of genetic overlap between initiation and use and between use and SUD than between initiation and SUD. Moreover, substance initiation, use and SUD‐associated genes tend to shift their enriched AddictRegions from the cortical for initiation and, to a lesser extent, substance use to subcortical regions for SUD (e.g., thalamus, substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area). We also uncovered a pattern of coordinated cortical up‐regulation and subcortical down‐regulation for the genes associated with tobacco initiation and alcohol use. Moreover, the Gene Ontology terms of glutamate receptor activity and neurotransmitter binding were most significantly overrepresented in AddictRegion‐upregulated, substance‐associated genes, with the strongest enrichment for those involved in common substance use behaviours. Overall, our analysis provides a resource of AddictRegion‐related transcriptomes for studying substance‐associated genes and generates intriguing insights into the genetic control of substance initiation, use and SUD.
Prior work and theory suggest many vulnerabilities, stressors, and adaptive processes shape relationship satisfaction. In the current research, we used machine learning to understand which constructs have greater predictive importance for perceived changes in satisfaction since the pandemic began and satisfaction over the prior week. In a large sample collected at the beginning of the pandemic ( N = 1873; Study 1), relationship processes were most predictive, explaining up to 70% of variance in satisfaction. Feeling appreciative of one's partner and being satisfied with quality time spent with one's partner were consistently top predictors of satisfaction. We also examined whether these important predictors were associated with changes in relationship satisfaction across the first year of the pandemic in a longitudinal subsample ( N = 618; Study 2). Appreciation and satisfaction with quality time were associated with high and relatively stable relationship satisfaction over time.
This study re-formulates and re-examines the traditional bilateral trade balance (TB) concept (ratio) in the USA-Mexico case using a different methodology. This re-examination is constructed on newly formulated decomposed-export-based TBs—namely, domestic-export-based TB and re-export-based TB. Since the undecomposed traditional total-export-based TB is expressed as a total export/import ratio, it may misrepresent the actual nature of bilateral trade of this country with Mexico because the USA also considerably re-exports to Mexico. The main empirical finding confirms the need for using decomposed-export-based TBs in trade models for the USA since the impacts of exchange rate and income on undecomposed and decomposed export-based TBs of the USA are entirely different. For example, while depreciation in the USD improves the re-export-based TB for only 13 commodities, the same change in the USD improves the domestic-export-based TB for 18. Some empirical inferences from findings are as follows: (i) Mexican consumers (MC) with a stronger Peso purchase US domestically produced commodities more than re-exported ones; (ii) MC with a weaker Peso stop purchasing US re-exported commodities more than the US domestically produced ones; (iii) MC are appreciated/depreciated-Peso-sensitive to US domestically produced commodities more than re-exported ones.
To investigate the acute effects of autoregulated and non-autoregulated applied pressures during blood flow restriction resistance exercise to volitional fatigue on indices of arterial stiffness using the Delfi Personalized Tourniquet System. Following a randomized autoregulated or non-autoregulated blood flow restriction familiarization session, 20 physically active adults (23±5 years; 7 females) participated in 3 randomized treatment-order sessions with autoregulated and non-autoregulated and no blood flow restriction training. Participants performed 4 sets of dumbbell wall squats to failure using 20% of 1 repetition maximum. Blood flow restriction was performed with 60% of supine limb occlusion pressure. Testing before and post-session included an ultrasonic scan of the carotid artery, applanation tonometry, and blood pressure acquisition. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity increased in the non-autoregulated and no blood flow restriction training groups following exercise while carotid-radial pulse wave velocity increased in the no blood flow restriction training group (all p < 0.05). Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity exhibited an interaction effect between autoregulated and non-autoregulated blood flow restriction in favor of autoregulated blood flow restriction (p < 0.05). Autoregulated blood flow restriction training does not influence indices of arterial stiffness while non-autoregulated and no blood flow restriction training increases central stiffness.
Self‐regulation is an essential component of school readiness. Although in educational contexts self‐regulation is typically defined in terms of volitional processes, it also encompasses the activity of neurophysiological systems, including the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). In a prospective longitudinal study, 102 preschoolers ( M age = 4.82 years; 52% female) completed two measures of volitional self‐regulation (the gift‐wrap task and a battery of EF tasks) at the beginning of their final preschool year, and then completed the Bracken School Readiness Assessment (BSRA) at year's end. Larger increases in parasympathetic function (indexed by respiratory sinus arrythmia, or RSA) during both the gift‐wrap and EF tasks were correlated with better performance on the BSRA at levels approaching significance, and subsequent regression models that controlled for relevant covariates revealed robust associations between increases in RSA and improved BSRA performance (gift wrap: B = 5.49, p = .012; EF: B = 7.77, p = .001). We interpret these results in light of polyvagal theory and discuss their implications for incorporating measures of parasympathetic activity into future educational neuroscience research.
I describe dynamic teaching to adult, mainly immigrant students, who are new to philosophy and often are college “firsts.” Adult students have family, financial, and work obligations, whereas standard students are leisured outside of class and approach philosophy as consumers. I teach from assigned texts, dismissing as a conceit of philosophers that philosophical questions arise from real life experience. My students are intensely focused on their grades, frugal with their expenditure of academic effort, and prone to submit all of their coursework at the end of the semester. A syllabus requiring weekly assignments with citations curtails that. For immigrant students, who value their college degree as entry to the American dream, the hard work usually ascribed to them is, here, academic work. Learning to do philosophy in this way can result in enduring meta-skills of time management, focused reading, thinking, and group participation that carry over to other subjects and real life.
Background Augmented feedback is often used during resistance training to enhance acute physical performance and has shown promise as a method of improving chronic physical adaptation. However, there are inconsistencies in the scientific literature regarding the magnitude of the acute and chronic responses to feedback and the optimal method with which it is provided. Objective This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to (1) establish the evidence for the effects of feedback on acute resistance training performance and chronic training adaptations; (2) quantify the effects of feedback on acute kinematic outcomes and changes in physical adaptations; and (3) assess the effects of moderating factors on the influence of feedback during resistance training. Methods Twenty studies were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. This review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Four databases were searched, and studies were included if they were peer-reviewed investigations, written in English, and involved the provision of feedback during or following dynamic resistance exercise. Furthermore, studies must have evaluated either acute training performance or chronic physical adaptations. Risk of bias was assessed using a modified Downs and Black assessment tool. Multilevel meta-analyses were performed to quantify the effects of feedback on acute and chronic training outcomes. Results Feedback enhanced acute kinetic and kinematic outputs, muscular endurance, motivation, competitiveness, and perceived effort, while greater improvements in speed, strength, jump performance, and technical competency were reported when feedback was provided chronically. Furthermore, greater frequencies of feedback (e.g., following every repetition) were found to be most beneficial for enhancing acute performance. Results demonstrated that feedback improves acute barbell velocities by approximately 8.4% (g = 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.36–0.90). Moderator analysis revealed that both verbal (g = 0.47, 95% CI 0.22–0.71) and visual feedback (g = 1.11, 95% CI 0.61–1.61) were superior to no feedback, but visual feedback was superior to verbal feedback. For chronic outcomes, jump performance might have been positively influenced (g = 0.39, 95% CI − 0.20 to 0.99) and short sprint performance was likely enhanced (g = 0.47, 95% CI 0.10–0.84) to a greater extent when feedback is provided throughout a training cycle. Conclusions Feedback during resistance training can lead to enhanced acute performance within a training session and greater chronic adaptations. Studies included in our analysis demonstrated a positive influence of feedback, with all outcomes showing superior results than when no feedback is provided. For practitioners, it is recommended that high-frequency, visual feedback is consistently provided to individuals when they complete resistance training, and this may be particularly useful during periods of low motivation or when greater competitiveness is beneficial. Alternatively, researchers must be aware of the ergogenic effects of feedback on acute and chronic responses and ensure that feedback is standardised when investigating resistance training.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.
2,376 members
Ryan Raaum
  • Department of Anthropology
Sandra Levey
Edward L Jarroll
  • Department of Biological Sciences
Manfred Philipp
  • Department of Chemistry
New York City, United States