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- SourceAvailable from: Valerio Monteiro-Neto[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is considered the most common nosocomial infection in the intensive care unit (ICU), but its features are not fully known in many hospitals in Brazil. We identified clinical and epidemiological aspects associated with VAP in an intensive care unit (ICU) in a general public hospital in northern Brazil and performed an analytical descriptive prospective cohort study. We analyzed data from thirty-three patients who developed VAP while in the ICU. Clinical and epidemiological data of patients were obtained and tracheal secretions were submitted to culture. Microbial isolates were identified and evaluated for resistance against antimicrobial agents by using the automated Vitek 2 system. The frequency of VAP was 26.2% in patients submitted to invasive mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours, and death occurred in 78.8% of cases. Only the presence of comorbidity showed a significant association (P = 0.029) with death. The most commonly found bacteria were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp., and Enterobacteriaceae. We also found a frequency of 54.5% of multiresistant bacteria associated with VAP, and previous antibiotic therapy was used in 97% of patients. VAP in our ICU presented with a high frequency and was mainly caused by multiresistant bacteria. Implementation of rational protocols for the use of antibacterial agents and rapid delivery of culture and susceptibility test results are essential. This may help decrease VAP-related mortality rates by multiresistant bacteria in the ICU.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of a radiographic analysis method for the location of mini-implants inserted in the posterior region of the maxilla. Two self-drilling mini-implants were installed between the second premolar and the first molar on the right side and left side in three dry skulls. Three operators performed three occlusal radiographs, using an occlusal x-ray film holder, at three different times in each of the three skulls. The interclass correlation coefficient showed a significantly high, positive correlation (p<0.05), indicating an excellent reliability between operators. The analysis of variance showed no significant differences in time and among the operators. Based of these findings, it may be concluded that this methodology can be used by several operators in longitudinal clinical studies on orthodontic mini-implants at the anterior-posterior and lateral-medial locations or longitudinal displacement.
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of brackets after pre-treatment with different fluoride solutions. This study used 48 freshly extracted sound bovine incisors that were randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups (n=12). CG: (control) without treatment; NF: 4 min application of neutral fluoride; APF: application of 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) for 4 min; and SFV: application of 5% sodium fluoride varnish for 6 h. For each group, after surface treatment, prophylaxis of enamel and bracket bonding with Transbond XT composite resin (3M) were performed following the manufacturer's specifications. The shear bond strength was performed with a universal testing machine 24 h after fixing the brackets. The tooth surfaces were analyzed to verify the adhesive remnant index (ARI). Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). There was statistically significant difference among the groups (p<0.0001). CG and NF groups presented significantly higher bond strength than APF and SFV. There was no significant difference between CG and NF or between APF and SFV (p>0.05). The analysis of ARI scores revealed that most failures occurred at the enamel-resin interface. It may be concluded that the pre-treatment of enamel with 1.23% APF and 5% SFV prior to fixing orthodontic brackets reduces shear bond strength values.
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