Centro de Investigación Biomedica En Red del Área de Salud Mental
Recent publications
Background: Artemisinins (ART) are the key component of the frontline antimalarial treatment, but their impact on Plasmodium falciparum sexual conversion rates in natural malaria infections remains unknown. This is an important knowledge gap because sexual conversion rates determine the relative parasite investment between maintaining infection in the same human host and transmission to mosquitoes. Methods: The primary outcome of this study was to assess the impact of ART-based treatment on sexual conversion rates by comparing the relative transcript levels of pfap2-g and other sexual ring biomarkers (SRBs) before and after treatment. We analysed samples from previously existing cohorts in Vietnam, Burkina Faso and Mozambique (in total, n=109) collected before treatment and at 12 h intervals after treatment. As a secondary objective, we investigated factors that may influence the effect of treatment on sexual conversion rates. Findings In the majority of infections from the African cohorts, but not from Vietnam, we observed increased expression of pfap2-g and other SRBs after treatment. Estimated parasite age at the time of treatment was negatively correlated with the increase in pfap2-g transcript levels, suggesting that younger parasites are less susceptible to stimulation of sexual conversion. Interpretation: We observed enhanced expression of SRBs after ART-based treatment in many patients, which suggests that in natural malaria infections sexual conversion rates can be altered by treatment. ART-based treatment reduces the potential of a treated individual to transmit the disease, but we hypothesise that under some circumstances this reduction may be attenuated by ART-enhanced sexual conversion. Funding: Spanish Agencia Estatal de Investigación (AEI), European Regional Development Fund (ERDF, European Union), Belgium Development Cooperation (DGD), Canadian University Health Network (UHN), TransGlobalHealth–Erasmus Mundus (European Union).
Background: To evaluate the Vall d'Hebron-Risk-Score (VH-RS) to stratify the risk of patients with stable ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM), and assess whether hemoglobin (Hb) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) provide additional information to the VH-RS. Methods and results: We analysed 673 consecutive patients with ICM who underwent gated SPECT. According to VH-RS, we stratified patients into 4-risk-levels: very-low-risk (VLR), low-risk (LR), moderate-risk (MR), and high-risk (HRi). We considered as MACEs: non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure hospitalization (HF), coronary revascularization (CR), and cardiac death (CD). Also the cardiac-resynchronization-therapy (CRT), and the implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) were investigated. During the follow-up (4.8 ± 2.7 years), 379 patients had MACEs (0.18/patient/year). There were no patients in VLR and LR. All patients were reclassified in 3-risk-levels (MRi = 48; HRi = 121; VHRi[very high risk] = 504). Most patients with MACEs were in VHRi level (test-for-trend: MACEs ≥ 1 without CRT/ICD, P < .001; combined non-fatal MI, CD and CR, P < .001; MACEs ≥ 1 with CRT/ICD, P < .001). The Hb and eGFR values do not properly improve the risk stratification obtained by the VH-RS (global-NRI[net-reclassification-improvement] was: (MACEs ≥ 1 without CRT/ICD: - 10.6%; non-fatal MI, CD and CR: - 9.08%; and MACEs ≥ 1 with CRT/ICD: - 8.85%). Conclusion: VH-RS is effective in evaluating risk of patients with stable ICM. In our population, adding Hb and eGFR variables do not improve the performance of the VH-RS.
Objectives To quantify the association between income and antibiotic misuse including unprescribed use, storage of antibiotics and non-adherence. Methods We identified pertinent studies through database search, and manual examination of reference lists of selected articles and review reports. We performed a dose–response meta-analysis of income, both continuous and categorical, in relation to antibiotic misuse. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated under a random-effects random effects model. Results Fifty-seven studies from 22 countries of different economic class were included. Overall, the data are in agreement with a flat linear association between income standardized to socio-economic indicators and antibiotic misuse (OR per 1 unit increment = 1.00, p -value = 0.954, p -value non-linearity = 0.429). Data were compatible with no association between medium and high income with general antibiotic misuse (OR 1.04; 95% CI 0.89, 1.20 and OR 1.03; 95% CI 0.82, 1.29). Medium income was associated with 19% higher odds of antibiotic storage (OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.07, 1.32) and 18% higher odds of any aspect of antibiotic misuse in African studies (OR 1.18; 95% CI 1.00, 1.39). High income was associated with 51% lower odds of non-adherence to antibiotic treatment (OR 0.49; 95% CI 0.34, 0.60). High income was also associated with 11% higher odds of any antibiotic misuse in upper-middle wealth countries (OR 1.11; 95% CI 1.00, 1.22). Conclusions The association between income and antibiotic misuse varies by type of misuse and country wellness. Understanding the socioeconomic properties of antibiotic misuse should prove useful in developing related intervention programs and health policies.
Lithium is the mood stabilizer of choice for the prevention of bipolar relapse over the perinatal period. A critical issue is its safety of the mother and the developing fetus. This study aims to compare obstetric outcomes in women with bipolar disorders (BD) regarding treatment with lithium during pregnancy. We enrolled a cohort of pregnant women with BD that received care at the Perinatal Mental Health Unit of a tertiary hospital between January 2005 and March 2017. The exposed group received lithium during pregnancy, whereas the unexposed group did not. The main outcomes were obstetric complications during pregnancy, during labor and delivery, neonatal complications, and congenital malformations. Demographic and clinical data were described using measures of frequency, central tendency, and dispersion. Between-group differences were calculated with chi-square, Fisher’s test, t-tests, or Mann–Whitney U test. Our cohort included 100 pregnant women with BD: 53 (53%) used lithium during pregnancy, and 47 (47%) did not. There were no significant differences in obstetric complications, neonatal complications, or congenital anomalies. Nonetheless, newborns of lithium-treated women had lower Apgar scores at 1 min (mean 8.2 ± 1.6 vs. 8.9 ± 0.6, p = 0.026) and 5 min (9.6 ± 0.8 vs. 9.9 ± 0.5, p = 0.015). Our findings do not identify worse obstetric outcomes in women with BD that take lithium during pregnancy, except for an impact on newborn Apgar scores. Lithium might be an adequate treatment for pregnant women with BD, especially for those with a high recurrence risk, and always after an individualized risk–benefit assessment.
Background Difficulties associated with the assessment of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd), particularly in remote areas, hinders the safe use of 8-aminoquinolines such as primaquine (PQ) and tafenoquine against Plasmodium vivax malaria due to the risk of haemolysis. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 41 malaria-endemic municipalities of six states in the Brazilian Amazon, between 2014 and 2018. Male individuals were screened for G6PDd using the qualitative Fluorescent Spot Test using fingerpick-collected whole blood samples. Point and interval estimates of the G6PDd prevalence were calculated for each state. Deficient samples were genotyped for the most prevalent variants in the Amazon. Frequencies of P. vivax malaria recurrences were estimated for G6PDd and non-G6PDd patients. Interpretation This is one of the largest surveys ever conducted in Latin America, covering the entire malaria endemic area in the Brazilian Amazon. These results indicate that an important proportion of the population is at risk of hemolysis if exposed to PQ and its congener drug tafenoquine. The adoption of G6PDd screening protocols is essential to ensure the safety of individuals treated with those drugs and should also be considered when implementing malaria elimination strategies. Findings A total of 14,847 individuals were included, of which 5.6% presented G6PDd. The state of Acre had the highest G6PDd prevalence (8.3%), followed by Amapá (5.8%), Pará (5.7%), Rondônia (5.4%), Roraima (4.2%) and Amazonas (4.0%). From 828 genotyped samples, African A⁺ (6.2%), African A⁻ (39.3%) and wild-type (non-African non-Mediterranean; 54.2%) variants were found. A greater proportion of malaria recurrences was found among G6PD deficient individuals [16.7% vs 4.1%, Risk ratio 3.52 (2.16–5.74) p < 0.01]. Funding Brazilian Ministry of Health; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Amazonas (FAPEAM).
Background Cardiometabolic disorders are largely responsible for excess mortality in schizophrenia. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasingly relevant in the development of metabolic risk factors that have been associated with antipsychotic treatment. We aimed to assess the incidence of NAFLD and metabolic disturbances during the first 3 years of antipsychotic treatment in patients with first episode of psychosis (FEP), and compare it with the incidence in a control group. Methods Data were obtained from patients with psychosis (n = 160) and healthy controls (n = 66) included in the Cantabria's clinical and research program on FEP (PAFIP) from 2012 to 2018. Fatty Liver Index (FLI) was used to estimate the amount of fat in the liver. FLI has been validated for the diagnosis of NAFLD against different standards such as liver ultrasound and biopsy. FLI and metabolic parameters were registered at baseline, 3 months and then yearly for 3 years. Results At the end of the follow-up (3-years), 21.9 % of patients with psychosis developed a FLI ≥ 60, suggestive of liver steatosis, compared to only a 3 % of subjects within the control group (X² = 12.120; p < 0.001). In the FEP patients group, developing a FLI ≥ 60 was statistically associated with significant increments in metabolic parameters, and with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) (X² = 16.151; p < 0.001) and high blood pressure (X² = 10.654; p = 0.001). Conclusions Having a first episode of non-affective psychosis was significantly associated with developing liver steatosis (FLI ≥ 60) in the first three years after initiating antipsychotic treatment. The results highlight the importance of early screening the emergence of NAFLD in schizophrenia patients.
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) regulates many aspects of RNA metabolism and is involved in learning and memory processes. Yet, the impact of a dysregulation of post-transcriptional m6A editing on synaptic impairments in neurodegenerative disorders remains unknown. Here we investigated the m6A methylation pattern in the hippocampus of Huntington’s disease (HD) mice and the potential role of the m6A RNA modification in HD cognitive symptomatology. m6A modifications were evaluated in HD mice subjected to a hippocampal cognitive training task through m6A immunoprecipitation sequencing (MeRIP-seq) and the relative levels of m6A-modifying proteins (FTO and METTL14) by subcellular fractionation and Western blot analysis. Stereotaxic CA1 hippocampal delivery of AAV-shFTO was performed to investigate the effect of RNA m6A dysregulation in HD memory deficits. Our results reveal a m6A hypermethylation in relevant HD and synaptic related genes in the hippocampal transcriptome of Hdh + /Q111 mice. Conversely, m6A is aberrantly regulated in an experience-dependent manner in the HD hippocampus leading to demethylation of important components of synapse organization. Notably, the levels of RNA demethylase (FTO) and methyltransferase (METTL14) were modulated after training in the hippocampus of WT mice but not in Hdh + /Q111 mice. Finally, inhibition of FTO expression in the hippocampal CA1 region restored memory disturbances in symptomatic Hdh + /Q111 mice. Altogether, our results suggest that a differential RNA methylation landscape contributes to HD cognitive symptoms and uncover a role of m6A as a novel hallmark of HD.
Background Cervical cancer screening coverage is a key monitoring indicator of the WHO cervical cancer elimination plan. We present global, regional, and national cervical screening coverage estimates against the backdrop of the 70% coverage target set by WHO. Methods In this review and synthetic analysis, we searched scientific literature, government websites, and official documentation to identify official national recommendations and coverage data for cervical cancer screening for the 194 WHO member states and eight associated countries and territories published from database inception until Oct 30, 2020, supplemented with a formal WHO country consultation from Nov 27, 2020, to Feb 12, 2021. We extracted data on the year of introduction of recommendations, the existence of individual invitation to participate, financing of screening tests, primary screening and triage tests used, recommended ages and screening intervals, use of self-sampling, and use of screen-and-treat approaches. We also collected coverage data, either administrative or survey-based, as disaggregated as possible by age and for any available screening interval. According to data completeness and representativeness, different statistical models were developed to produce national age-specific coverages by screening interval, which were transformed into single-age datapoints. Missing data were imputed. Estimates were applied to the 2019 population and aggregated by region and income level. Findings We identified recommendations for cervical screening in 139 (69%) of 202 countries and territories. Cytology was the primary screening test in 109 (78%) of 139 countries. 48 (35%) of 139 countries recommended primary HPV-based screening. Visual inspection with acetic acid was the most recommended test in resource-limited settings. Estimated worldwide coverage in women aged 30–49 years in 2019 was 15% in the previous year, 28% in the previous 3 years, and 32% in the previous 5 years, and 36% ever in lifetime. An estimated 1·6 billion (67%) of 2·3 billion women aged 20–70 years, including 662 million (64%) of 1·0 billion women aged 30–49 years, had never been screened for cervical cancer. 133 million (84%) of 158 million women aged 30–49 years living in high-income countries had been screened ever in lifetime, compared with 194 million (48%) of 404 million women in upper-middle-income countries, 34 million (9%) of 397 million women in lower-middle-income countries, and 8 million (11%) of 74 million in low-income countries. Interpretation Two in three women aged 30–49 years have never been screened for cervical cancer. Roll-out of screening is very low in low-income and middle-income countries, where the burden of disease is highest. The priority of the WHO elimination campaign should be to increase both screening coverage and treatment of detected lesions; however, expanding the efforts of surveillance systems in both coverage and quality control are major challenges to achieving the WHO elimination target. Funding Instituto de Salud Carlos III, European Regional Development Fund, Secretariat for Universities and Research of the Department of Business and Knowledge of the Government of Catalonia, and Horizon 2020. Translations For the French, Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
Respiratory syncytial virus is the second most common cause of infant mortality and a major cause of morbidity and mortality in older adults (aged >60 years). Efforts to develop a respiratory syncytial virus vaccine or immunoprophylaxis remain highly active. 33 respiratory syncytial virus prevention candidates are in clinical development using six different approaches: recombinant vector, subunit, particle-based, live attenuated, chimeric, and nucleic acid vaccines; and monoclonal antibodies. Nine candidates are in phase 3 clinical trials. Understanding the epitopes targeted by highly neutralising antibodies has resulted in a shift from empirical to rational and structure-based vaccine and monoclonal antibody design. An extended half-life monoclonal antibody for all infants is likely to be within 1 year of regulatory approval (from August, 2022) for high-income countries. Live-attenuated vaccines are in development for older infants (aged >6 months). Subunit vaccines are in late-stage trials for pregnant women to protect infants, whereas vector, subunit, and nucleic acid approaches are being developed for older adults. Urgent next steps include ensuring access and affordability of a respiratory syncytial virus vaccine globally. This review gives an overview of respiratory syncytial virus vaccines and monoclonal antibodies in clinical development highlighting different target populations, antigens, and trial results.
Rationale: The identification of novel molecules associated with asthma may provide insights into mechanisms of disease and their potential clinical implications. Objectives: To conduct a screening of circulating proteins in childhood asthma and to study proteins emerged from human studies in a mouse model of asthma. Methods: We included 2,264 children from eight birth cohorts from the MeDALL project and the Tucson TCRS Study. In cross-sectional analyses, we tested 46 circulating proteins for association with asthma in the selection stage and carried significant signals forward to a validation and replication stage. As creatine kinase (CK) was the only protein consistently associated with asthma, we also compared whole blood CK gene expression between subjects with and without asthma (n=249) and used a house dust mite (HDM) challenged mouse model to gain insights into CK lung expression and its role in resolution of asthma phenotypes. Measurements and main results: As compared with the lowest CK tertile, children in the highest tertile had significantly lower odds for asthma in selection (adjOR: 0.31, 0.15-0.65; p=0.002), validation (0.63, 0.42-0.95; p=0.03), and replication (0.40, 0.16-0.97; p = 0.04) stages. Both cytosolic CK forms (CKM, CKB) were under-expressed in blood from asthmatics compared to controls (p=0.01 and 0.006, respectively). In the lungs of HDM-challenged mice, Ckb expression was reduced and, following HDM challenge, a CKB inhibitor blocked the resolution of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and reduction of airway mucin. Conclusions: Circulating levels and gene expression of CK are inversely associated with childhood asthma. Mouse models support a possible direct involvement of CK in asthma protection via inhibition of AHR and reduction of airway mucin.
Given the highly variable clinical phenotype of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a deeper analysis of the host genetic contribution to severe COVID-19 is important to improve our understanding of underlying disease mechanisms. Here, we describe an extended GWAS meta-analysis of a well-characterized cohort of 3255 COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure and 12 488 population controls from Italy, Spain, Norway and Germany/Austria, including stratified analyses based on age, sex and disease severity, as well as targeted analyses of chromosome Y haplotypes, the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region and the SARS-CoV-2 peptidome. By inversion imputation, we traced a reported association at 17q21.31 to a ~ 0.9-Mb inversion polymorphism that creates two highly differentiated haplotypes and characterized the potential effects of the inversion in detail. Our data, together with the 5th release of summary statistics from the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative including non-Caucasian individuals, also identified a new locus at 19q13.33, including NAPSA, a gene which is expressed primarily in alveolar cells responsible for gas exchange in the lung.
Widespread access to emerging information and communication technologies (ICT) allows its use for the screening of diseases in the general population. At the initiative of the Spanish Confederation of Associations of Families of People with Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias (CEAFA), a website ( http://www.problemasmemoria.com ) has been created that provides information about Alzheimer’s disease and includes questionnaires to be completed by family or friends concerned about memory problems of a relative. A cross-sectional, randomized, multicenter study was performed to evaluate feasibility, validity, and user satisfaction with an electronic method of completion vs. the current method of paper-based questionnaires for clinically dementia screening completed by the informants: the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) and the Alzheimer’s disease-8 screening test (AD8). A total of 111 pairs were recruited by seven memory clinics. Informants completed IQCODE and AD8 questionnaires both in their paper and electronic versions. The correlation between paper and electronic versions was significantly positive for IQCODE ( r = 0.98; p < 0.001) and AD8 ( r = 0.96; p < 0.001). The execution time did not differ significantly, and participants considered their use equally easy. This study shows that an electronic version of the IQCODE and AD8 questionnaires is suitable for its online use via the internet and achieves the same results as the traditional paper versions.
Objective: To describe MDD patients starting antidepressant (AD) treatment by pharmacological approach and identify factors associated with a longer sick leave (SL) duration. Methods: Retrospective study on IQVIA German Disease Analyser (specialists) and Spanish Longitudinal Patient Database (general practitioners and specialists). MDD patients initiating AD treatment between July 2016-June 2018 were grouped by therapeutic approach (AD monotherapy vs. combination/switch/add-on) and their characteristics were analysed descriptively. Multiple logistic regression models were run to evaluate factors affecting SL duration (i.e., >30 days). Results: One thousand six hundred and eighty-five patients (monotherapy: 58%; combination/switch/add-on: 42%) met inclusion criteria for Germany, and 1817 for Spain (monotherapy: 83%; combination/switch/add-on: 17%). AD treatment influenced SL duration: combination/switch/add-on patients had a 2-fold and a 4-fold risk of having >30 days of SL than monotherapy patients, respectively in Germany and Spain. Patients with a gap of time between MDD diagnosis and AD treatment initiation had a higher likelihood of experiencing a longer SL both in Germany and Spain (38% higher likelihood and 6-fold risk of having >30 days of SL, respectively). Conclusions: A careful and timely selection of AD treatment approach at the time of MDD diagnosis may improve functional recovery and help to reduce SL, minimising the socio-economic burden of the disease.Key pointsThe major depressive disorder has a substantial impact on work absenteeism.The present study aimed to describe MDD patients starting antidepressant (AD) treatment depending on the pharmacological approach and to identify factors associated with longer sick leave (SL) duration.Patients receiving AD monotherapy had a lower likelihood of having more than 30 days of sick leave than those receiving AD combination/switch/add-on.Patients for whom a gap of time between MDD diagnosis and initiation of AD treatment was observed, showed a higher likelihood of having more than 30 days of sick leave.Because findings from this analysis relied on secondary data, the authors would like to claim the urgency of conducting prospective observational studies that further investigate the effect that different AD therapeutic approaches and timely initiation of treatment might exert on patients' recovery.
Mass drug administration (MDA) with monthly dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PQP) appears useful in malaria control and elimination strategies. Determining the relationship between consecutive piperaquine phosphate (PQP) exposure and its impact on QT interval prolongation is a key safety consideration for MDA campaigns. Healthy volunteers from Papua New Guinea received a 3-day course of DHA-PQP (2.1/17.1 mg/kg) monthly for 3 consecutive months in a single arm longitudinal study. Plasma PQP concentrations were measured after the third dose of each course (at 52-54 h) and at 0 h of course 3. Twelve-lead electrocardiographic readings were conducted at 0 h, 48 h, 52 h, and day 7 of each course. QT interval corrected by Fridericia's formula (QTcF) was measured at each time point. A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model using nonlinear mixed effects models was developed to correlate PQP concentrations with QTcF. Ten thousand female and 10,000 male individuals were simulated at each treatment course. Eighty-two participants were included; mean age was 28.3 years (standard deviation [SD] ±12.3 years), and 36 (44%) were female. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic models were determined with 290 PQP concentrations and 868 QTcF observations. The average baseline QTcF was 392 ms with a between-subject variability SD ±14.4 ms and between-occasion variability SD ±3.64 ms. From the population modeled, only 0.08% of males and 0.45% of females would be at risk of an absolute QTcF of >500 ms. DHA-PQP is safe at standard doses in consecutive months, and the likelihood of severe cardiac events occurring during an MDA campaign is very low. This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT02605720.
Importance: Prenatal exposures to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may increase the risk for liver injury in children; however, human evidence is scarce, and previous studies have not considered potential EDC-mixture effects. Furthermore, the association between prenatal EDC exposure and hepatocellular apoptosis in children has not been studied previously. Objective: To investigate associations of prenatal exposure to EDC mixtures with liver injury risk and hepatocellular apoptosis in childhood. Design, setting, and participants: This prospective cohort study used data collected from April 1, 2003, to February 26, 2016, from mother-child pairs from the Human Early-Life Exposome project, a collaborative network of 6 ongoing, population-based prospective birth cohort studies from 6 European countries (France, Greece, Lithuania, Norway, Spain, and the UK). Data were analyzed from April 1, 2021, to January 31, 2022. Exposures: Three organochlorine pesticides, 5 polychlorinated biphenyls, 2 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 3 phenols, 4 parabens, 10 phthalates, 4 organophosphate pesticides, 5 perfluoroalkyl substances, and 9 metals. Main outcomes and measures: Child serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and CK-18 were measured at 6 to 11 years of age. Risk for liver injury was defined as having ALT, AST, and/or GGT levels above the 90th percentile. Associations of liver injury or cytokeratin 18 (CK-18) levels with each chemical group among the 45 EDCs measured in maternal blood or urine samples collected in pregnancy were estimated using 2 complimentary exposure-mixture methods: bayesian weighted quantile sum (BWQS) and bayesian kernel machine regression. Results: The study included 1108 mothers (mean [SD] age at birth, 31.0 [4.7] years) and their singleton children (mean [SD] age at liver assessment, 8.2 [1.6] years; 598 [54.0%] boys). Results of the BWQS method indicated increased odds of liver injury per exposure-mixture quartile increase for organochlorine pesticides (odds ratio [OR], 1.44 [95% credible interval (CrI), 1.21-1.71]), PBDEs (OR, 1.57 [95% CrI, 1.34-1.84]), perfluoroalkyl substances (OR, 1.73 [95% CrI, 1.45-2.09]), and metals (OR, 2.21 [95% CrI, 1.65-3.02]). Decreased odds of liver injury were associated with high-molecular-weight phthalates (OR, 0.74 [95% CrI, 0.60-0.91]) and phenols (OR, 0.66 [95% CrI, 0.54-0.78]). Higher CK-18 levels were associated with a 1-quartile increase in polychlorinated biphenyls (β, 5.84 [95% CrI, 1.69-10.08] IU/L) and PBDEs (β, 6.46 [95% CrI, 3.09-9.92] IU/L). Bayesian kernel machine regression showed associations in a similar direction as BWQS for all EDCs and a nonlinear association between phenols and CK-18 levels. Conclusions and relevance: With a combination of 2 state-of-the-art exposure-mixture approaches, consistent evidence suggests that prenatal exposures to EDCs are associated with higher risk for liver injury and CK-18 levels and constitute a potential risk factor for pediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
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Pilar Salgado-Pineda
  • Research Unity
Jose Sánchez-Moreno
  • Bipolar and Depressive Disorders Unit. Hospital Clinic of Barcelona
Belen Arranz
  • Department of Psychiatry
Sara Siddi
  • Research Unit
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