Chestnut Hill College
Recent publications
This investigation examined the nature and development of a foundational symbolic numeric skill—number identification—focusing on children’s emerging knowledge of multidigit numbers. Two studies were conducted with Russian preschoolers. Study 1 (N = 350; 51–77 months of age) investigated age-related changes in the accuracy of number naming and in the types of errors children produced. The errors fell into distinct categories: syntactic (structural errors such as naming each digit separately without using place-value markers) and lexical (nonstructural errors such as replacing the name of a digit with the name of another digit). Number reading accuracy improved with age, primarily due to a decreased frequency of syntactic errors. Boys made fewer syntactic errors than girls. Study 2 (N = 110; 61–74 months of age) showed that accuracy of naming double-digit numbers was related to conceptual understanding of the base-10 numeric structure. The frequency of syntactic errors in number naming was negatively associated with the use of base-10 representations, whereas lexical errors were not related to children’s ability to represent base-10 number structure. Implications for understanding children’s mathematics trajectories are discussed.
Background Chronically medically ill patients often need clinical assistance with symptom management, as well as self-care interventions that can help to reduce the impact of bothersome symptoms. Experienced clinicians can help to guide the development of more effective self-care interventions. Objective To create a consensus-based list of common bothersome symptoms of chronic conditions and of self-care management behaviors recommended to patients by clinicians to reduce the impact of these symptoms. Methods A two-round Delphi study was performed among an international panel of 47 clinicians using online surveys to identify common and bothersome symptoms and related self-care management behaviors recommended to patients with heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, type 2 diabetes, or arthritis. Results A total of 30 common bothersome symptoms and 158 self-care management behaviors across the five conditions were listed. Each chronic condition has its own bothersome symptoms and self-care management behaviors. Consensus was reached on the vast majority of recommended behaviors. Conclusions The list of common bothersome symptoms and self-care management behaviors reflect consensus across four countries on many points but also disagreement on others, and a few recommendations are inconsistent with current guidelines. Efforts to encourage clinicians to recommend effective self-care management behaviors may reduce symptom impact in chronically ill patient populations.
We prove that a simple knot in the lens space L(p,q) fibers if and only if its order in homology does not divide any remainder occurring in the Euclidean algorithm applied to the pair (p,q). One corollary is that if p=m2 is a perfect square, then any simple knot of order m fibers, answering a question of Cebanu. More generally, we compute the leading coefficient of the Alexander polynomial of a simple knot, and we describe how to construct a minimum complexity Seifert surface for one. The methods are direct, combinatorial, and geometric.
A fundamental difficulty in the study of automorphic representations, representations of p-adic groups and the Langlands program is to handle the non-generic case. In a recent collaboration with David Ginzburg, we presented a new integral representation for the tensor product L-functions of G×GLk\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$G\times {{\,\mathrm{GL}\,}}_k$$\end{document} where G is a classical group, that applies to all cuspidal automorphic representations, generic or otherwise. In this work we develop the local theory of these integrals, define the local γ\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\gamma $$\end{document}-factors and provide a complete description of their properties. We can then define L- and ϵ\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\epsilon $$\end{document}-factors at all places, and as a consequence obtain the global completed L-function and its functional equation.
The term “Universal Design for Learning (UDL)” is derived from “Universal Design,” which is commonly used in the field of architecture, and focuses on proactive designing of the infrastructure that is accessible to all the users, regardless of their age, sex, abilities, etc. When the universal design approach is implemented in education, it focuses on making the curriculum, instruction, materials, and assessments accessible for all the learners, but does not mention anything about the classroom and school infrastructure. This raises a question: is the UDL framework forgetting the origin of universal design by not recognizing the importance of physical spaces or school infrastructure, where all the learning takes place? A way to approach this question is to think of school infrastructure as a learning resource that provides enriching learning experiences to the learners, and not merely a brick-and-mortar structure that houses instruction. The school building comprises various physical spaces such as classrooms, corridors, playgrounds, staircases, etc. that can be transformed into learning spaces to promote subconscious learning in learners and ensure a school-wide implementation of UDL. Transforming the school environment would ensure learners an equitable, inclusive, and accessible environments that address learner variability, and reduce barriers to their learning. This involves a focus on various components, namely, transforming physical spaces (universal design) into learning spaces (universal design for learning), identifying different elements in each learning space to maximize their learning value, and general accessibility of the school infrastructure. The chapter aims to provide a framework to design inclusive learning spaces by deriving insights from the work of various groups of architects in India, Ireland, and the United States that have explored the relationship between physical spaces and UDL.
Objectives Studies have demonstrated that Latinx populations face significant health disparities in access to mental health care. The objective of this study was to describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health needs of Latinx families, from the perspectives of direct service providers working with Latinx communities. Methods Twenty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted virtually with direct service providers to the Latinx community from August to October 2020. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Two-thirds of providers were female, with a median age of 33 years, and provided direct services to Latinx clients and had extensive experience working with immigrant families, particularly in Massachusetts. Key themes identified describing the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health needs of Latinx families included: (1) exacerbation of mental health symptoms, (2) financial stressors, (3) preoccupation regarding transnational lives, (4) secondary needs becoming more salient, and (5) immigration status as a main driver of inequality. Conclusions Our findings highlight the importance of focusing on the mental health needs of Latinx immigrants and ensuring their access to mental health services. Telehealth seems to be a potential tool that promotes mental health access among Latinx clients. Future research needs to continue investigating the role of telehealth in decreasing mental health access disparities.
We compare African-American and White clients receiving services at 13 rural and semi-rural community mental health agencies (CMHAs) and the impact of Medicaid on the use of crisis and outpatient services. SEM was utilized to model the indirect effect of crisis services between the association of Medicaid and total hours of outpatient services. We modeled the moderating effects of race using mixture modeling and latent class. The base model showed a non-significant indirect effect between having Medicaid and total hours of services through the use of crisis services (Indirect effect = 0.01, p = .98). African-American clients who received Medicaid were more likely to use crisis services ([Formula: see text], which was associated with increased hours of outpatient services ([Formula: see text]. In general, Medicaid was not related to increase service or crisis service usage. However, African-American clients access crisis services significantly more than White clients.
This special issue of Cognitive Neuroscience focuses on the roles of the hippocampus during long-term memory. A discussion paper by Tallman, Clark, and Smith (this issue) found that functional connectivity of the hippocampus with the parahippocampal cortex and fusiform gyrus decreased with memory age, providing support for systems consolidation. Commentaries were received by Berdugo-Vega and Gräff (this issue), Feld and Gerchen (this issue), Gellersen and Simons (this issue), Gobbo, Mitchell-Heggs, and Tse (this issue), Gilmore, Audrain, and Martin (this issue), Kirwan (this issue), Manns (this issue), Runyan and Brooks (this issue), Santangelo (this issue), and Yang (this issue). The author response considered the content and context of memorial information along with neuroanatomy and functional specialization and conducted new analyses to clarify their findings. An empirical fMRI paper by Thakral, Yu, and Rugg (this issue) reported that the hippocampus was sensitive to the amount of contextual information retrieved, regardless of remember-know status. Another empirical study by Bjornn, Van, and Kirwan (this issue) found that hippocampal activation changes were correlated with the number of fixations at study for correct but not incorrect mnemonic discrimination judgments. A second discussion paper (Slotnick, this issue) concluded that no fMRI studies have provided evidence that the hippocampus is associated with working memory. Commentaries were received by Courtney (this issue), Kessels and Bergmann (this issue), Peters and Reithler (this issue), Rose and Chao (this issue), Stern and Hasselmo (this issue), and Wood, Clark, and Nee (this issue). The articles in this special issue illustrate that the roles of the hippocampus in long-term memory (and other types of memory) is under active investigation and provide many directions for research in the immediate future.
Public housing is a key federal investment, yet it has suffered severe underfunding and decay. HOPE VI sought to transform public housing by improving housing quality, deconcentrating poverty, and enhancing economic opportunities. Using rigorous quasi-experimental methods and an array of geocoded annual national administrative data from 1990 to 2016, we evaluated the effects of HOPE VI redevelopment on neighborhood composition and resources. After matching HOPE VI and control census tracts, we used a new flexible conditional difference-in-differences technique to estimate average treatment effects on the treated, accounting for varying treatment start dates and durations. Results show that HOPE VI redevelopment decreased tract poverty by 2.9 percentage points, an effect that remained relatively stable through 10 years postredevelopment, and increased median household incomes with no indication of rising affluence. These effects were most pronounced in high-poverty and predominantly Black tracts, and where public housing experienced more costly redevelopment or transitioned to mixed-income. HOPE VI redevelopments did not affect racial composition or the presence of institutional resources, social services, or commercial resources (e.g., grocery stores, restaurants). Results suggest partial success of HOPE VI. Additional policy levers are necessary to increase public housing residents’ access to neighborhood services that promote economic opportunities and well-being.
How does trust relate to faith? We do not know of a theory-neutral way to answer our question. So, we begin with what we regard as a plausible theory of faith according to which, in slogan form, faith is resilient reliance. Next, we turn to contemporary theories of trust. They are not of one voice. Still, we can use them to indicate ways in which trust and faith might both differ from and resemble each other. This is what we do. Along the way, we evaluate substantive issues related to these possible differences and similarities.
This study examined whether political climate influenced trainees’ clinical work, supervisory experiences, and supervisory alliance. Data were collected from 366 trainees in a nationwide survey. Most trainees believed that the political atmosphere has affected clients to some degree. Over half reported political dialogue with supervisors, more often when political affiliation was similar. Supervisory alliances were most positive when trainees were aware of their supervisors’ political beliefs, regardless of agreement. Trainees wanted supervisors to provide greater awareness of multicultural issues and political climate in their clinical work. We recommend that supervisors invite trainees to discuss political effects on their clinical work.
Babesia is a genus of apicomplexan parasites that infect red blood cells in vertebrate hosts. Pathology occurs during rapid replication cycles in the asexual blood stage of infection. Current knowledge of Babesia replication cycle progression and regulation is limited and relies mostly on comparative studies with related parasites. Due to limitations in synchronizing Babesia parasites, fine-scale time-course transcriptomic resources are not readily available. Single-cell transcriptomics provides a powerful unbiased alternative for profiling asynchronous cell populations. Here, we applied single-cell RNA sequencing to 3 Babesia species (B. divergens, B. bovis, and B. bigemina). We used analytical approaches and algorithms to map the replication cycle and construct pseudo-synchronized time-course gene expression profiles. We identify clusters of co-expressed genes showing "just-in-time" expression profiles, with gradually cascading peaks throughout asexual development. Moreover, clustering analysis of reconstructed gene curves reveals coordinated timing of peak expression in epigenetic markers and transcription factors. Using a regularized Gaussian graphical model, we reconstructed co-expression networks and identified conserved and species-specific nodes. Motif analysis of a co-expression interactome of AP2 transcription factors identified specific motifs previously reported to play a role in DNA replication in Plasmodium species. Finally, we present an interactive web application to visualize and interactively explore the datasets.
In this systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical controlled trials (CCTs) we aimed to investigate the efficacy of KDs as an adjuvant therapy on cardiometabolic outcomes in patient with cancer compared to conventional non-ketogenic diets. Only CCTs involving cancer patients that were assigned to either a KD or a standard diet control group were selected. Two reviewers independently extracted the data, and a meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model to estimate weighted mean differences (WMDs) and confidence intervals (CIs) in body composition, metabolite, lipid profile, liver and kidney function parameters and quality of life. This meta-analysis showed a significant reduction in body weight (WMD= −2.99 kg; 95% CI: −4.67, −1.31; and P < 0.001), BMI (WMD= −1.08 kg/m 2 ; 95% CI: −1.81, −0.34; P ≤ 0.002) and fat mass (WMD= −1.48 kg; 95% CI: −2.56, −0.40; and P = 0.007) by a KD. KDs significantly decreased glucose (WMD= −5.22 mg/dl; 95% CI: −9.0, −1.44; and P = 0.007), IGF-1 (WMD= −17.52 ng/ml; 95% CI: −20.24, −14.8; and P ˂0.001) and triglyceride (WMD= −24.46 mg/dl; 95% CI: −43.96, −4.95; and P = 0.014) levels. Furthermore, KDs induced ketosis by increasing β-hydroxybutyrate (WMD= 0.56 mmol/l; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.75; and P < 0.001). There were non-significant pooled effects of KDs on improving insulin, C-reactive protein and cholesterol levels and kidney and liver function. Emotional functioning was even increased significantly in the KD compared to the SD groups. In summary we found that KDs result in a greater reduction in glucose, IGF-1, triglycerides, body weight, BMI, and fat mass in cancer patients compared to traditional non-ketogenic diets and improved emotional functioning. The quality of evidence in the meta-analysis was moderate according to the Nutrigrade assessment.
Objectives Minority Stress Theory suggests that repeated exposure to enacted stigma adversely affects mental health. States have wide authority to enact policies affecting the level of inclusivity experienced by lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer/questioning (LGBTQ) residents. The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between states’ level of LGBTQ inclusivity and indicators of mental health/risk behaviors among an LGBTQ sample. Methods The 2018 Human Rights Campaign State Equality Index (SEI) and the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey (BRFSS) were used to examine relationships between states’ levels of LGBTQ inclusivity (predictor variable) and indicators of mental health/risk behaviors (outcome variables). Relationships were explored using descriptive statistics and survey-weighted logistic regression. Results Lower state inclusivity increased odds of fair/poor general health (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01–1.48), increased odds of poor mental health days (AOR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.11–1.62), increased odds of smoking (AOR: 1.62, 95% CI: 1.27–2.07), and increased odds of heavy drinking (AOR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.26–1.86) and binge drinking (AOR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.01–1.49). State inclusivity did not influence odds of a depressive disorder diagnosis or driving under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions LGBTQ persons in restrictive states had increased odds of experiencing several indicators of mental health and risk behaviors. More research is needed to determine whether state policies affect other domains of LGBTQ persons’ health. Health care providers should be mindful of LGBTQ persons’ mental health/risk behaviors and the state policy environment, and should seek to implement mitigating health care strategies such as the use of validated assessment.
Background August Among people with HIV (PWH), sex-differences in presentations of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) may be influenced by differences in coronary plaque parameters, immune/inflammatory biomarkers, or relationships therein. Methods REPRIEVE, a primary ASCVD prevention trial, enrolled antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated PWH. At entry, a subset of U.S. participants underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and immune phenotyping (N = 755 CTA; N = 725 CTA + immune). We characterized sex-differences in coronary plaque and immune/inflammatory biomarkers and compared immune-plaque relationships by sex. Unless noted otherwise, analyses adjust for ASCVD risk score. Results The primary analysis cohort included 631 males and 124 females. ASCVD risk was higher among males (median 4.9% vs. 2.1%), while obesity rates were higher among females (48% vs. 21%). Prevalence of any plaque and of plaque with either ≥1 visible noncalcified portion or vulnerable features (NC/V-P) was lower among females overall and controlling for relevant risk factors [RR(95% CI) for any plaque 0.67 (0.50, 0.92); RR for NC/V-P 0.71 (0.51, 1.00) (adjusted for ASCVD risk score and BMI)]. Females showed higher levels of IL-6, hs-CRP, and D-dimer and lower levels of Lp-PLA2 (P < 0.001 for all). Higher levels of Lp-PLA2, MCP-1, and oxLDL were associated with higher plaque (P < 0.02) and NC/V-P prevalence, with no differences by sex. Among females but not males, D-dimer was associated with higher prevalence of NC/V-P (interaction P = 0.055). Conclusions Among U.S. PWH, females had a lower prevalence of plaque and NC/V-P, as well as differences in key immune/inflammatory biomarkers. Immune-plaque relationships differed by sex for D-dimer, but not other tested parameters. Previous Presentation Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI), 2022; International Workshop on HIV and Women (IWHW), 2022; AIDS Clinical Trials Group Network Meeting, 2022; REPIREVE State of the Science Meeting, 2022. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT0234429 (date of initial registration: January 22, 2015)
Study question: What is known about health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in women with idiopathic primary ovarian insufficiency (POI)? Summary answer: Women with POI have a range of unmet psychosocial needs relating to three interrelated themes: 'diagnostic odyssey', 'isolation and stigma' and impaired 'ego integrity'. What is known already: Prior studies have reported increased depressive symptoms, diminished sexual function and altered body image/self-concept in women with POI. Study design, size, duration: A systematic scoping review (11 databases) on HR-QoL in POI including published quantitative, qualitative and mixed-methods studies as well as unpublished gray literature (i.e. unpublished dissertations) through June, 2021. Participants/materials, setting, methods: After removing duplicates, 1244 articles underwent title and abstract review by independent reviewers. The remaining 72 relevant articles underwent dual full text review to determine inclusion criteria yielding 24 articles (100% concordance) for data extraction. Findings were summarized in tables by methodology and recurrent HR-QoL themes/sub-themes were mapped to define key aspects of HR-QoL in POI. Promoters of active coping were charted at the individual, interpersonal and healthcare system levels. Targets for tailored interventions supporting active coping and improved HR-QoL were mapped to the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Main results and the role of chance: Three interrelated themes affecting HR-QoL in POI emerged from the data synthesis. First, the theme 'diagnostic odyssey' comprised sub-themes of uncertainty, lack of control, knowledge gaps, discontinuous care and negative clinical interactions. The second theme 'isolation and stigma' included sub-themes of guilt, shame, concealment, feeling labeled as infertile, lack of social support and unsympathetic clinicians. The third theme, impaired 'ego integrity' captured sub-themes of decreased sexual function, altered body image, psychological vulnerability and catastrophizing. Targets promoting active coping at the individual (n = 2), interpersonal (n = 1) and healthcare system (n = 1) levels were mapped to the TPB to inform development of tailored interventions supporting active coping and improved HR-QoL in POI (i.e. narrative intervention, co-creating patient-facing materials, peer-to-peer support and provider resources). Limitations, reasons for caution: No studies using a POI-specific HR-QoL instrument were identified. No interventional studies aimed at improving HR-QoL in POI were identified. Only articles published in English were included in the study. Wider implications of the findings: Women with POI frequently have impaired HR-QoL related to the life-altering infertility diagnosis. The range of unmet psychosocial needs may be relevant for informing interventions for other populations with infertility. Study funding/competing interest(s): This work was supported by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development 'Massachusetts General Hospital-Harvard Center for Reproductive Medicine' (1 P50 HD104224-01 NICHD). The authors have no conflicts to declare. Registration number: N/A.
Objective The objective of this study was to examine associations between level of depressive symptoms in older adult spouse/partner couples and their physical health and social factors (social activity and number of close friends). Methods Using data from 116 community-dwelling couples (age 76.2 ± 8.5), we simultaneously analyzed associations between depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale, range 0–11) and dyadic physical health, engagement in social activities, and connectedness with close friends. Results Greater engagement in social activities was associated with fewer depressive symptoms in men, whereas more close friendships were associated with fewer depressive symptoms in women, controlling for partner effects, age, education, and cognitive function, with good model fit. Additionally, more disparate physical health within the couple (latent incongruence score) was associated with greater depressive symptoms in men. Discussion Less social activity and fewer close friends were associated with depressive symptoms in older adult couples, but may be distinctly influential depending on gender and in the context of the older adult couple's physical health.
Attributes and behavioral patterns of female homicide offenders have been less explored than those of males, particularly in crimes that involve aggravating factors such as dismemberment and mutilation. This study explored the patterns of female murderers who engage in postmortem dismemberment and/or mutilation of victims, contrasting these with the patterns of males who display these same behaviors. Cases were obtained from Radford‐Florida Gulf Coast University Database and public sources, and then analyzed for specific characteristics of the crimes. An informational form was used to derive quantitative parameters. Statistical significance between sex and variables such as motive, dismemberment/mutilation style, and level of organization during the crime were examined. The majority of the cases were consistent with a defensive style. However, 23% of the cases involving females followed an offensive style compared to 33% among males. The nature of prior relationships between offenders and their victims was noteworthy, with the victims of males being largely strangers and the victims of females being primarily known to them. In comparison to males, females were markedly organized. These differences may emphasize aspects of psychological drives and pleasure‐seeking that was more commonly seen among men, who often targeted strangers and were motivated by sadism in 25% of the cases. Dismemberment perpetrated by women primarily followed a defensive style that aimed to dispose of evidence, which would be congruent with the assumption that the murder occurred within a prior background of interpersonal partner violence toward the female perpetrator or other family members.
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444 members
Kevin Mccarthy
  • Department of Psychology
David Contosta
  • Department of History
Nicole M. Monteiro
  • Clinical and Counseling Psychology
William J. Herron
  • Department of Chemistry
Kimberly Mullane
  • Department of Chemistry
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