Charles Darwin University
  • Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia
Recent publications
Industry 5.0 is more focused on sustainability, people-centredness and resilience. The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) enables real-time monitoring of equipment status through sensors deployed in dangerous environments to reduce the probability of hazards. However, the devices are vulnerable to malicious attackers or can be tampered with during the transmission of information. Security has therefore become a major concern in the IIoT. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving multi-node collaborative decision-making scheme in IIoT to ensure the validity and integrity of data under the IIoT. This collaborative decision-making solution primarily uses voting to enable accurate monitoring of sensing devices. The scheme is designed based on an efficient aggregate signature and gives a formal proof of security based on the CDHP. The final performance analysis phase gives a detailed presentation of the computational overhead of each phase of the protocol.
This article examines the impact of True Justice, a unique continuing legal education programme introduced in 2022 to increase cultural competency in legal practitioners. The programme achieves its purpose via the incorporation of First Nations principles and pedagogies, taking participants beyond the university classroom to learn deep listening on Country. The feedback from participants in the programme in April and May 2022 reveals the powerful experiences that are possible when the university classroom is abandoned in favour of place-based, trauma-informed learning. Incorporating not only First Nations perspectives but also pedagogies is particularly important in the legal profession, where, if these are ignored, practitioners and educators risk reproducing colonial models.
Indigenous art has had longstanding issues with Australian copyright law, including the issue of collaborations in Indigenous art. In 2023, a related issue concerning allegations of ‘white interference’ surfaced. Those allegations highlighted the problem of forming ethical collaborations in the Indigenous arts industry relying on existing law. Partnerships between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people to produce art have also been validly made leading to collaborations known as the ‘new norm'. This article explores white interference, bad collaborations, and new norms in Indigenous art. It analyses existing legal protections and those proposed by IP Australia, the Productivity Commission, and a Parliamentary Standing Committee aimed at protecting communal Indigenous Knowledge and the rights of Indigenous artists.
Purpose An automated computerized approach can aid radiologists in the early diagnosis of breast cancer. In this study, a novel method is proposed for classifying breast tumors into benign and malignant, based on the ultrasound images through a Graph Neural Network (GNN) model utilizing clinically significant features. Method Ten informative features are extracted from the region of interest (ROI), based on the radiologists’ diagnosis markers. The significance of the features is evaluated using density plot and T test statistical analysis method. A feature table is generated where each row represents individual image, considered as node, and the edges between the nodes are denoted by calculating the Spearman correlation coefficient. A graph dataset is generated and fed into the GNN model. The model is configured through ablation study and Bayesian optimization. The optimized model is then evaluated with different correlation thresholds for getting the highest performance with a shallow graph. The performance consistency is validated with k-fold cross validation. The impact of utilizing ROIs and handcrafted features for breast tumor classification is evaluated by comparing the model’s performance with Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) descriptor features from the entire ultrasound image. Lastly, a clustering-based analysis is performed to generate a new filtered graph, considering weak and strong relationships of the nodes, based on the similarities. Results The results indicate that with a threshold value of 0.95, the GNN model achieves the highest test accuracy of 99.48%, precision and recall of 100%, and F1 score of 99.28%, reducing the number of edges by 85.5%. The GNN model’s performance is 86.91%, considering no threshold value for the graph generated from HOG descriptor features. Different threshold values for the Spearman’s correlation score are experimented with and the performance is compared. No significant differences are observed between the previous graph and the filtered graph. Conclusion The proposed approach might aid the radiologists in effective diagnosing and learning tumor pattern of breast cancer.
Many animals exhibit partial migration, which occurs when populations contain coexisting contingents of migratory and resident individuals. This individual‐level variation in migration behaviour may drive differences in growth, age at maturity and survival. Therefore, partial migration is widely considered to play a key role in shaping population demography. Otolith chemistry and microstructural analysis were used to identify the environmental‐ and individual‐specific factors that influence migratory behaviour in the facultatively catadromous barramundi ( Lates calcarifer ) at two distinct life history stages: firstly, as juveniles migrating upstream into fresh water; and secondly, as adults or sub‐adults returning to the estuarine/marine spawning habitat. Monsoonal climate played an important role in determining the migration propensity of juveniles: individuals born in the driest year examined (weak monsoon) were more than twice as likely to undergo migration to freshwater than those born in the wettest (strong monsoon) year. In contrast, the ontogenetic timing of return migrations to the estuary by adults and sub‐adults was highly variable and not strongly associated with the environmental parameters examined. We propose that scarce resources within saline natal habitats during lower rainfall years may provide an ecological incentive for juveniles to migrate upstream, whereas more abundant resources in higher rainfall years may promote resident life histories within estuaries. We conclude that inter‐annual climatic variation, here evidenced by monsoonal strength, likely plays an important role in driving the persistence of diversified life histories within wild barramundi populations.
Management programs that successfully recovered wild saltwater crocodile ( Crocodylus porosus ) populations in the Northern Territory of Australia did so with an expanding commitment to maintaining public safety. One aspect of the program is the ongoing removal of resident and immigrant crocodiles within Darwin Harbor (since 1979), the main urban center. We determined the likely sources of crocodiles caught as problem animals between 2015–2017 by comparing recently developed methods for population assignment. Depending on the assignment model used, we estimated that between 30% and 50% of crocodiles in Darwin Harbor originated from the Adelaide and Mary rivers, and the Kakadu region east of Darwin, and between 20% and 30% of crocodiles originated from the Finniss, Reynolds, and Daly rivers southwest of Darwin. Saltwater crocodiles occur at particularly high densities in these catchments. The remainder came from a mixture of different sources across the Northern Territory. The most common animals captured were immature (150–180 cm) males that have traveled 100–200 km. We did not identify any relationships between the distance from the inferred origin to Darwin Harbor and the size and sex of the crocodiles, or the year of capture. The targeted removal of crocodiles from specific sites such as Darwin Harbor, near where most people live, improves public safety in the highest risk areas, without compromising abundant source populations in most areas.
Background Despite tuberculosis (TB) being a curable disease, current guidelines fail to account for the long-term outcomes of post-tuberculosis lung disease—a cause of global morbidity despite successful completion of effective treatment. Our systematic review aimed to synthesise the available evidence on the lung function outcomes of childhood pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). Methods PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library and ProQuest databases were searched for English-only studies without time restriction (latest search date 22 March 2023). Inclusion criteria were (1) patients who had TB with pulmonary involvement at age ≤18 years; (2) pulmonary function tests (PFTs) performed on patients after treatment completion; and (3) observational studies, including cohort and cross-sectional studies. We adhered to the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Results From 8040 records, 5 studies were included (involving n=567 children), with spirometry measures from 4 studies included in the meta-analyses. The effect sizes of childhood TB on forced expiratory volume in the first second and forced vital capacity z-scores were estimated to be −1.53 (95% CI −2.65, –0.41; p=0.007) and −1.93 (95% CI −3.35, –0.50; p=0.008), respectively. Discussion The small number of included studies reflects this under-researched area, relative to the global burden of TB. Nevertheless, as childhood PTB impacts future lung function, PFTs (such as spirometry) should be considered a routine test when evaluating the long-term lung health of children beyond their completion of TB treatment. PROSPERO registration number CRD42021250172.
Assuming Australian training markets represent successful policy implementation facilitates an exploration of the implications for their future evolution by querying what is sold in these markets. A Foucauldian discourse analysis of relevant documentation suggests that training markets overwhelmingly provide products and/or services. Further examination finds that these two are conceptually confused as is the contention of a single national vocational education and training market. Ontological rhetorics have been used to indiscriminately conflate products and services in pursuit of preferred political values. The performative work being done by uncritically mingling the discourses of two distinctively different markets for bureaucratic and political purposes, when combined with executive federalism, contributes to VET’s exasperating complexity. Brief transactions that provide multiple useful, yet low-value, compliance-driven products differ substantially from markets that deliver educational services by developing longer term relationships that increase the national stock of higher level occupational skills. Making explicit the different perspectives that have fashioned the product and services artefacts invites more tailored market operational and regulatory approaches as well as creating the possibility of a more inclusive approach to VET policy making and delivery of vocational knowledges.
A new technique for RF signal frequency measurement is presented. It is based on introducing a frequency dependent phase shift to two RF signal modulation sidebands and sweeping the phase of an optical carrier. The frequency of an incoming RF signal can be determined from the optical carrier phase that results in the cancellation of the system output RF signal. The carrier phase sweeping based frequency measurement system has a very simple single-laser, single-modulator and single-photodetector structure. It is also free of electrical components. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate RF signal frequency measurement over a 2 to 20 GHz frequency range with a 0.1 GHz resolution. Frequency measurement errors of less than ±0.1 GHz for different input RF signal powers and frequencies over the entire 2 to 20 GHz frequency range are also demonstrated.
Cryogenic vacuum distillation (CVD) is a widely used technique for extracting plant water from stems for isotopic analysis, but concerns about potential isotopic biases have emerged. Here, we leverage the Cavitron centrifugation technique to extract xylem water and compare its isotopic signature to that of CVD-extracted stem water as well as source water. Conducted under field conditions in tropical northern Australia, our study spans seven tree species naturally experiencing a range of water stress levels. Our findings reveal a significant deuterium bias in CVD-extracted bulk stem water when compared to xylem water (median bias -14.9‰), whereas xylem water closely aligned with source water (median offset -1.9‰). We find substantial variations in deuterium bias among the seven tree species (bias ranging from -19.3 to -9.1‰), but intriguingly, CVD-induced biases were unrelated to environmental factors such as relative stem water content and pre-dawn leaf water potential. These results imply that inter-specific differences may be driven by anatomical traits rather than tree hydraulic functioning. Additionally, our data highlight the potential to use a site-specific deuterium offset, based on the isotopic signature of local source water, for correcting CVD-induced biases.
Plasmodium falciparum malaria drives immunoregulatory responses across multiple cell subsets, which protects from immunopathogenesis, but also hampers the development of effective anti-parasitic immunity. Understanding malaria induced tolerogenic responses in specific cell subsets may inform development of strategies to boost protective immunity during drug treatment and vaccination. Here, we analyse the immune landscape with single cell RNA sequencing during P. falciparum malaria. We identify cell type specific responses in sub-clustered major immune cell types. Malaria is associated with an increase in immunosuppressive monocytes, alongside NK and γδ T cells which up-regulate tolerogenic markers. IL-10-producing Tr1 CD4 T cells and IL-10-producing regulatory B cells are also induced. Type I interferon responses are identified across all cell types, suggesting Type I interferon signalling may be linked to induction of immunoregulatory networks during malaria. These findings provide insights into cell-specific and shared immunoregulatory changes during malaria and provide a data resource for further analysis.
Colombia aims to eliminate malaria by 2030 but remains one of the highest burden countries in the Americas. Plasmodium vivax contributes half of all malaria cases, with its control challenged by relapsing parasitaemia, drug resistance and cross-border spread. Using 64 Colombian P. vivax genomes collected between 2013 and 2017, we explored diversity and selection in two major foci of transmission: Chocó and Córdoba. Open-access data from other countries were used for comparative assessment of drug resistance candidates and to assess cross-border spread. Across Colombia, polyclonal infections were infrequent (12%), and infection connectivity was relatively high (median IBD = 5%), consistent with low endemicity. Chocó exhibited a higher frequency of polyclonal infections (23%) than Córdoba (7%), although the difference was not significant (P = 0.300). Most Colombian infections carried double pvdhfr (95%) and single pvdhps (71%) mutants, but other drug resistance mutations were less prevalent (< 10%). There was no evidence of selection at the pvaat1 gene, whose P. falciparum orthologue has recently been implicated in chloroquine resistance. Global population comparisons identified other putative adaptations. Within the Americas, low-level connectivity was observed between Colombia and Peru, highlighting potential for cross-border spread. Our findings demonstrate the potential of molecular data to inform on infection spread and adaptation.
Arrurle‐nge‐ntyele researchers lhentere areye‐le intelhe‐ilepe‐ileme apmerrke areye‐akerte. Itne akaltye‐arle‐irreke apmerrke areye akwele urreme‐urreme‐irreme, utnenge alhwarrpe awelhemele. Kenhe alhentere nhenhe areye akaltye‐irretyakenhe iwenhenge‐arle apmerrke areye alakenhe anerlte‐aneme. Itne itelaretyakenhe nthakenhe‐arle arne ingkirreke urrperle‐areye‐kenhe‐le apmerrke areye atnerre ilirtnemere. Researchers itne akaltye‐irreke artwe apmerrke Central Australia‐arenye‐arle akwele health akurne anthurre‐ulkere, Australia arenye‐arrpenhe areye‐nge. Arrpenheme apeke clinic‐werne alheme, kenhe itne akenhe itelaretyakenhe iwenhe‐arle alhentere ngangkere‐le itneke ileme, health itnekenhe‐akerte, medications‐akerte‐arlke. Artwe atningke apeke itelaretyakenhe iwenhenge‐arle itne ilkelhetyakenhe uthene akangketyakenhe uthene. The kwenhe PhD project mpwarerle‐aneme apmerrke anwerneke‐akerte. Anwerne ahentye aneme apmerrke areye atyenpe‐irrirtnetyeke, atnerre anemele. Project nhenhe arne atyeperre anwerne‐kenhe areye‐akerte, angkentye, anpernirrentye, nthakenhe angkentye anwernekenhe intelhetyeke, anyenhenge, apmere‐kenhe arritnye ingkirreke, thipe‐kenhe arritnye, arne‐kenhe arritnye, atnunthe apmere‐altye‐arlke. Apmerrke areye kwenhe akaltye‐irretyeke nthakenhe English angketyeke, read‐eme‐iletyeke, intelhetyeke‐arlke. Apmerrke areye apeke akaltye‐irretyeke Akngerrepate arrwekelenye areye‐ke, arne mwerre areye itne‐arle mpware‐warretyarte, kele itne anteme itnenhe ingkentetyeke. Artwe akaperte altywere‐areye role models anwernekenhe aneme. 1930's‐nge‐ntyele governments‐le laws mpwareke arritnye Assimilation Policy. Yanhe‐iperre, atningke areye uye‐akaltye‐irreke urrperle‐kenhe arne areye‐kenhe‐ke. Alhentere areye‐le anamelhe‐ileke arrpenheme apmere itnekenhe‐nge‐ntyele bungalow‐atheke, ayerrere‐werne atheke, antekerre‐arlke. Assimilation Policys‐nge ularre, tyerrtye atningke angkentye‐ke uye akaltye‐irreke, apmere‐akerte, apmere‐ke‐artweye‐ke, kwertengwerle‐ke, laws anwernekenhe‐arlke. Lhentere arrpenheme ahentye‐aneke akaltye‐irretyeke Tywerrenge‐ke. Arne arrpenheme‐ke itne‐arle akaltye‐irreke artwe‐kenhe‐ante, kenhe arrpenhe akenhe ingkirreke‐ke. Arne nhenhe areye museums‐uthene‐le organisations arrpenhe areye uthene‐le akwete atnyeneme. Alhentere areye‐le itnenhe akeme “archives.” Itnekenge‐ntyele anwerne apmerrke areye akaltye‐le‐anthetyeke, nthakenhe arrwekelenye anwernekenhe anirntyeke‐arteke. Kele, the pipe nhenhe intelhe‐ileke apmerrke itnenhe alpeme‐iletyeke rlterrke‐irrirtnetyeke.
Increased conservation action to protect more habitat and species is fueling a vigorous debate about the relative effectiveness of different sorts of protected areas. Here we review the literature that compares the effectiveness of protected areas managed by states and areas managed by Indigenous peoples and/or local communities. We argue that these can be hard comparisons to make. Robust comparative case studies are rare, and the epistemic communities producing them are fractured by language, discipline, and geography. Furthermore the distinction between these different forms of protection on the ground can be blurred. We also have to be careful about the value of this sort of comparison as the consequences of different forms of conservation for people and nonhuman nature are messy and diverse. Measures of effectiveness, moreover, focus on specific dimensions of conservation performance, which can omit other important dimensions. With these caveats, we report on findings observed by multiple study groups focusing on different regions and issues whose reports have been compiled into this article. There is a tendency in the data for community-based or co-managed governance arrangements to produce beneficial outcomes for people and nature. These arrangements are often accompanied by struggles between rural groups and powerful states. Findings are highly context specific and global generalizations have limited value.
Forecasting stock price direction using news sentiment has gained momentum as trading activities are information driven in this digital era. News fuel pessimism or optimism in the investors mindset which are often translated by market sentiment indicators that influence stock price direction. The type of information that affects short-term market reactions are political news, business news and technical indicators. Of late, machine learning technique has become one of the popular approaches being applied in stock market predictions. The merit of this approach in predicting stock price directions using news sentiments as inputs has been confirmed by a case study included in this chapter.
Introduction Electronic cigarette (e‐cigarette) use in Australia has rapidly increased since the 2017 National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) Chief Executive Officer (CEO) statement on e‐cigarettes . The type of products available and the demographic characteristics of people using these products have changed. New evidence has been published and there is growing concern among public health professionals about the increased use, particularly among young people who do not currently smoke combustible cigarettes. The combination of these issues led NHMRC to review the current evidence and provide an updated statement on e‐cigarettes. In this article, we describe the comprehensive process used to review the evidence and develop the 2022 NHMRC CEO statement on electronic cigarettes . Main recommendations E‐cigarettes can be harmful; all e‐cigarette users are exposed to chemicals and toxins that have the potential to cause adverse health effects. There are no health benefits of using e‐cigarettes if you do not currently smoke tobacco cigarettes. Adolescents are more likely to try e‐cigarettes if they are exposed to e‐cigarettes on social media. Short term e‐cigarette use may help some smokers to quit who have been previously unsuccessful with other smoking cessation aids. There are other proven safe and effective options available to help smokers to quit. Changes in management as a result of this statement The evidence base for the harms of e‐cigarette use has strengthened since the previous NHMRC statement. Significant gaps in the evidence base remain, especially about the longer term health harms of using e‐cigarettes and the toxicity of many chemicals in e‐cigarettes inhaled as an aerosol.
Issues Young people are particularly impressionable when it comes to forming expectations and attitudes around alcohol consumption. Any stimuli that normalise and foster positive expectations around alcohol use may increase the risk of underage alcohol consumption. Alcohol venues that market themselves as being appropriate ‘family friendly’ establishments for children risk exposing minors to environments that are saturated with alcohol‐related stimuli. However, research examining how exposure to licenced venues affects underage people is very limited. The aim of this narrative review was to identify and synthesise relevant evidence to better understand how attending these venues might affect minors. Approach A narrative review of research published between January 2016 and November 2022 was conducted to investigate the potential effects on underage people of exposure to licenced venues and stimuli encountered in/around these venues. Examined stimuli included alcohol advertising, people consuming alcohol and alcohol outlets. Key Findings The reviewed literature indicates that the risk of alcohol‐related harm among minors is likely to increase with greater exposure to alcohol venues due to the associated exposure to alcohol advertising, exposure to others consuming alcohol and higher outlet density. In combination, these factors are likely to normalise alcohol consumption for minors and create positive alcohol expectancies. Implications and Conclusion Venues serving alcohol should be discouraged from targeting families and parents should be warned about the risks associated with taking minors to venues where alcohol is sold and consumed.
Background The concept of the functional nutritional value of health-beneficial omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) is becoming a phenomenon among red meat consumers globally. This study examined the expressions of three lipogenic genes (fatty acid binding protein 4, FABP4, fatty acid synthase, FASN; and stearoyl-CoA desaturase, SCD) in the ribeye (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum) muscle of Tattykeel Australian White (TAW) lambs fed fortified omega-3 diets and correlations with fatty acids. To answer the research question, “are there differences in the expression of lipogenic genes between control, MSM whole grain and omega-3 supplemented lambs?”, we tested the hypothesis that fortification of lamb diets with omega-3 will lead to a down-regulation of lipogenic genes. Seventy-five six-month old TAW lambs were randomly allocated to the (1) omega-3 oil-fortified grain pellets, (2) unfortified grain pellets (control) or (3) unfortified MSM whole grain pellets diet supplements to generate three treatments of 25 lambs each. The feeding trial lasted 47 days. Results From the Kruskal-Wallis test, the results showed a striking disparity in lipogenic gene expression between the three dietary treatments in which the FABP4 gene was significantly up-regulated by 3-folds in the muscles of lambs fed MSM Milling (MSM) whole grain diet compared to the omega-3 and control diets. A negative correlation was observed between FASN gene expression and intramuscular fat (IMF), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). The FABP4 gene expression was positively correlated (P < 0.05) with EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Conclusion Taken together, this study’s results suggest that FABP4 and FASN genes perform an important role in the biosynthesis of fatty acids in the ribeye muscle of TAW lambs, and supplementary diet composition is an important factor influencing their expressions.
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3,966 members
Terry Dunbar
  • Head of School Indigenous Knowledges and Public Policy
Mitchell Byrne
  • Discipline of Psychology
Osmar J Luiz
  • Research Institute for the Environment and Livelihoods
Kamaljit Kaur Sangha
  • Research Institute for the Environment and Livelihoods
Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia