To economically and environmentally recover oil from reservoirs and promote CO2 utilization (CU) project, CO2 responsive surfactants have been developed to undertake multiple tasks including emulsification and demulsification during different production stages. Understanding the switching mechanisms from molecular perspectives is of great importance to the choice and design of high-performance CO2-responsive surfactants. In this work, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the emulsification and demulsification processes of a heptane/water mixture in the presence of a typical CO2-responsive surfactant-lauric acid (LA). Before injecting CO2, the deprotonated lauric acids (DLA) can stabilize O/W emulsions in an aqueous solution due to strong electrostatic repulsions and high interfacial activity of DLA, whereas the protonation of lauric acid (PLA) arising from CO2 injection would result in the coalescence of emulsion droplets thanks to the greatly reduced hydrophilicity of the polar groups of lauric acids and surface charge neutralization, which is unfavorable for emulsion stabilization. The potential mean force (PMF) results show a high energy barrier preventing the fusion process when two emulsions approach each other in the absence of CO2, indicating high stability of the emulsions. However, when DLA turns to be PLA, the energy barrier disappears and an attraction force emerges due to the entropic effect if two emulsions are close enough. Our study provides important insights into the structural properties of emulsions before and after CO2-triggered switching and sheds light on the switching mechanisms which may assist in selecting and designing efficient CO2-responsive surfactants.
The commercial V2O5 −WO3/TiO2 (VWTi) catalysts often suffer from a serious joint deactivation by multiple heavy metals in the flue gas for NOx removal by NH3-SCR. Herein, we report an extraordinary deactivation offset effect between Zn and As on VWTi with alleviation of the toxic effects of the heavy metals by “like cures like”. With the As&Zn content of 4 wt%, VWTi-As&Zn exhibited over 97% NO conversion under a GHSV of 100,000 h⁻¹ and good SO2/H2O tolerance (> 93% NO conversion). It’s presented 85% of fresh VWTi, exceeding those of VWTi-Zn (15%) by 5.6-fold and VWTi-As (70%) by 1.2-fold. Structure analysis showed that, unlike VWTi-As and VWTi-Zn, the VO vibration and dispersion state of VOx sites over VWTi-As&Zn were hardly affected. Moreover, VWTi-As&Zn possessed both the Lewis and Brønsted acid sites while VWTi-Zn and VWTi-As had only one type of them. The operando infrared/Raman/UV–vis spectroscopy and DFT calculations verified that the less affected VOx sites mainly reflected in three aspects: 1) the electron interaction between As and Zn; 2) the active VO Lewis acid sites; 3) lower energy barrier for N − H bond breaking. The “like cures like” phenomenon may open up an innovative pathway for the control of hazardous heavy metals.
Small organic molecules have a significant influence on methane adsorption of different rank coals. To explore the control mechanism of small organic molecules on methane adsorption capacity of coal, in this paper, based on the relative content of small organic molecules in different rank coals obtained by extraction experiment, the complex models of raw and residual coal with different ranks were constructed. The influence of small organic molecules on the methane adsorption of coal was analyzed by molecular simulation calculation. The control mechanism of small organic molecules on the methane adsorption capacity of coal was further discussed. The results showed that for the low-rank coal with high content of small organic molecules, small organic molecules mainly play the role of blocking and separating so that separate the larger coal pores into more micropores, thereby the methane adsorption capacity of coal pores is increased. For the middle-rank coal with the same high content of small organic molecules, micropores are closed by small organic molecules, so that its methane adsorption capacity is reduced. For the high-rank coal, due to its low content of small organic molecules, few pores are blocked or closed, that the existence of small organic molecules has no significant effect on its methane adsorption capacity. The research results help to reveal the microscopic mechanism of methane adsorption of coal, which has great significance to the development of coalbed seam gas and mine gas disaster prevention.
Dissolved organic matter plays a critical role in affecting sorption properties of biochar for organic contaminants. In this study, dissolved humic acid (DHA) as a representative of dissolved organic matter and oak sawdust-derived biochar as a sorbent were prepared and characterized. Roles of DHA in sorption of benzotriazole (BTA), an emerging organic contaminant, to biochar in different electrolyte solutions were investigated. The results revealed the dual roles of DHA in BTA sorption to biochar. On the one hand, DHA can compete for sites and/or block pores available for BTA to inhibit the adsorption of BTA to biochar. On the other hand, the sorbed DHA on biochar can serve as additional partitioning phase to promote the partition of BTA. The finding was in accordance with the site energy distribution analysis of BTA sorption that the site energy of the highest occurring frequency in the DHA-BTA system was lower than that in the DHA-free system (3.41–10.4 versus 13.1–20.1 kJ mol ⁻¹ ). The variation in apparent BTA sorption to biochar affected by DHA was thus a combination of changes in both its partition and adsorption properties. A modified Dual-mode model including the aqueous concentration of DHA was proposed to predict the effect of DHA on BTA sorption to biochar in different electrolyte solutions, which showed good prediction performance with most BTA sorption coefficient ( K d , L g ⁻¹ ) deviations within 0.1 log unit.
With the advance of smart material science, robotics is evolving from rigid robots to soft robots. Compared to rigid robots, soft robots can safely interact with the environment, easily navigate in unstructured fields, and be minimized to operate in narrow spaces, owning to the new actuation and sensing technologies developed by the smart materials. In the review, different actuation and sensing technologies based on different smart materials are analyzed and summarized. According to the driving or feedback signals, actuators are categorized into electrically responsive actuators, thermally responsive actuators, magnetically responsive actuators, and photoresponsive actuators; sensors are categorized into resistive sensors, capacitive sensors, magnetic sensors, and optical waveguide sensors. After introducing the principle and several robotic prototypes of some typical materials in each category of the actuators and sensors. The advantages and disadvantages of the actuators and sensors are compared based on the categories, and their potential applications in robotics are also presented.
The pendulum model is a classic model in physics and has important theoretical and practical significance. In the actual application process of engineering, the characteristic that the simple pendulum has a tendency to always be stable towards the low side of the gravitational potential energy is often used to design the corresponding deformation mechanism as a sensing or control component. In this paper, a deformation structure of a simple pendulum based on this characteristic is analyzed, and a nonlinear dynamic model of the simple pendulum under variable damping is established according to the actual force analysis. Due to the complexity of its analytical solution, this paper adopts the method of numerical analysis to establish a simulation analysis model to analyze the motion pattern of the pendulum when the relative speed and direction of the pendulum and the damper are different and the damping force of the pendulum is different.
This study validates the ultra-high-degree gravity field models in terms of the internal error estimate and the external precision. Internal error estimate is evaluated by geoid error degree variance and cumulative geoid height errors. The evaluation of the external precision is carried out using observed ground gravity data sets in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Sichuan Basin of mainland China. The results show that the geoid degree error is at the millimeter level, and the accumulated geoid error is at the centimeter level, and SGG-UGM-2 has the highest precision in terms of geoid errors. However, in terms of gravity anomaly, the GECO model has the highest precision of 37.080 mGal in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and after terrain correction, its precision can reach 28.907 mGal, an improvement of 22%. In the Sichuan Basin, EGM2008 performs best with a precision of 7.202 mGal; the precision of EGM2008 becomes 6.648 mGal after terrain correction. These results mean that the terrain correction must be considered in the area where topography varies largely, while when the terrain is relatively flat, the effect of terrain on gravity can be ignored.
The machines that utilize the synchronization of vibrators, such as pile sinkers, breaking hammers and sonic drilling rigs, play an important role in municipal construction and resource exploration. In this paper, a novel hydraulic coupling system with large specific power, handy control and robust stability for vibrator synchronization is presented. To investigate the feasibility and precision of the synchronization of the vibrators in the system, a mathematical model is established. According to the model, the synchronization characteristics of two vibrators are discussed when the errors of their masses, eccentricities and viscous damping coefficients are considered. Furthermore, simulation analyses are performed to verify the numerical results. The results demonstrate that two vibrators can be synchronized by coupling the components. The precision of synchronization is attractive, although the precision at high speed is inferior to that at low speed. The precision of the synchronization is more dominated by eccentricity than the other two parameters.
Remote sensing image data of typical mining areas in the Loess Plateau from 1986 to 2018 were used to analyze the evolution of land use, explore the division of carbon sink functional areas, and propose carbon neutrality paths to provide a reference for the coal industry carbon peak, carbon-neutral action plan. Results show that (1) land use has changed significantly in the Pingshuo mining area over the past 30 years. Damaged land in industrial, opencast, stripping, and dumping areas comprises 4482.5 ha of cultivated land, 1648.13 ha of grassland, and 963.49 ha of forestland. (2) The carbon sink functional areas of the Pingshuo mining land is divided into invariant, enhancement, low carbon optimization, and carbon emission control areas. The proportion of carbon sinks in the invariant area is decreasing, whereas the proportion in enhancement, low carbon optimization, and carbon emission control areas is gradually increasing. (3) The carbon neutrality of the mining area must be reduced from the entire process of stripping–mining–transport–disposal–reclamation, and carbon emissions and carbon sink accounting must start from the life cycle of coal resources. Therefore, carbon neutrality in mining areas must follow the 5R principles of reduction, reuse, recycling, redevelopment, and restoration, and attention must be paid to the potential of carbon sinks in ecological protection and restoration projects in the future.
The quartz‐vein type scheelite deposits distributed in the Hunchun SN‐trending gold‐copper‐tungsten belt in eastern Yanbian, Jilin Province, are a group of recent discovery for the past decade. To determine properties of the ore‐forming fluids and the mineralization mechanism, in situ laser ablation‐inductively coupled plasma‐mass spectrometry (LA‐ICP‐MS) rare earth elements (REE) analysis of the ore mineral scheelite was carried out for the selected Yangjingou and Sidaogou scheelite deposits in this metallogenic belt. The results showed that the substitution of REE3+ for Ca2+ in scheelite from the Yangjingou scheelite deposit can be accounted for the substitution mechanism: 3Ca2+ = 2REE3+ + □Ca (where □ is a site vacancy). It shows a slightly right‐dipped flat REE pattern with distinct positive Eu anomalies. The Sidaogou scheelite deposit, completes the substitution via the 2Ca2+ = REE3+ + Na+ and Ca2+ + W6+ = REE3+ + Nb5+ mechanisms. It shows left‐dipped REE pattern with relative enrichment of MREEs (mainly Dy) with negative Eu anomalies in the scheelite core and no or insignificant positive Eu anomalies in the scheelite rim. By comparing with the REE of granites which are close related to mineralization in the area, the ore‐forming fluids of these two scheelite deposits are determined to be mainly derived from magmatism. The inapparent correlation between EuN and Eu*N of the Yangjingou scheelite deposit and the high EuN/Eu*N values indicate that its ore‐forming fluids are reducing fluids. Its strong positive Eu anomalies are not entirely inherited from the mineralized tonalite, but is due to the release of Eu from the water‐rock reaction. The good correlation between EuN and Eu*N and the low EuN/Eu*N values in the Sidaogou scheelite deposit indicate that the ore‐forming fluids are oxidizing fluids. This may be caused by the mixing of the original magmatic fluid with a large amount of meteoric water. This study suggests that the water‐rock reaction is an important mineralization mechanism for the quartz vein‐type scheelite deposits in eastern Yanbian. In addition, fluid mixing is also important for the Sidaogou scheelite deposit. All these mechanisms influence the REE compositional characteristics of scheelite. The initial ore‐bearing fluids metasomatized the metamorphic rocks of Wudaogou Group, resulting in water‐rock reaction, and enriched ore‐forming materials such as Ca and W. As the ore‐forming fluids migrated upward along the NW‐trending structures, the escape of CO2 and CH4 caused by the tectonic decompression disrupted the physiochemical balance of the ore‐forming fluid system, catalyzed the combination of Ca2+ and WO42−, resulting in the precipitation and enrichment of the scheelite. The ore‐forming fluids characteristics of Yangjingou and Sidaogou scheelite deposits in eastern Yanbian was characterized by in situ LA‐ICP‐MS REE analysis of scheelite samples. Together with the knowledge of regional geology, deposit geology, fluid inclusions and isotope analysis, we made an attempt to discuss the factors that control the scheelite mineralization.
Lithium is crucial for low-carbon economic transformation, which presents a strong growth in demand worldwide. To explore the foreseeable and hidden systemic risks in the trade network, the article integrates virus transmission theory with complex network theory to analyze the mechanism of risk transmission in the trade network system of the lithium industry chain. This paper constructs multi-layer risk transmission networks (MRTN) based on the lithium industry chain to simulate the dynamic process of risk transmission along the industrial chain and evaluate the extent and path of risk transmission. The results show that the risk transmission in the lithium trade network system belongs to “minority communication” and is of a “robust-yet-fragile” characterization. Diversified trade relationships increase network flexibility and anti-risk capabilities of countries in the network but also decrease the leaderships of some hub countries. During the transmission process, there are four patterns: direct contact transmission, indirect contact transmission, nucleus transmission, and spatial transmission. The finding can serve for decision-makers to seek effective strategies to build a more resilient trade system and hence improve lithium supply security and efficiency.
https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1fkvS7tGO~KGJQ In this study the combination pretreatment of sodium citrate (SC) and heating was investigated to enhance the volatile fatty acid (VFA) production during anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS). The results showed that the combined pretreatment (0.3 g-SC/g-TSS + at 121℃ for 30 min) resulted to the maximum VFA yield of 354.5 mg-COD/g-VS, which was 16.4, 6.0 and 2.0-fold of that of control, with sole SC and sole heat pretreatment, respectively. Meanwhile, the combined pretreatment greatly improved the proportion of acetate and butyrate, while the production of propionate significantly decreased. Mechanism analysis indicated that the combined pretreatment effectively promoted WAS disintegration and solubilization. Moreover, the heat pretreatment exhibited superior performances to the SC pretreatment on release of organic matters and enhancement of VFA production in the combined pretreatment. The microbial analysis revealed that with the combined pretreatment the microbial community shifted toward hydrolysis-acidification, such as Enterobacter and Macellibacteroides.
In order to investigate the effect of nitriding on wear performance of (High Velocity Oxygen Fuel) HVOF sprayed high-entropy alloy (HEA) coatings, the AlxCoCrFeNi (x = 0.4, 0.7, 1.0) coatings were prepared via HVOF technology on AISI 4135 steel firstly, and then were treated by plasma nitriding. The reciprocating friction and wear experiments with Si3N4 grinding ball of AlxCoCrFeNi HEA coatings with un-nitrided and nitrided were carried out. The microstructure, phase compositions and microhardness of the coatings were studied. The effect of nitriding treatment on the wear performance of the coatings was also discussed. The results show that HVOF sprayed AlxCoCrFeNi HEA coatings have compact structure. With the increase of Al content, the coatings change from FCC phase to BCC phase. Besides, the microhardness and wear resistance of the coatings increase with the increase of Al content. After nitriding, the coatings exhibit FCC phase and various nitride phases (mainly AlN and CrN), and the microhardness values of the coatings are approximately twice that of un-nitrided coatings. The nitrided coatings show the better wear resistance than the un-nitrided coatings, although both of them have good wear resistance. The HVOF sprayed AlCoCrFeNi HEA coating with nitrided has the best wear resistance. The wear mechanism of un-nitrided coatings is as follows: it is abrasive and adhesive wear with x = 0.4, the adhesive wear becomes serious with x = 0.7, and it is tribo-oxidation wear and slight abrasive wear with x = 1.0, respectively. For the wear mechanism of nitrided coatings: it is mainly abrasive wear with x = 0.4, it is abrasive wear and adhesive wear with x = 0.7, and it is tribo-oxidation wear and abrasive wear with x = 1.0, respectively.
As an important strategic mineral resource, chromium is essential for developing emerging industries. The high geographical concentration and increasing demand make the international trade of the global chromium resources industry face many competitions. Therefore, based on trade data from 2005 to 2019, this paper builds the original trade network and the derived competition network of import and export trade of the whole chromium industry chain, to analyze the evolution of the global competition relationships and provide a reference for the future global trading. The results showed that: (1) The competition varies at different stages. Upstream and middle importers and exporters are gradually becoming integrated, and the oligopoly trend is obvious; Downstream competition is becoming more and more fierce. (2) In the competitive trade network, China, USA, South Africa, India, and Kazakhstan have absolute competitive advantages and have substantial control and influence on the whole network. (3) The export competition between Asia and Africa runs throughout the whole industry chain; Asia, Europe, and North America run through the import competition of the whole industry chain. (4) The world's major exporters of chromium ore, are shifting from upstream-production enterprises to joint-producer of middle and downstream products such as ferrochromium. It shows a transfer trend of export competition from the upstream to the middle and downstream. The above analysis can help countries identify their trade competitors and provide suggestions for finding new partners.
Marine hydrates mainly occur in clayey silt sediments, and their occurrence environment has the characteristics of a high clay content and low permeability, which seriously inhibit an increase in the gas production rate. This study presents a new method, the high-pressure jet breaking and sand filling method, to transform the natural gas hydrate (NGH) reservoir near the production well, whereby a water jet is used to form an area of sediment with large particle diameters and high permeability. Based on indoor experiments, we report the characteristics of hydrate formation, decomposition, and phase equilibrium in the transition area formed by this method under different sand particle sizes and mass fractions. The addition of sand at a high mass fraction with a large particle diameter significantly shortened the time required for rapid hydrate formation, prolonged slow hydrate formation, and reduced the increase in temperature. With an increase in the mass fraction of large-diameter sand, the free water content of pores increased, which made it easier to form hydrates with large particles, thus delaying the hydrate decomposition rate. The phase equilibrium curves of hydrates in clayey silt sediments with sand added at mass fractions of 30% and 50% were close to that of bulk hydrate in pure water at lower temperatures. As the temperature increased, the phase equilibrium curves gradually approached those of hydrates in clayey silt sediments.
Inter-well interference, a superimposed effect of pressure propagation from adjacent wells, can enhance the dynamics of methane desorption in pores and gas transport in fractures through energy migration. To better understand the variation pattern of seepage efficiency, the inter-well interference mechanism of different types of reservoirs and productivity changes after infilling coalbed methane wells were investigated. The results showed that the average productivity of old wells increased by 627 m³/d after infilling a horizontal well in the high-permeability reservoirs without surrounding rock water supply (HP-WW); however, the newly infilled horizontal well produced gas at 4996 m³/d. The infill well in HP-WW reservoir resulted in 11％-39％permeability increment compared with initial permeability (the average permeability changes from 1.58 to 2.18 mD). While, much higher permeability increment was observed (varies from 29％-50％) in relative low permeability coalbed formation due to infill well. After the formation of interference, increased confining pressure increases effective stress, which is smaller than the positive effect formed by the fracture expansion and the increase in the effective diffusion area. Additionally, well interference promotes coupled superposition of the pressure drop funnel, which effectively suppresses the influence induced by velocity sensitivity, water sensitivity, and water lock, resulting in an increased pressure difference between the reservoir and the wellbore. This enhances the dynamics of methane desorption from the pore surface and gas migration from the fracture. For gas diffusion, the mean free path of gas molecules decreases with well interference, implying that the main diffusion resistance changes from collisions between gas molecules and the pore wall to collisions among gas molecules. Therefore, the findings of this study can help for better understanding of the response mechanism of inter-well interference to efficient CBM production.
Pore system in coal is highly heterogeneous, while it is the main occurrence space and transport channel for coalbed methane (CBM). Electric pulse fracturing (EPF) has been considered as an effective approach to improve the coal physical properties for better CBM production. In this work, based on AFM measurement of 40 coal samples collected from Qinshui Basin, we evaluated the physical properties of coal, adsorbed with different cations, after EPF. This was accomplished by first analyzing the breakdown field response process of coal adsorbed with different cations, and then determining the dynamic changes of pore and surface roughness using the watershed method. In the PeakForce QNMTM model, the heterogeneous distribution of the adhesion force with increasing cation valence was quantified. The results show that the ability of medium- and high-rank coals to adsorb cations exhibits in the order of Fe³⁺ > Ca²⁺ > K⁺, attributed to the decrease in the radius of hydrated ions with increasing ionic valence. When the electric field is applied to both ends of coal sample, the plasma channels in coal generate huge energy, resulting in the temperature rise of pore-fracture and throat. Affected by EPF, the porosity of Chengzhuang (CZ) increases from 4.1% to 27.4%, greater than that of Qiyi (QY) from 6.7% to 14.5%. In the surface morphology tests, the surface skewness Rsk of QY adsorbed with different valence cations shifts from positive to negative values, reflecting the change of coal surface height from the right-skewed normal distribution to the left-skewed one. Moreover, the area where the surface height of QY adsorbed cation is below the average value gradually increases with the increase of the chemical valence. For micromechanical properties, the adhesion force of CZ adsorbed with different cations ranges from 0.9 to 20.7 nN, which is less than QY overall. This is mainly due to the weakening of intermolecular forces on the coal surface with the deepening of coalification, resulting in a decrease in adhesion force. Therefore, this study provides new insights into the differences in gas production mechanisms of CBM wells in the same coal seam from different regions.
As a promising supplement of China’s petroleum production, the lacustrine shale, compared with the marine shale, is characterized by higher clay mineral content, which has significant impacts on the hydrocarbon reservoir quality. Controlled by the paleo-lacustrine background and thermal maturity, the clay mineral contents vary tremendously in different shale systems. This study targets on three shale series formed in different basin types, namely the Lucaogou Formation shale (Junggar Basin), the Chang 7 Member shale (Ordos Basin), and the Qingshankou Formation shale (Songliao Basin), where the Junggar Basin was a saline lacustrine basin and the latter two were freshwater-brackish lacustrine basins. We find that the composition and content of clay minerals are considerably varied among the three shales that the clay mineral content of the Lucaogou formation shale is smaller than that of the Chang 7 Member and Qingshankou Formation, and the content of illite in the Chang 7 shale is lower than that in the Qingshankou shale. The occurrence of clay minerals has crucial effects on pore structures, that is the pore-filling clays has indiscernible contribution to the storage space, like in the Lucaogou shale, but those developing along the shale laminae can improve the storage capacities to form inter-granular pores and micro-fractures such as in Chang 7 Member and Qingshankou Formation. The development of clay mineral-related pores and fractures is controlled by thermal maturity (Ro) and affected by the content of terrigenous minerals. This pore structure alteration derived by the clay mineral occurrence types further affects the hydrocarbon contents. In the Lucaogou shale, the oil content is inversely proportional to clay mineral contents, while in Qingshankou Formation, the oil content is even higher than that of the adjacent felsic silt laminae due to the favorable development of micro-fractures and inter-granular pores in clay mineral laminae. The high clay mineral content in lacustrine shales in China make it necessary to investigate the clay mineral evolution to evaluate the hydrocarbon generation potential, pore structures, hydrocarbon contents, and hydrocarbon accumulation mechanisms in shale systems.
Precise mapping based on sampling data is meaningful for efficient soil quality management. The distributions of sampling sites in feature space and geographical space, as well as the distribution of point pairs at different distances, all significantly impact mapping precision, and these three aspects should all be considered in a sampling design. Although optimizing the spread of sampling sites in the above three aspects has been realized and addressed in previous studies, their tradeoff relationship and influence on mapping accuracy have not been comprehensively investigated, partly due to the limitations of weighting-based optimization way. In this article, we proposed a sampling strategy based on Pareto optimality to examine the tradeoff relationship among the three aspects and their influence on interpolation precision. Based on soil organic matter data from Yi’an district, we applied this approach to generate sampling schemes and analyze their distributions and prediction errors. Single-objective optimization of these three aspects was also conducted for comparison. The results revealed that: (1) the sampling strategy that simultaneously optimizes the distributions of sampling sites in the three aspects was able to obtain sampling designs with higher mapping accuracy than the method that only optimizes one aspect. (2) There was an apparent synergistic relationship between the distributions of sampling sites in feature space and geographical space. However, these objectives had antagonistic relationships with the distribution of point pairs at different distances. (3) When considering the tradeoff among the three aspects, the more even the distribution in geographical space was, the higher the mapping accuracy they produced. Furthermore, more even distribution in feature space improved the mapping accuracy, but the benefit faded after a certain degree, whereas the mapping accuracy initially increased as the distance distribution of point pairs in different intervals became more even but subsequently declined beyond a certain point. Attention should be given to the tradeoff relationship and impact on interpolation when sampling for mapping. In similar scenarios like the study case, it is recommended that sampling sites should be distributed in feature space with more than 45% evenness of the optimal state and then distributed in geographical space as evenly as possible, while the distribution of point pairs should not exceed 65% evenness of its optimal state when the sample size range is approximately 50 to 150. This study provides helpful references for scientific sampling with the goal of precise mapping.
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