In 1975, the CLACSO Employment-Unemployment Group held a meeting in La Plata, Argentina, about employment in Latin America. Due to the diversity and specificity of the interests involved, several subgroups were created to permit a flexible and decentralized working scheme. Zulma Recchini de Lattes, from the Centro de Estudios de Población (CENEP), was appointed coordinator of the subgroup on female participation in the labor market. Her first task was the compilation of a bibliography on the subject in Latin America, and a thorough survey of studies in progress by Latin American investigators and institutions. The results of this effort were presented at a meeting of the CLACSO Employment-Unemployment Group in May 1976. In August 1977, the subgroup met in Mexico to discuss future activities.
Sex has been and continues to be one of the most important elements that differentiates the functions performed by members of society, particularly those related to the social division of work. From a strictly biological perspective, the primary difference between men and women lies in the fact that, during specific periods of the life cycle, women direct a considerable part of their energy to the reproduction of the species. Beyond this difference, the physical and intellectual capacities of men and women are relatively similar. Nevertheless, it is a general fact that the levels of male and female participation differ extensively.
This paper reports on postpartum women's mode of birth (MOB) preferences across five public maternity hospitals in Argentina, the variables and motives associated with those preferences, and hospital services preparedness. A cross‐sectional study was conducted with postpartum women aged 15 years or older in geographically diverse public hospitals in Argentina between November 2018 to June 2019. Data on obstetric history, companionship, and MOB preference and motives were collected from mothers using a semistructured interviewer‐administered questionnaire. Hospital and participant characteristics, MOB preferences, and perceived advantages and disadvantages were described. Associations between vaginal birth preference, participant characteristics, and hospitals were assessed using odds ratios generated from mixed‐effect logistic regression analyses. The sample included 621 postpartum women, 60% of whom had a vaginal birth. In three of the participating hospitals, most women indicated vaginal birth as their preferred MOB (90%); however, the preference for a vaginal birth was lower in the remaining two hospitals (67%). Differences in preferences across hospitals remained after adjusting by women's age or obstetric history. Cited motives for vaginal birth preference included faster recovery, feeling ready for a vaginal birth, and considering it a more natural process. Preference for a caesarean birth was based on perceptions of increased safety and avoiding pain. The characteristics of obstetric services revealed they are prepared for obstetric emergencies but have limited resources and support to sustain the process of vaginal birth. Despite the limited support, women giving birth in public maternity hospitals preferred vaginal delivery to a caesarean section. This study could not identify hospital variables associated with women's birth preferences across hospitals.
Objectives To explore obstetricians’, midwives’ and trainees’ perceptions of caesarean section (CS) determinants in the context of public obstetric care services provision in Argentina. Our hypothesis is that known determinants of CS use may differ in settings with limited access to essential obstetric services. Setting We conducted a formative research study in 19 public maternity hospitals in Argentina. An institutional survey assessed the availability of essential obstetric services. Subsequently, we conducted online surveys and semistructured interviews to assess the opinions of providers on known CS determinants. Results Obstetric services showed an adequate provision of emergency obstetric care but limited services to support women during birth. Midwives, with some exceptions, are not involved during labour. We received 680 surveys from obstetricians, residents and midwives (response rate of 63%) and interviewed 26 key informants. Six out of 10 providers (411, 61%) indicated that the use of CS is associated with the complexities of our caseload . Limited pain management access was deemed a potential contributing factor for CS in adolescents and first-time mothers. Providers have conflicting views on the adequacy of training to deal with complex or prolonged labour. Obstetricians with more than 10 years of clinical experience indicated that fear of litigation was also associated with CS. Overall, there is consensus on the need to implement interventions to reduce unnecessary CS. Conclusions Public maternity hospitals in Argentina have made significant improvements in the provision of emergency services. The environment of service provision does not seem to facilitate the physiological process of vaginal birth. Providers acknowledged some of these challenges.
En México recién habíamos concluido un año de la transición política y con muchos cuestiona-mientos acerca de la administración de la autodenominada cuarta transformación se encaminaba a una crisis económica, pero surge el Covid- 2019, la cual se profundiza y es acompañada por una dificultad de salud pública en el mundo (un hecho social sistémico en tiempos de tempestades que requiere ser pensada, repensada e impensada). En este contexto se inscribe este ensayo en el que planteamos como objetivo hacer una reflexión sobre un tema, al cual se le dio seguimiento en tiempo real en los últimos ocho meses (marzo-octubre de 2020) y que, desde la sociodemo-gafía, podemos revisar sus causas y consecuencias sociales en México, el cual creó psicosis e incertidumbre en todos los ámbitos del mundo y en específico en nuestro país, así como en el Estado de México.
El documento tiene como objetivo evaluar la relación entre la movilidad laboral y el contagio como las defunciones causadas por Covid-19 entre marzo y octubre de 2020. Se seleccionan tres Zonas Metropolitanas ubicadas en el centro y occidente de México. Para realizar esta relación nos apoyamos en la Encuesta Intercensal de 2015 y la información derivada de la base de datos de la Secretaría de Salud en México con indicadores diarios sobre el padecimiento. Al procesar los datos de ambas fuentes de información, se obtienen valores positivos al aplicar una correla-ción de Pearson con la mayoría de las variables introducidas en el análisis. Los casos más desta-cados tienen que ver con las personas que se trasladan a laborar dentro del mismo municipio de residencia, todos muestran valores significativos. Como segundo resultado a destacar (con pocas probabilidades de contagiarse o fallecer), es importante el papel que juega la población que se traslada a laborar en bicicleta
The infectious disease called Covid-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is one of the pandemics that humanity faces. Due to its social, economic and health consequences, Covid-19 has shown the effects of animal exploitation and human invasion to reservoir environments for unknown pathogens that resulted in a fatal disease for humans. In particular, metropolitan areas have been areas with great effects of Covid-19 due to population concentrations that lead to a greater number of infections. In this context, this article aims to carry out a comparative analysis of confirmed cases, deaths, and prevalences of diseases in Covid-19 infection for the Monte-rrey metropolitan area, the Guadalajara metropolitan area, and the Valle Metropolitan Area. of Mexico in two periods. The source of information used was data from the Mexican Ministry of Health and the Intercensal Survey. The methodology consisted of two stages that allowed for the comparative analysis of the three metropolitan areas. © 2021, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico. All rights reserved.
El presente artículo tiene como objetivo analizar la mortalidad por causas de la población mexi-quense de 1980 a 2015 y estimar proyecciones de la mortalidad según siete principales causas de muerte para el año 2050. Para realizar lo anterior, se utilizaron cuatro fuentes de datos: Esta-dísticas vitales, Censos de Población y Vivienda, Conteos de Población y Vivienda y la Encuesta Intercensal (2015). Asimismo, se estimaron tasas específicas de mortalidad estandarizadas por edad y sexo, en tanto que las proyecciones de mortalidad por causa de muerte se calcularon uti-lizando el método de estimación Gamma. Los resultados sugieren que las principales causas de muerte para el 2050 serán aquellas que hasta ahora son enfermedades no transmisibles, o también llamadas crónico degenerativas. Lo cual puede traer como consecuencias el incremento de gastos económicos en salud, atención médica, el aumento en las horas para el cuidado de adultos mayo-res. Todo esto podría producir cambios en los roles y cargas de trabajo de la sociedad.
Background: While cesarean sections (CSs) are a life-saving intervention, an increasing number are performed without medical reasons in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Unnecessary CS diverts scarce resources and thereby reduces access to healthcare for women in need. Argentina, Burkina Faso, Thailand, and Vietnam are committed to reducing unnecessary CS, but many individual and organizational factors in healthcare facilities obstruct this aim. Nonclinical interventions can overcome these barriers by helping providers improve their practices and supporting women's decision-making regarding childbirth. Existing evidence has shown only a modest effect of single interventions on reducing CS rates, arguably because of the failure to design multifaceted interventions effectively tailored to the context. The aim of this study is to design, adapt, and test a multifaceted intervention for the appropriate use of CS in Argentina, Burkina Faso, Thailand, and Vietnam. Methods: We designed an intervention (QUALIty DECision-making-QUALI-DEC) with four components: (1) opinion leaders at heathcare facilities to improve adherence to best practices among clinicians, (2) CS audits and feedback to help providers identify potentially avoidable CS, (3) a decision analysis tool to help women make an informed decision on the mode of birth, and (4) companionship to support women during labor. QUALI-DEC will be implemented and evaluated in 32 hospitals (8 sites per country) using a pragmatic hybrid effectiveness-implementation design to test our implementation strategy, and information regarding its impact on relevant maternal and perinatal outcomes will be gathered. The implementation strategy will involve the participation of women, healthcare professionals, and organizations and account for the local environment, needs, resources, and social factors in each country. Discussion: There is urgent need for interventions and implementation strategies to optimize the use of CS while improving health outcomes and satisfaction in LMICs. This can only be achieved by engaging all stakeholders involved in the decision-making process surrounding birth and addressing their needs and concerns. The study will generate robust evidence about the effectiveness and the impact of this multifaceted intervention. It will also assess the acceptability and scalability of the intervention and the capacity for empowerment among women and providers alike. Trial registration: ISRCTN67214403.
Objective: To assess the maternal characteristics and causes associated with refractory postpartum haemorrhage (PPH). Design: Secondary analysis of the WHO CHAMPION trial data. Setting: 23 hospitals in 10 countries. Population: Women from the CHAMPION trial who received uterotonics as first line treatment of PPH. Methods: We assessed the association between socio-demographic, pregnancy and childbirth factors and refractory PPH, and compared the causes of PPH between women with refractory PPH, and women responsive to first-line PPH treatment. Main outcome measures: Maternal characteristics; causes of PPH RESULTS: Women with labour induced or augmented with uterotonics (aOR 1.35; 95% CI 1.07 - 1.72), with episiotomy or tears requiring suturing (aOR 1.82; 95% CI 1.34 - 2.48), and who had babies with birthweights ≥ 3500 g (aOR 1.33; 95% CI 1.04 - 1.69), showed significantly higher odds of refractory PPH compared to the reference categories in the multivariate analysis adjusted by center and trial arm. While atony was the sole PPH cause in 53.2% (116/218) of the women in the responsive PPH group, it accounted for only 31.5% (45/143) of the causes in the refractory PPH group. Conversely, tears were the sole cause in 12.8% (28/218) and 28% (40/143) of the responsive PPH and refractory PPH groups respectively. Placental problems were the sole cause in 11% and 5.6% in the responsive and refractory PPH groups respectively. Conclusion: Women with refractory PPH showed a different pattern of maternal characteristics and PPH causes compared to those with first-line treatment responsive PPH.
The objective of the article is to analyze the inequality between households with older adults in Mexico in 2015. The source of information is the Intercensal Survey 2015 of the National Insti-tute of Statistics and Geography (INEGI). The methodological proposal of this research is based on the application of a Multiple Correspondence Analysis that allows studying the relationship between the variables of households with older adults in Mexico based on three dimensions: indi-vidual, household and context. The results indicate the presence of permanent inequalities among households with people aged 60 and over, in addition to significant differences in assets, family structure and government aid, which impacts the living conditions of older adults in Mexico in 2015.
Objective: To characterize the occurrence of fever (≥38.0°C) after treatment for postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) with sublingual misoprostol 800 mcg in Latin America, where elevated rates of misoprostol's thermoregulatory effects and recipients' increased susceptibility to high fever have been documented. Methods: A prospective observational study in hospitals in Argentina enrolled consenting women with atonic PPH after vaginal delivery, eligible to receive misoprostol. Corporal temperature was assessed at 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes post-treatment; other effects were recorded. The incidence of high fever ≥40.0°C (primary outcome) was compared to the rate observed previously in Ecuador. Logistic regressions were performed to identify clinical and population-based predictors of misoprostol-induced fever. Results: Transient shivering and fever were experienced by 75% (37/49) of treated participants, and described as acceptable by three-quarters of women interviewed (35/47). The high fever rate was 12% (6/49), [95% Confidence Interval (CI) 4.6, 24.8], compared to Ecuador's rate following misoprostol treatment (35.6% (58/163) [95% CI 28.3, 43.5], p=0.002). Significant predictors of misoprostol-induced fever (model dependent) were: pre-delivery hemoglobin <11.0g/dL, rapid placental expulsion, and higher age of the woman. No serious outcomes were reported prior to discharge. Conclusions: Misoprostol to treat PPH in Argentina resulted in a significantly lower rate of high fever than in Ecuador, although both are notably higher than rates seen elsewhere. A greater understanding of misoprostol's side effects and factors involved in their occurrence, including genetics, will help alleviate concerns. The onset of shivering may be the simplest way to know if fever can also be expected.
The objective was to explore the relationship between the aging population, their nutritional needs and the contributions of the avocado, as well as to identify the demographic and socioeconomic profile of their consumers to delineate the productive scenario of this fruit in Mexico. The methodology was a statistical analysis with data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012, to determine internal consumption, and with information from the Agri-Food and Fisheries Information Service and the National Agricultural Plan for the period 2017-2030, the production and export of the fruit. The results indicate that the lowest consumption of avocado is done in rural areas, among adults aged 60 and over, and in low and very low socioeconomic levels. In conclusion, the limited consumption in rural areas and among older adults is related to deficiencies in the distribution channels and the increase in the price of the product originated by export volumes. It requires the design of public policies to improve the access of older adults to this fruit given their nutritional needs.
Population aging creates the opportunity for different generations’ coexistence. This can benefit both children in their breeding and grandmothers by maintaining their sense of contributing to the family. On the other hand, that does not mean that coexistence occurs in the best terms. In this article, we developed a qualitative exploration of nine semi-structured interviews, to investigate the experiences of caregiver grandmothers of school-age children. As a result, we identify experiences that did not represent any effort and were even promoted against institutional options, but there were also narratives loaded with unspeakable frustration and prioritization of family members' goals. The experiences showed nuances in the intergenerational coexistence that require a new institutional scaffolding for the welfare of grandmothers.
Objective To assess whether oxytocin administered before clamping the umbilical cord modifies the volume of placental transfusion. Design Randomised controlled trial. Methods Mothers of term infants born vigorous by vaginal delivery with informed consent provided in early labour were randomly assigned to oxytocin (10 IU) given intravenously within 15 s of birth (group 1) or after clamping the umbilical cord 3 min after delivery (group 2). Soon after birth, all infants were weighed using a 1 g precision scale and subsequently placed on the mother’s abdomen or chest. At 3 min, in both groups, the cord was clamped and cut, and the weight was again obtained. The primary outcome (volume of placental transfusion) was estimated by the difference in weights. Results 144 patients were included. There were no differences in the primary outcome: infants in group 1 (n=70) gained a mean weight of 85.9 g (SD 48.3), and in group 2 (n=74) 86.7 g (SD 49.6) (p=0.92). No differences were found in secondary outcomes, including newborns’ haematocrit and bilirubin concentrations and severe maternal postpartum haemorrhage. On the advice of the Data and Safety Monitoring Committee, the trial was stopped due to futility at 25% of the planned sample size. Conclusions When umbilical cord clamping is delayed for 3 min, term newborn infants born vigorous receive a clinically significant placental transfusion which is not modified by the administration of intravenous oxytocin immediately after birth. Trial registration number NCT02618499 .
El triunfo del Frente Amplio en 2005 en Uruguay significó importantes movimientos en las tradicionales estructuras de bienestar del país. Las reformas en materia de mercado laboral, salud, tributación, y particularmente en atención a los sectores más vulnerables evidenciaron una agenda que configuró una orientación política que modificó el paisaje institucional y discursivo de las políticas sociales. Los avances, y hasta los éxitos, en materia de protección social plantean, no obstante, nuevos desafíos en la construcción de una agenda que supere el sostenimiento inercial de los cambios. Poniendo el foco en las políticas dirigidas a los sectores más vulnerables cabe preguntarse cuáles son los nuevos desafíos institucionales y políticos hacia posibles reconfiguraciones de las estrategias políticas de protección social. Este artículo hace mención a nudos en el plano de la coordinación institucional, la premura por incorporar innovaciones en políticas y la necesidad de repensar las coaliciones redistributivas.
In general terms, it is possible to observe and comment that, as an expression of social contradictions, there are processes of inequality and exclusion that place individuals in situations of risk depending on the situation being analyzed and this condition has been called social vulnerability; this concept itself requires an epistemological definition that give it conceptual content due to multiple complexities and dimensions; in turn, a methodology is necessary to the construction and measurement of social vulnerability. The intention of this article is to make a theoretical-methodological exercise that, in the best of cases, contributes to create elements for the study of social vulnerability in its various aspects and complexities.
The objective of this article is to analyze the relationship between the deportations of Mexican migrants from the United States with the behavior of the US economy, unemployment in that country and the immigration policy that affects "massive" deportations. To prove this relationship, we used the information from the ICE, the World Bank and the Labor Bureau of the United States to run a multiple regression with the theoretical and empirical relationship of the deportations and the macroeconomic variables included in this work. From the outset it was proved that the evolution of the economy and US unemployment are directly related to deportations from that country. Based on this, decisions are made regarding migration policies that are implemented to achieve this goal.
In this qualitative study, we explore the presence of reproductive control as a form of intimate partner violence (IPV). An intentional sample of 30 women in heterosexual couples was interviewed in two clinical settings of the capital and its suburban area. The results of the fieldwork showed that, as put forward by our theoretical framework, reproductive control is practiced by many violent partners in several forms that included forced sex, contraceptive sabotage, pregnancy promotion, violence during pregnancy, and forcing women to abort against their will. IPV is not exclusive of a certain social class and it is part of a complex system of relationships characterized by partner's aggressions in different contexts. Perpetrators of IPV come from different milieus, educational levels, and occupations as do their victims.
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Buenos Aires, Argentina